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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1981

A highly weather resistant titanium dioxide rutile pigment is now being produced by Bayer. Coated with aluminium, silicon and zirconium compounds and stabilized with…

Abstract

A highly weather resistant titanium dioxide rutile pigment is now being produced by Bayer. Coated with aluminium, silicon and zirconium compounds and stabilized with Al2O3, Bayertitan R‐KB‐4 is also organically treated and micronized.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 10 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1980

E.S. Lower

Dibutyltin dilaurate, (Di‐n‐butyl dilauroyl dioxystannone; (C4H9)2 Sn(OCOC10H20 CH3)2) is a water insoluble oily liquid which can be produced by heating lauric acid with…

Abstract

Dibutyltin dilaurate, (Di‐n‐butyl dilauroyl dioxystannone; (C4H9)2 Sn(OCOC10H20 CH3)2) is a water insoluble oily liquid which can be produced by heating lauric acid with dibutyltin oxide in a molecular ratio of 1:2, for seven hours at 95/100°C. It can also be produced from dibutyltin chloride and sodium laurate.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 9 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Rkia Refai, Mohamed Hashem and Ali Hebeish

Significant enhancement in the performance of durable press cotton fabric could be achieved through the utilization of non- formaldehyde crosslinking agents along with…

Abstract

Significant enhancement in the performance of durable press cotton fabric could be achieved through the utilization of non- formaldehyde crosslinking agents along with ionic crosslinking. Ionic crosslinking was first effected by subjecting cotton fabric succesively to partial carboxymethylation using monochloroacetic acid and sodium hydroxide, then by cationization using 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride known commercially as Quat-188. While the partial carboxymethylation reaction introduces the negatively charged group in the cellulose chains of cotton, the cationization reaction introduces the positively charged groups, thereby causing ionic crosslinking. The ionically crosslinked cotton was then crosslinked using either glyoxal, epichlorohydrin, or gluteral-dehyde. Most of the results obtained indicated that a balance between wet and dry wrinkle recovery angles that acquired a value as high as 300° could be obtained without loss in tensile strength and elongation at break. The results also revealed that the degree of ionic crosslinking relies on the nitrogen and carboxyl contents of the finished fabric as well as on the nature of the non-formaldehyde finishing agent used. Indeed the results of this work present a new approach to the durable press finishing of cotton, and mill trials should be conducted.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2013

Prof. S.K. Laga and Prof. Dr. A.I. Wasif

Textile finishing is the heart of textile processing. It aims to improve aesthetic appeal, dimensional stability, serviceability and alike. The object of resin finishing…

Abstract

Textile finishing is the heart of textile processing. It aims to improve aesthetic appeal, dimensional stability, serviceability and alike. The object of resin finishing is to improve crease recovery. Conventional resin pre-condensates are effectively used for this purpose. Most of these resin pre-condensates are not eco friendly due to the presence of free or released formaldehyde. Due to eco awareness and green technology, it has been imperative to use eco-friendly crosslinking agents for resin finishing. Polycarboxylic acids like BTCA, PTA, etc. can be used as eco-friendly crosslinking agents. However, they are costly, and not easily available. Thus, an attempt has been made in the present study to explore the possibility of using a combination of glyoxal and glycol as a crosslinking agent at various concentrations to finish 100% cotton fabric. These treated fabric samples have been cured at various temperatures (1400C, 1500C & 1600C) for periods of 1, 2 and 3 min. Moreover, various formulations have been tested by using various additives, like PE, PEG-200, TEA, DEA, and their combinations, to improve the strength and the whiteness of finished fabrics. Various tests to determine crease recovery, strength, whiteness index, durable press rating, and bending length have been carried out to assess the quality of the finished fabric. Very encouraging results in terms of dry crease recovery angle, bending length, % strength retention and durable press rating have been obtained.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Farhana Naeem, Fareha Asim and Muhammad Tufail

Low pilling and wrinkle-free appearance of cellulosic fabrics are always demanded. Resin finishes are applied to improve these properties, but there is an adverse effect…

Abstract

Purpose

Low pilling and wrinkle-free appearance of cellulosic fabrics are always demanded. Resin finishes are applied to improve these properties, but there is an adverse effect of the resin finish as it tends to reduce the strength of the fabrics. Therefore, the effect of the two most important finishes; anti-pilling and resin finish, on the strength characteristics of 100% viscose and 50:50 Viscose/cotton plain and satin fabrics were investigated in this paper. The purpose of this study is to identify significant factors affecting the strength of fabrics finished with crosslinking agents [non-ionic acrylate copolymer and (dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea)].

