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Article

Richard Nehring, Richard Barton and Charles Hallahan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the rise in crossbred cow numbers in the US dairy herd. Methods used look at well managed herds to see if crossbreeding provides a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the rise in crossbred cow numbers in the US dairy herd. Methods used look at well managed herds to see if crossbreeding provides a management tool that producers are using to maintain profitability.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors estimate a Translog stochastic production frontier (SPF) for US dairy farms to examine the competitiveness of crossbred and non-crossbred dairy herds by system and region.

Findings

The bottom-line conclusion is that WM or highly efficient crossbred herds solidly compete on a financial basis with larger WM Western Holstein herds, the most technically efficient managed group, based on the SPF results in the authors’ study. The study finds that net return on assets for crossbred herds are not different from Western Holstein herds and that there is no significant difference in amount of milk per cow produced annually.

Research limitations/implications

Because of a need to unmask the advantages of crossbreeding as a technology it was necessary to separate WM herds from poorly managed herds. That was done by frontier estimates that robustly ranked operation and corrected for endogeneity, tested for selectivity bias, and incorporated the NASS survey design.

Originality/value

For the first time, the 2010 Dairy Cost and Returns questionnaire version of the Agricultural Resource Management Survey (Dairy CAR) design allows researchers to expand survey observations to represent the vast majority of the US dairy farm population and to sort dairy farms into crossbred/non-crossbred herds.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 77 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article

Rose Athieno Kato, Theodora Shuwu Hyuha and Johnny Mugisha

This paper aims to investigate the competitiveness of two enterprise chicken regimes (upgraded and indigenous) in Eastern Uganda for poverty reduction in small farm enterprises.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the competitiveness of two enterprise chicken regimes (upgraded and indigenous) in Eastern Uganda for poverty reduction in small farm enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilizes primary data collected using a structured questionnaire from a randomly selected sample of 108 chicken farmers (54 crossbred and 54 indigenous). Econometric methods are employed to analyze the data. Competitiveness is measured using unit cost ratio while the determinant factors are identified by the use of regression analysis.

Findings

The econometric results show that the most critical factors in increasing the competitiveness of the chicken enterprise are: proportion of birds weaned to the total flock, number of chickens reared and farmer's rearing experience. The main conclusion is that in order to increase performance of chicken enterprise and improve income of the rural population, upgrading of indigenous chickens through crossbreeding should be pursued. This approach should put emphasis on improving the management systems which will involve offering an enabling environment for farmers to access credit and markets.

Originality/value

Given the importance of poultry rearing in every household in Uganda, the sub‐sector provides a good entry point for poverty alleviation in this part of Uganda. However, limited information on economic analysis exists and hence the value of this study. The paper identifies a number of variables that must be addressed, if the sector is to play its rightful role in poverty reduction.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article

E. Victor Maafo

Genetic engineering is an ultra‐modern form of biotechnology. It is a broad term used to describe a multitude of closely related processes such as crossbreeding, plant…

Abstract

Genetic engineering is an ultra‐modern form of biotechnology. It is a broad term used to describe a multitude of closely related processes such as crossbreeding, plant hybridization and fermentation—all of which promise to transform, for the better, many important areas of concern in the world. Genetic scientists working in the medical field, for instance, are close to finding cures for diseases such as cystic fibrosis by experimenting with the transfer of genes between microbes, plants and animals. There are currently about 1,000 genetic diseases that can be diagnosed by DNA methodologies. In the process, however, genetic scientists are altering life forms and even creating new ones.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article

Russell Tronstad and James Unterschultz

Quality traits desired by consumers may not be adequately captured by beef industry standards associated with grid or value‐based pricing alone. Aims to demonstrate this…

Abstract

Purpose

Quality traits desired by consumers may not be adequately captured by beef industry standards associated with grid or value‐based pricing alone. Aims to demonstrate this shortcoming by examining strategies of selected companies in North America at the four supply chain levels of cow‐calf genetics, feedlot feeding, processing, and retailing that have been proactive in producing desirable beef attributes efficiently to better meet consumer beef demand.

Design/methodology/approach

The vertical alliance between Ralphs retailing, Sunland Beef processing, and a handful of feedlots using narrowly defined beef genetics are examined to illustrate how consumer market research and coordination throughout the supply chain may address many shortcomings associated with current value‐based pricing of beef criteria.

Findings

Better information sharing and coordination between seedstock and retail industries could help assure that consumer preferences of beef palatability and consistency are met while meeting high production efficiency standards.

Practical implications

Cow‐calf, feedlot, and packing industries need to better track and manage information flows of genetic‐management paths from consumer to seedstock producer in order for the beef industry to be more competitive.

Originality/value

Experiences of our case companies suggest that the beef industry will need to look beyond the North American grid or value‐based pricing of beef in order to maintain or improve market share with competing pork and poultry sectors.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article

Oluwatoyin Dare Kolawole

Agricultural intensification is central to the Green Revolution (GR) programme. This initiative, which dates back to the early 1940s, revolves around the development of…

Abstract

Purpose

Agricultural intensification is central to the Green Revolution (GR) programme. This initiative, which dates back to the early 1940s, revolves around the development of high-yielding and disease-resistant seed varieties that aims at bringing about efficient and secure food production. The purpose of this paper is to present a brief genesis and thrust of the GR. Focusing on Nigeria as a typical African case, the discourse addresses the political economy of the Nigerian agriculture, outlines the features of the Nigerian GR and highlights some crucial issues debated during the 2008 Salzburg Global Seminar (SGS) conference for a uniquely African GR as a pro-poor development strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a critical discourse analysis and case study design, the paper analyses the political and bureaucratic lapses associated with the introduction and implementation of the reform.

