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Article

Bee-Lia Chua, Sanghyeop Lee and Heesup Han

This study aims to test the relationships among involvement, perceived price, perceived quality, affective satisfaction, perceived value, attitudinal loyalty and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to test the relationships among involvement, perceived price, perceived quality, affective satisfaction, perceived value, attitudinal loyalty and behavioral loyalty in the cruise line industry. In addition, this study attempted to identify whether the differences in these variables exist across first-time and repeat cruise customers.

Design/methodology/approach

The web-based survey was used. A total of 403 complete responses were used for data analysis. Anderson and Gerbing’s (1988) two-step approach was used to achieve study objectives.

Findings

The t-test analyses demonstrated that repeat cruise customers expressed significantly lower perceived price and higher affective satisfaction, perceived value and behavioral loyalty than first-time cruise travelers. The structural equation modeling results revealed that involvement has an important role in loyalty generation process. However, the structural model did not significantly differ across first-time and repeat customers.

Practical implications

Overall, the results indicated the critical needs to develop individuals’ interest in cruise vacation with a particular cruise line. Cruise line operators who undertake promotion efforts that enhance people involvement with their cruise line should result in greater likelihood of choosing the same cruise line in the future.

Originality/value

With a lack of research about cruise line involvement and loyalty, this research contributes to theoretical understanding of intricate attitudinal and behavioral loyalty generation process across first-time and repeat cruise passengers.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article

Blaine Branchik

The purpose of this paper is to recount the history of the marketing of the maritime passenger industry (known today as the cruise industry). This is a unique industry…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to recount the history of the marketing of the maritime passenger industry (known today as the cruise industry). This is a unique industry that has survived and thrived for almost 175 years despite dramatic environmental changes. This history focuses on passenger shipping in and out of the USA first from/to European ports, later focusing on cruises from the USA to the Caribbean, today’s most popular cruise destination.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adapts the Hollander et al. (2005) approach and incorporates primary data such as fare lists, advertisements and promotional materials, as well as secondary data from a variety of expert works and government reports.

Findings

This study finds that the industry’s marketing history can be divided into six periods or phases: immigration and luxury (mid-nineteenth century to 1914); World War I (1914-1918); tourism, alcohol and luxury (1918-1939); World War II (1939-1946); jet age emergence (1946-1970); and cruising for all (1970 to the present day). Continuing industry growth; increasing focus on new geographic, and every-smaller demographic and psychographic markets; promotional emphasis on cuisine and activities; and positioning as a mass-consumed luxury are trends for the future.

Research limitations/implications

Space constraints limit the information mostly to Europe-to-North America sailings of British and German transatlantic lines early in the paper, and to USA-to-Caribbean cruises in later phases.

Practical implications

This study illustrates how an industry can completely reinvent all elements of its marketing strategy in response to changing social and technological forces. It adds to a growing body of industry marketing histories.

Originality/value

Although much has been written about maritime history, no known work has examined the history of the marketing of the maritime passenger industry. It augments the growing body of industry-specific marketing histories.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article

Flávio Tiago, João Couto, Sandra Faria and Teresa Borges-Tiago

The purpose of this paper is to present knowledge acquired through examining three cruise lines’ social media strategies over a three-year period, analyzing the network…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present knowledge acquired through examining three cruise lines’ social media strategies over a three-year period, analyzing the network structures involved and demonstrating the value of the STAR (storytelling, triggers, amusement and reaction) model for enhancing social media activity.

Design/methodology/approach

This study gathered data from three cruise lines’ official websites and Facebook and Twitter accounts, examining variables such as internet presence, engagement and fans/followers. Furthermore, the work also addresses several issues that researchers encounter when using the STAR model.

Findings

Digital activity was found to vary significantly between the three cruise lines’ websites and Facebook and Twitter accounts, with the companies adopting different approaches and obtaining different results. Each company tended to have its own base of fans and followers, who shared a common language, reflected in the hashtags they used. The results show that cruise lines wishing to develop a content-oriented strategy that maximizes engagement in social media should share rich multimedia content that supports storytelling values and can be used on multiple platforms.

Originality/value

This work can be of interest to practitioners aiming to use a comparison and assessment tool for their digital activity. It could also assist future researchers focusing on cruise line activity, as few researchers have analyzed the online content strategies of cruise lines, particularly on Facebook and Twitter.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 73 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

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Article

Santiago Forgas-Coll, Ramon Palau-Saumell, Javier Sánchez-García and Eva María Caplliure-Giner

The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a framework to investigate the relationship between perceived value, satisfaction, trust and behavioral intentions and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a framework to investigate the relationship between perceived value, satisfaction, trust and behavioral intentions and the moderator effect of the cruise line on cruise passengers’ perceptions.