Design/methodology/approach

A statistical model of 23 32 mixed level factorial design was used for the study. Appratan N9211 (A) and Arkofix NF (B) were tested at three concentrations, whereas three factors fabric; weave (C), blend ratio (D) and curing method (E) were tested at two levels. The performance of the finish was evaluated by two response variables, which were tensile and tear strength.

Findings

The various conditions of high strength values of the fabrics were presented in this paper. It was found that the tear strength of the fabrics increased after finishing except for 50:50 viscose/cotton plain fabric, whereas the tensile strength of plain fabrics is better at shock cure and for a satin normal cure is better. The model adequacy plots exhibit that the assumptions of normality and independence are not desecrated. Moreover, the values of “predicted R2” are in reasonable agreement with the “adjusted R2,” which confirms that models have been accounted for most of the inconsistency.

Originality/value

This paper is a part of my PhD dissertation. Unlike the previous studies, this paper investigated the effect of two crosslinking agents, Appretan N9211 as anti-pilling and Arkofix NF as wrinkle resistant agents on 100% viscose and 50:50 viscose/cotton plain and satin. Three different concentrations of both the crosslinking agents were used. Also, fixation of the finishes was carried out at a normal cure and shock cure.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2020

Kh M. Mostafa and A. A. Elsanabary

This study aims to use multi-functional viscose fabric that was facilely developed with with respect to ease and care characteristics, reinforcement effect and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use multi-functional viscose fabric that was facilely developed with with respect to ease and care characteristics, reinforcement effect and antibacterial activity by using novel echo friendly antibacterial finish based on citric acid/sodium hypophosphite and the authors’ previously tailor-made poly meth acrylic acid (MAA)-chitosan graft copolymer via alternative microwave curing approach instead of traditional high-temperature cure one.

Design/methodology/approach

Viscose fabric was paddled twice in the cross-linking formulations containing different concentrations of citric acid, poly (MAA)-chitosan graft copolymer and sodium hypophosphite to 90 % wet pick up and dried at 100°C for 3 min in an electric oven. Then, the treated fabrics were placed on the disk spinner of the microwave oven and cured at different power (100–800 Watt) for various durations (60–180 s). The fabric was then water-rinsed and dried at ambient condition before use.

Findings

Results revealed that the above echo friendly method for finished viscose fabrics was found to achieve relatively high dry wrinkle recovery angle and maintain the loss in tensile strength within the acceptable range, as well as antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as a gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively; in addition to durability up to ten washing cycles. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images, nitrogen content and add on % of the finished fabric confirmed the penetration of grafted chitosan inside the fabric structure. The tentative mechanism for these reactions is advocated.

Originality/value

The novelty addressed here is undertaken with the advantages of using citric acid as a nonformaldehyde, safe and cheap poly carboxylic acid as a crosslinking agent and sodium hypophosphite as a potential catalyst, in addition to the authors’ noncitable multifunctional echo friendly tailor-made poly (MAA)-chitosan graft copolymer for imparting reinforcement and antibacterial characteristics to viscose fabric that uses the pad-dry/cure microwave fixation for progressively persuaded heat within the fabric during curing.

Research limitations/implications

This was done to see the impact of microwave as green and efficient tool with respect to reduction in organic solvents, chemicals and exposer time as well as fixation temperature on the finishing reaction in comparison with traditional pad-dry-cure method.

Practical implications

Poly (MAA)-chitosan graft copolymer as amphoteric biopolymer was expected to impart multifunctional properties to viscose fabrics especially with comparable dry wrinkle recovery angle and minimize the loss in tensile strength in addition to antibacterial properties in comparison with untreated one.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2009

He Huang, Zhi-Ping Mao and Wei-Dong Yu

Stimuli-sensitive poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-sodium acrylate) [poly (NiPAAm-co-SA)] hydrogels are prepared by free radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide…

