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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Johye Hwang, So‐Yeon Yoon and Lawrence J. Bendle

Recognizing that crowding in a restaurant waiting area forms a first impression of service and sets service expectations, the purpose of this study is to investigate the…

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3997

Abstract

Purpose

Recognizing that crowding in a restaurant waiting area forms a first impression of service and sets service expectations, the purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of crowding in the effective control of the waiting environment. The study seeks to examine the impact of crowding on customers' emotions and approach‐avoidance responses and to examine the mediating role of emotion and the moderating role of desired privacy in the relationship between crowding and approach‐avoidance responses.

Design/methodology/approach

Using real‐scale, interactive virtual reality (VR) technology that allows high‐fidelity representations of real environments, the authors created a navigable, photo‐realistic three‐dimensional model of a restaurant waiting area. Through an experimental study which manipulated crowding levels in the VR restaurant, they surveyed the subjects' responses toward crowding conditions.

Findings

The study found significant effects of crowding on emotions including arousal and dominance, but not pleasure, and on approach‐avoidance responses. The impact of crowding on approach‐avoidance responses was more direct than indirect, without having emotion as a mediator. It was also found that the desire for privacy as a psychological trait moderated the relationship between crowding and affiliation.

Practical implications

The findings of this study offer restaurant managers insights toward the effective management of the pre‐process service environment during the waiting state that minimizes the negative consequences of waiting/crowding. This study provides three courses of management actions that can make unavoidable crowding in the restaurant waiting situation more enjoyable and comfortable.

Originality/value

By using VR simulation, this study adds a new approach for crowding studies. Theoretically, this study broadened the scope of crowding studies by adding a potential mediating variable, emotions, and a moderating variable, desired privacy, in examining the relationship between crowding and approach‐avoidance responses. Also, by focusing on a restaurant waiting area, the authors were able to explore the pre‐process service expectations.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2012

Wadu Mesthrige Jayantha and Eddie Chi‐man Hui

Residential crowding and underlying causes of crowding have been changing across the globe over time. The aim of this paper is to examine the dynamics of housing…

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1603

Abstract

Purpose

Residential crowding and underlying causes of crowding have been changing across the globe over time. The aim of this paper is to examine the dynamics of housing consumption and residential crowding in Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

While the two‐step Engle‐Granger co‐integration approach based on an error correction model (ECM) is used to test for long‐run relation and short‐run dynamics of housing consumption, the study also uses a multivariate regression model to analyze the factors affecting residential crowding. Along with other variables in previous literature, the study introduces a new institutional factor, i.e. land supply, into the model that analyzes these two issues over a time span of 25 years.

Findings

The study's results suggest that many households in Hong Kong still have inadequate housing, and residential overcrowding is a serious issue. Coupled with market forces (e.g. income, housing price, household size), the new land supply factor noticeably has exerted significant influence on the two subject issues under investigation.

Practical implications

The paper provides policy implications that to address such deficiencies, the government should change its current land supply policy. A policy shift is recommended away from its “high‐land price” policy towards comprehensive developments in outer urban areas. This institutional change should help improve housing consumption in the territory overall.

Originality/value

This study adds knowledge to previous works in analyzing residential crowding and its underlying causes over the years, rather than in a particular point in time. It is also the first of its kind in Hong Kong.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Nurlan Atabaev, Junus Ganiev and Nargiza Alymkulova

The crowding-out and crowding-in effects have been at the core of arguments among economists regarding the influence of government spending on private investment. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The crowding-out and crowding-in effects have been at the core of arguments among economists regarding the influence of government spending on private investment. This study aims to examine the crowding-out (or -in) effect of public spending on private investment in the transition economy of Kyrgyzstan.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical model is an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) and the vector autoregression approach (VAR). Monthly data from 2005 to 2013 of the private investment, government expenditures, remittances from abroad and broad money data were used in the empirical analysis.