Design/methodology/approach

A structural model was developed. In order to verify the hypotheses, a total of 729 cruise passengers were sampled. The study of the data used structural equation models by means of a multi-group analysis.

Findings

The results of this study suggest significant paths to increase behavioral intentions: perceived service quality? satisfaction? trust?. In addition, it has been proved that the cruise line moderates the relationships between constructs in most of the relationships in the two cruise lines analyzed.

Practical implications

The differences in the relationships of perceived service quality with overall satisfaction, trust and behavioral intentions suggest that one of the cruise lines analyzed ought to make decisions to improve the installations and the services on board the ships. These decisions involve substantial investments which affect, as well as the marketing management regarding the design of the product, the financial management and also the CEO.

Originality/value

Unlike earlier studies of cruise tourism carried out in Caribbean and Asian destinations, this study empirically tested a model of the formation of behavioral intentions which incorporates trust as a mediator variable between satisfaction and behavioral intentions and between perceived service quality and behavioral intentions in the Mediterranean. Also tests the moderator effect exercised by the cruise line on the consumers’ perception on the way to behavioral intentions.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 52 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Content available
Article

Grace W.Y. Wang, Qingcheng Zeng, Chenrui Qu and Joan Mileski

Regardless of the facts showing a booming Chinese cruise market, cruise operations in China are very different from the current practices of the two major cruise markets …

Abstract

Purpose

Regardless of the facts showing a booming Chinese cruise market, cruise operations in China are very different from the current practices of the two major cruise markets – the US and the Mediterranean Sea. This study aims to quantify pricing strategies and possible incentive mechanisms of cruise operations in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Using optimization in economic-based game theory, the complexity of the pricing strategies and interaction and/or possible coordination within the cruise value-added chain can be captured.

Findings

The results show that a coordinative pricing strategy with Shapley profit redistribution within the value-added chain offers benefits to both cruise passengers and service suppliers. With two subsidy scenarios, one to the passenger and the other to the travel agent, a cooperative pricing strategy outperforms other strategies and successfully increases market shares and total revenue.

Originality/value

The advantages of coordination between participants in cruise value chain are quantified. Effective strategies for attracting players participating in cruise value chain are designed. This paper will provide market participants with strategies to enhance their decision-making processes.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

Keywords

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Article

Andrew Oscar Coggins Jr

The paper aimed to explore the development of the North American and the European cruise industry. The paper is discursive and it covers philosophical discussions and…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aimed to explore the development of the North American and the European cruise industry. The paper is discursive and it covers philosophical discussions and comparative studies of others ' work and thinking. The paper attempts to provide answers to the following questions. Is it a zero-sum game? And does the rise of new tourism destinations imply the decline of some of the existing destinations?

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs literature and archival documents utilizing data from Berlitz Guides to Cruising 1992-2013, Cruise Industry News Annuals 1995-2013, and other sources were evaluated to draw conclusions.

Findings

Cruising has evolved from a source of supplemental income into the fastest growing segment of the hospitality and tourism industry. The confluence of innovative ships, improved distribution channels, market awareness, and harbor facilities, has often resulted in rapid sustained expansion. Looking at the quantity and quality of major ships, their impact on the growth and globalization of the industry is illustrated.

Practical implications

Ship numbers and deployment patterns can serve as precursors of growth. Analysis shows that quantitative and qualitative changes in permanently assigned ships signal transformative growth in a region ' s cruise market.

Originality/value

The paper serves to identify regions and times for further investigation of impact. The paper is a concise chronicle of the development of the cruise industry and it serves as a basis for further in-depth research.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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Article

Frida Bahja, Cihan Cobanoglu, Katerina Berezina and Carolin Lusby

The purpose of the study was to discover the relative importance of influencing factors toward booking a cruise vacation. Based on a review of literature, this study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study was to discover the relative importance of influencing factors toward booking a cruise vacation. Based on a review of literature, this study focused on exploring the relative importance of six influential factors in cruise customers’ decision-making process: cruise vacation price, cruise duration, distance from the cruise port, itineraries, environmental friendliness of cruise line and cruise online reviews.

Design/methodology/approach

The complexity of cruise customers’ decision-making process for involving these six attributes with several levels was examined with choice-based conjoint (CBC) analysis. CBC was selected due to its realistic approach to purchase decisions, in the form of trade-offs. The online survey collected data anonymously. The survey was distributed through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (Mturk) platform. The sample consisted of 450 cruise customers, who had experienced a cruise vacation before.