Abstract

Stimuli-sensitive poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-sodium acrylate) [poly (NiPAAm-co-SA)] hydrogels are prepared by free radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NiPAAm) and sodium acrylate (SA) using N, N'-methylene bisacrylamide (BIS) as a crosslinking agent. The effects of SA content, crosslinking agent concentration and the pre-gel solution concentration on the swelling behavior of poly (NiPAAm-co-SA) hydrogel are investigated systematically. The results indicate that the swelling capacities increase with an increase in the amount of hydrophilic poly (sodium acrylate) anionic units, and thermo-sensitivity is weakened simultaneously. The effect of the pre-gel solution concentration on the swellabilities of poly (NiPAAm-co-SA) is more than that of the crosslinking agent concentration. Furthermore, the pH-sensitivity of the networks is also investigated, and it is found that the swelling behavior of poly (NiPAAm-co-SA) hydrogels obviously improves when the pH value is 5.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Song Hee Koo, Kyungmin Park, Hyunmin Hwang, Youngjae Yoo, Jong Hun Han, Kwonwoo Shin and Jeong Ho Cho

The purpose of this paper is to develop environmentally stable near‐infrared (NIR)‐absorbing windows by blending an NIR‐absorbing dye and a thermally‐crosslinkable polymer.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop environmentally stable near‐infrared (NIR)‐absorbing windows by blending an NIR‐absorbing dye and a thermally‐crosslinkable polymer.

Design/methodology/approach

To enhance the environmental stability of the NIR‐absorbing window, a poly(vinyl phenol‐co‐methyl methacrylate) (poly(VP‐co‐MMA)) prepolymer and a poly(melamine‐co‐formaldehyde) (PMF) cross‐linking agent were mixed, and thermal crosslinking was performed under mild conditions (100°C).

Findings

The resistance of the crosslinked hybrid films to heat, humidity, and ultraviolet radiation damage improved dramatically relative to the pristine NIR‐absorbing dye. The improved environmental stability of the crosslinked NIR hybrid film resulted from the reduced free volume and restrictions in the molecular thermal dynamic motions of the polymer due to the presence of the crosslinked network surrounding the NIR‐absorbing dye molecules.

Originality/value

The methods provided a novel, simple, and practical solution to improving environmentally stability of NIR‐absorbing window.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2020

Jing Yang, Jie Zhong, Fang Xie, Xiaoyang He, Liwen Du, Yaqian Yan, Meiyu Li, Wuqian Ma, Wenxin Wang and Ning Wang

The purpose of this work is to controllably synthesize a carbon aerogel with programmable functionally graded performance via a simple and effective strategy.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work is to controllably synthesize a carbon aerogel with programmable functionally graded performance via a simple and effective strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

This work uses polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) via the controllable sol-gel, lyophilization, and carbonization approach to achieve a programmable carbon aerogel. This design has the advantages of low raw material and preparation cost, simple and controllable synthetic process and low carbonization temperature.

Findings

The thermal stability and microstructure of PVA aerogel can be controlled by the crosslinking agent content within a certain range. The crosslinking agent content and the carbonization temperature are the key factors for functionally graded programming of carbon aerogels, including microstructure, oxygen-containing functional groups and adsorption performance. The adsorption ratio and adsorption rate of uranium can be controlled by adjusting initial concentration and pH value of the uranium solution. The 2.5%25 carbon aerogel with carbonization temperature of 350 °C has excellent adsorption performance when the initial concentration of uranium solution is 32 ppm at pH 7.5.

Research limitations/implications

As a new type of lightweight nano-porous amorphous carbon material, this carbon aerogel has many excellent properties.

Originality/value

This work presents a simple, low cost and controllable strategy for functionally graded programming of novel carbon aerogel. This carbon aerogel has great potential for application in various fields such as uranium recovery, wastewater treatment, sound absorption and shock absorption.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1978

Over the last fifteen years, acrylic resins have become more widely accepted for use in surface coatings. Acrylic resins may be divided into two main categories…

Abstract

Over the last fifteen years, acrylic resins have become more widely accepted for use in surface coatings. Acrylic resins may be divided into two main categories, solvent‐borne and water‐borne systems. Solvent‐borne solution polymers may be subdivided into two groups: thermoplastic and thermosetting resins. Basically a thermosetting resin is built up from monomer units selected to give the degree of hardness and flexibility required. They may be self‐crosslinking, but usually require the addition of a crosslinking agent, a reactive bifunctional monomer unit, that serves to crosslink and insolubilize the copolymer. Other monomers may be introduced to confer specific properties and many commercial thermosetting acrylic resins contain four or more different units in the chain.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 7 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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