Findings

The authors found that an increase in government purchases leads to rise in private investment. More precisely, the public spending crowds-in private investment at the speed with 2.06 months. On the other hand, despite the fact that remittances to GDP ratio has reached to almost 30 per cent, there is no any statistically significant effect between these variables. On the contrary, it was revealed that the broad money has statistically significant, affirmative effect on private investment. Furthermore, findings of the VAR model support the results of ARDL. The variance decomposition demonstrates that private investment shock accounts for 58.16 per cent in government expenditures, 11 per cent in broad money and 5 per cent in remittances.

Originality/value

The results of the study allow policymakers to demonstrate that the growth of national economy of the Kyrgyz Republic may be encouraged by expanding public investment with external source assistance such as grants and international loans. Accordingly, efficient use of those external funds is one of the suggested ways for economic development. Nevertheless, expansionary monetary and fiscal policy may be beneficial for economic growth in Kyrgyzstan.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2021

Muthoni Masinde and Johan Coetzee

The overall aim of this research is to propose a research incentive framework for academic staff members at the South African universities of technology (UoTs).

Abstract

Purpose

The overall aim of this research is to propose a research incentive framework for academic staff members at the South African universities of technology (UoTs).

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory case study methodology was applied, while a questionnaire was used to (1) identify the factors that stimulated staff members' research activities; (2) assess what was considered an appropriate way of measuring research productivity and (3) identify appropriate research awards, recognition and rewards. Working from the self-determination theory (SDT), the results of the data analysis were used to develop a framework for ensuring crowding-in of research incentives into intrinsic motivation. This framework is anchored on the three main components (competence, autonomy and social relatedness) of the cognitive evaluation theory (CET) that provides guidelines for the design of a research incentive system.

Findings

Intrinsically motivated researchers tend to conduct research for their inherent satisfaction because it meets their basic individual psychological need for competence. Existing research incentives and productivity systems fail to provide intrinsic motivation for researchers. Recommendation for a framework for designing research incentive systems is centred on the researchers themselves. This approach contributes to a research environment that provides space for autonomy, creativity, flexibility and innovation and consequently a successful research output that is hinged on the ability to keep researchers intrinsically motivated.

Originality/value

A conceptual framework is proposed specifically for technically focused UoT suggesting that crowding-in the motivation of researcher incentives results in improved intrinsic-based motivation. The autonomy of researchers in particular is regarded as the most important driver of such motivation, with the availability of resources, collegiality and research skills and development ranking as the most important aspects specifically driving intrinsic motivation. The framework not only provides a tool for institutions of higher education focused on developing the technical skills, but also offers management at any type of university challenged with low research outputs and a poor research ethos with an alternative method to improve both the quantity and quality of research outputs.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2009

Breffni M. Noone and Anna S. Mattila

Much of the research on crowding in a service context has focused on customer reaction to crowding in a retail setting. This paper seeks to examine the effect of consumer…

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2844

Abstract

Purpose

Much of the research on crowding in a service context has focused on customer reaction to crowding in a retail setting. This paper seeks to examine the effect of consumer goals on consumers' reactions to crowding for extended service encounters.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a 2 (Crowding: crowded or not crowded) × 2 (Goal: utilitarian or hedonic) × 2 (Service level: bad or good) factorial, between‐subjects design to test hypotheses. Service level and tolerance for crowding were entered as control variables. A service encounter in a casual restaurant was used as the service setting in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a written scenario describing an experience in a restaurant. They were then shown a photograph depicting the interior of the restaurant.

Findings

Consumption goal moderates the effect of perceived crowding on satisfaction. Significantly lower satisfaction ratings are associated with a crowded service environment when the primary consumption goal for the service experience is utilitarian, rather than hedonic, in nature. Furthermore, regardless of the consumption goal, crowding negatively impacts positive in‐store behaviors (i.e. desire to spend more money and time at the restaurant).

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to one extended service setting. Future research across other extended service settings is needed establish the generalizability of the findings.

Practical implications

The study has implications for the design of the service facility and the application of demand‐shifting revenue management strategies.