Findings

The findings of the study showed that online reviews were the most influential attribute for cruise customers in their cruise decision, followed very closely by the environmental friendliness of the cruise line. The next influential factor was the duration of the cruise vacation, which was followed by distance from the cruise port, cruise itinerary and cruise vacation price. The best and the worst cruise vacation profiles were generated based on the CBC analysis.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide some insights with regard to cruise customers’ importance about influencing factors when deciding on a cruise vacation.

Originality/value

The research provides insides in understanding the influential factors at the last stage of cruise customers’ decision-making process. In this regard, cruise industry can pay more attention in promoting the attributes of a cruise offer as influential factors. Additionally, the findings of this study contribute to the general knowledge about cruise customers’ decision-making process.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 74 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Content available
Article

Grace Wang, Qingcheng Zeng and Lawrence Cliff Ghoram

In the USA, the cruise industry has generated more than $42bn in total economic activities, involving over 356,000 jobs. The largest and most aggressive operator is…

Abstract

Purpose

In the USA, the cruise industry has generated more than $42bn in total economic activities, involving over 356,000 jobs. The largest and most aggressive operator is acknowledged as Carnival Cruise Line (CCL), with a 48.3 per cent market share including all subsidiary companies in 2013. CCL has had a strong track record of reliability and high quality; however, within the past decade, there have been several deviations from standard daily procedure that have altered the way CCL does business. When trying to interpret changes in company performance, it is important to include other factors that may have contributed to changes at the time of any given deviation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use time series empirical mode decomposition to visualize whether there are short- or long-term shocks to company performance in the wake of deviating events. Besides, a thorough analysis is carried out with multivariable linear regression to identify the factors that really impact CCL’s performance.

Findings

This case study shows the seasonal patterns of weather issues with the largest number of hurricanes and tropical storms taking place during the third quarter of each year.

Originality/value

Empirical results will enhance understanding of the industry with regard to such events. It will provide shareholders information and opinions to enhance their decision-making processes.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

Keywords

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Article

Zafar U. Ahmed, James P. Johnson, Chew Pei Ling, Tan Wai Fang and Ang Kah Hui

This study examines country of origin (CO) and brand effects on consumers’ quality perceptions, attitudes, and purchase intentions with respect to a service‐industry…

Abstract

This study examines country of origin (CO) and brand effects on consumers’ quality perceptions, attitudes, and purchase intentions with respect to a service‐industry product: international cruiseline packages in Singapore. Star Cruise (Malaysia) and Royal Caribbean Lines (USA) were selected as the brands and countries for the study. Respondents provided quality, attitude and purchase intention ratings. Contrary to prior evidence, CO does appear to be an important informational cue for consumers of services; CO effects were found to be stronger than brand effects for quality and attitude ratings, while brand was more significantly correlated with purchase intentions. A positive CO image compensated for a weak brand, suggesting that, where applicable, marketing efforts should emphasize an association with a positive CO perception. Conversely, a strong brand was not found to compensate for a negative CO perception; in this case, it would be appropriate to change the associated CO to one with a more positive image, as at least one major cruise line has already done.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article

Fritz Pinnock

In the face of newly industrialised nations, there is the tendency that there will be a shift or redirect of tourists from old tourism destinations to the newly…

Abstract

Purpose

In the face of newly industrialised nations, there is the tendency that there will be a shift or redirect of tourists from old tourism destinations to the newly industrialised ones. While there has been a consistent growth in cruising to the Caribbean, the question is whether the growth in cruise ship calls and increase in cruise passenger arrivals to the Caribbean translate into greater development for the region ' s stakeholders or whether this just creates increased profits for the cruise lines, and whether there will be a shift from the Caribbean to the newly industrialised nation in years to come. This paper seeks to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This research employed mixed methods approach to answer the research question. The nature of the question and data necessary to answer the question led to the choice of qualitative and quantitative techniques.

Findings

The findings from this research will, hopefully, serve as a guide for Caribbean nations to develop a better strategy to cope with the cruise tourism industry; an approach based more along the lines of inter-island collaboration as opposed to competition.

Research limitations/implications

Lack of ample data on cruise tourism in the Caribbean was one of the limitations of the study. Another drawback involved the high level of secrecy which surrounds the industry and the unwillingness of cruise lines and their associates to provide access to operational data, which they regard as confidential.

Originality/value

The Caribbean, particularly Caribbean governments, will benefit from a greater understanding of the power relations among the cruise tourism stakeholder chain and the profile of costs and benefits associated with the industry. Over the years, the Caribbean has relied solely on the economic impact surveys produced by Florida Caribbean Cruise Association (FCCA) and Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA), both of whom represent the cruise lines, in order to make projections and development plans for the industry.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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