Originality/value

The paper extends the literature on shopping motivations to extended service settings by examining the effect of consumer goals on consumers' reactions to crowding, specifically consumer satisfaction with, and consumer behaviors within, the extended service encounter.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Sheunesu Zhou

The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between public debt, corporate debt service costs and private capital formation in South Africa.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between public debt, corporate debt service costs and private capital formation in South Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

To capture the long-run characteristic of investment, the study adopts the Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares approach and tests for cointegration using Hansen (1992)'s Parameter Instability test.

Findings

We find that private capital formation increases in domestic debt and decreases in external debt during the pre-crisis period. However, during the period post the Global Financial Crisis, we find evidence of domestic public debt crowding out private capital formation, whereas external debt crowds-in capital formation. Debt service costs are found to reduce investment due to the effect of the debt overhang throughout the period under analysis.

Research limitations/implications

The paper has important implications for macroeconomic policy. In particular, there is need for deleveraging and allocation of a higher proportion of debt to public infrastructure expenditure which has complementary effects on private investment.

Practical implications

Debt overhang signal that South African firms could be over-leveraged, which hinders future growth prospects. Firms that face high levels of debt should consider debt restructuring.

Originality/value

Empirical studies undertaken to explore this relationship have yielded contradicting results suggesting that the relationship between public debt and private investment is heterogeneous depending on a given economy or prevailing macroeconomic environment. In particular, existing research does not provide evidence on whether recent increases in public debt in South Africa have led to crowding-in or crowding-out of private investment. This paper therefore contributes to empirical literature on the impact of public debt on private investment within a small open economy.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2021

Kaushik Lahiri, Buddhike Sri Harsha Indrasena and Jill Aylott

National Health Service (NHS) Emergency Department (ED) attendances are at the second highest level ever recorded, (RCEM, 2021a) and as they soar, performance plummets…

Abstract

Purpose

National Health Service (NHS) Emergency Department (ED) attendances are at the second highest level ever recorded, (RCEM, 2021a) and as they soar, performance plummets, putting patient safety at risk (RCEM, 2021b). Managing patient flow in the ED is critical to reduce patient safety incidents and crowding, however, this needs effective leadership (Jensen and Crane, 2014). This paper aims to introduce an innovative form of managing patient flow in ED, which is a two hourly “Board Rounds”, providing a managed process to pull patients through the system meeting pre-determined time critical standards and preventing patient harm. Board Rounds combined with effective leadership can play a contributory role preventing crowding in the ED.

Design/methodology/approach

An evaluation of two hourly ED Board Rounds was undertaken using the hospitals’ ED Board Round Standard Operating Procedure to develop a series of short questions. As leadership is the responsibility of all clinicians (Darzi, 2008; Moscrop, 2012), a separate survey was undertaken for clinicians of all grades and managers to self-assess their own leadership styles using the Path-Goal Leadership Theory (House and Mitchell, 1974; Indvik, 1985; Northhouse, 2013). Findings were reported to the team to explore ideas for improvement not only to develop more effective leadership in the ED but also to raise awareness of how to optimise leadership in Board Rounds.

Findings

In total, 27 (n = 27) clinicians and managers reported support for a 2 hourly Board Round, for a period of 15 min, in both minor and major injuries departments in ED. A multi-disciplinary Board meeting, led by the lead nurse with support from the Emergency Physician in Charge, was preferred, locating it at the nurse’s station. A validated Path-Goal Leadership survey instrument was returned (n = 24). The findings reveal that leaders and managers are using a high level of the directive leadership style, where there is more potential to use the supportive, participative and achievement approaches to leadership.

Research limitations/implications

This was a small sample, returned from a Hospital ED located in a semi-rural location, department requiring “improvement” from the Health Regulator. This research would benefit from being undertaken in a medium/large NHS ED department to identify if the findings report on a wider leadership culture in the NHS ED. The implications for this study are that improvement interventions such as a “Board Round” can be usefully evaluated alongside a review of leadership styles and approaches to understand the wider implications for continuous improvement and change in the ED.

Originality/value

NHS EDs are facing unprecedented challenges and require innovative evidence-based solutions combined with leadership at this time. The evidence base for improving patient flow is limited, however, this study provides some initial findings on the positive perception and experience of staff to Board Rounds. Board Rounds combined with leadership has the potential to contribute to the wider strategy to prevent crowding in ED. This paper is the first of its kind to evaluate perceptions of Board Rounds in the ED and to engage clinicians and managers in a self-assessment of their own leadership styles to reflect on optimum leadership styles for use in ED.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1879

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2020

Tahir Albayrak, Özlem Güzel, Meltem Caber, Özge Kılıçarslan, Aslıhan Dursun Cengizci and Aylin Güven

The purpose of this study is to investigate the direct impact of shopping experience of tourists on their satisfaction with shopping, while perceived crowding is used as a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the direct impact of shopping experience of tourists on their satisfaction with shopping, while perceived crowding is used as a moderator in this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed conceptual model was tested by an empirical study where the data were collected from 411 German tourists, visiting Kaleiçi, Antalya-Turkey.

Findings

The study results revealed that tourist shopping experience (consisting of education, esthetic, entertainment and escapism dimensions) significantly determines satisfaction with shopping. Moreover, crowding perception has a two-dimensional structure, as human and spatial crowding. Human crowding, which reflects high human density, is found to negatively moderate the effect of shopping experience on satisfaction, where spatial crowding, which is related to high space density, does not influence this relationship.

Originality/value

This study exceptionally shows that crowding perceptions of German tourists in shopping are affected by both human and spatial crowding. In addition, the moderating role of perceived crowding is clarified in the relationship between shopping experience and satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 30 May 2018

Nguyen Phuc Canh

The effectiveness of fiscal policy is an interesting field in literature of macroeconomics. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of fiscal policy on…

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17447

Abstract

Purpose

The effectiveness of fiscal policy is an interesting field in literature of macroeconomics. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of fiscal policy on economic growth under contributions from the differences in institutions and external debt levels.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use panel data from 2002 to 2014 from 20 emerging markets and use GMM estimators for unbalanced panel data.

Findings

The results show positive growth effects of fiscal policy across emerging markets in the examined periods. Notably, the improvement in institutions promotes higher crowding-in effects of fiscal policy. In addition, this paper finds interesting evidences that the external debt has non-linear effects on economic growth, whereas the heterogeneous effects of fiscal policy on economic growth as positive effects in low indebted level and negative effect in high indebted level may explain the mechanism of this non-linear relationship.

Originality/value

This study proposes the non-linear relationship of fiscal growth effects in emerging economies under the dynamic of debt levels.

Details

Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Shanmugam Muthu

The purpose of this paper is to examine the crowding-in or crowding-out relationship between public and private investment in India.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the crowding-in or crowding-out relationship between public and private investment in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach is used to estimate the long run relationship between public and private investment using annual data from 1971-1972 to 2009-2010.

Findings

Based on the empirical findings, it is observed that aggregate public investment has a positive effect on private investment both in the long run and the short run. In contrast to the findings of previous studies, no significant impact of public infrastructure investment on private investments is found in the long run, while non-infrastructure investment has a positive impact on private investment in the short run. Among the various categories of infrastructure sector, a positive and significant impact in the case of electricity, gas and water supply is observed. Similarly, the result indicates that public investment in machinery and equipment and construction have substantially influenced the private sector machinery and equipment in the long run and the short run. In the case of the role of macroeconomic uncertainty, the results find a negative and significant impact on private investment and the impact is higher in the short run than in the long run.

Originality/value

The present study extends the literature in three important ways: First, the study attempts to capture heterogeneity of public investment as well as disaggregate effects of two different categories of public infrastructure on private investment. The extent to which two different types of public assets impact the private investment in machinery and equipment investment is also examined. Second, ARDL model is used to examine the long-run relationship between public and private investment. Third, the study incorporates macroeconomic uncertainty into the empirical analysis to examine the role of macroeconomic volatility in determining private investment decision.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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