Findings

Although wary of some of the socio-political and environmental issues surrounding the production of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) and high external inputs (HEIs) in the push for a new African GR, the paper reports the proceedings of the Salzburg conference as a likely platform for the formulation of new pro-poor policies in the context of the African GR. If sincerely and properly implemented, the paper argues that an African-oriented GR framework is conceived as a possible policy window to address the challenges of the continent ' s poor majority.

Social implications

The policy issues raised in the paper would serve as a pool of information from which policy conceptualisation, formulation and implementation could be derived for the good of the African agrarian economies and poor majority.

Originality/value

Highlighted issues on the debates on a “uniquely” African GR during the SGS conference provide original insights to the implementation of agrarian reforms in Africa. The paper is valuable to policy makers and other stakeholders in re-shaping the agricultural sector in the continent.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Book part

Shyama V. Ramani, Ajay Thutupalli, Mhamed-Ali El-Aroui and Praachi Kumar

Agri-biotech multinational enterprises (MNEs) are persisting to push genetically modified plant varieties (GMV) worldwide including emerging countries as a technological…

Abstract

Agri-biotech multinational enterprises (MNEs) are persisting to push genetically modified plant varieties (GMV) worldwide including emerging countries as a technological solution for sustainable development. However, in emerging countries, the structure and effectiveness of regulation and compliance measures to ensure human and environmental safety are much less developed. There are three types of concerns: the economic risks faced by farmers while using existing low-yielding conventional seed varieties, in the face of inadequate institutional mechanisms and safety nets, the long-term environmental risks, and finally, risks posed by other possible externalities. In an attempt to provide some insight on the aforementioned debate, this chapter focuses on a commercially successful GMV—namely genetically modified cotton, also referred to as Bt cotton. The literature on adoption of Bt cotton is first examined, and its findings are confronted with the reality of the introduction and diffusion of Bt cotton in India to derive inferences on how MNE and emerging countries’ governments can manage coexistence. Our findings indicate that in order to be successful, MNEs have to establish the sociopolitical legitimacy of GMV through investment in outreach with regulatory authorities, government departments dealing with the environmental and bio safety, farmer groups, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). MNEs also have to keep in mind that pricing and high technology fee can become an impediment for the legitimization of technology. Finally, MNEs can partner with NGOs to educate and accompany farmers to maximize their livelihood, while preserving the ecological sustainability of their farm lands.

Details

Multinational Enterprises and Sustainable Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-163-8

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Book part

Dorra Yahiaoui and Akram Al Ariss

The Arab countries are a complex and diverse world, within which exists a cultural diversity that manifests in multiple dimensions: ethnic, tribal, religious, and…

Abstract

The Arab countries are a complex and diverse world, within which exists a cultural diversity that manifests in multiple dimensions: ethnic, tribal, religious, and linguistic, resulting from history, tradition, and immigration. This chapter aims to shed light on the diversity spread across the Arab countries in general, and on the management of this diversity in businesses. We first offer a general description of the societal context of the Arab countries and then highlight the religious, cultural, and ethnic diversity that exists within this context. In the third and fourth parts of this chapter, we outline the means of managing this diversity.

Details

Management and Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-550-8

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Article

Natasa Renko, Vesna Brcic´‐Stipcevic´ and Sanda Renko

Until recently, the Croatian public has been relatively indifferent and unaware of issues related to genetically modified (GM) food products. However, the situation has…

Abstract

Until recently, the Croatian public has been relatively indifferent and unaware of issues related to genetically modified (GM) food products. However, the situation has changed and the Croatian public is becoming deeply sceptical about the benefits of GM food, and also generally about the food they eat. This paper examines some of the dimensions of the attitudes of the Croatian population toward GM food, and points out the high level of knowledge about biotechnology, and also the high level of non‐acceptance in this regard. These findings are significant for Croatian trade (especially importing and exporting), since knowledge about population preferences may influence the status of the Croatian food industry, as well as foreign food producers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 105 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Romi Khosla

Traditional places are on the wrong side of the divide. The wrong side of the divide is the side where the poor relatives live, where things are charming and quaint, where…

Abstract

Traditional places are on the wrong side of the divide. The wrong side of the divide is the side where the poor relatives live, where things are charming and quaint, where people look for no change to have taken place where attracting investments is always a problem, where one has to struggle to reinvent a souvenir environment. One could say that traditional places are places that have been ignored in the nation building process and have become dependent territories unable to generate their own energy for gaining prosperity. Prosperity has to be invented, imagined, sought after and gained. It simply does not descend from above. Steps have to be taken to invent the future of a traditional environment.

This case study relates to a silk-route settlement called Leh located deep inside the Himalayas at an altitude of over 12,000 feet (3000 meters) above sea level. It is inhabited almost entirely by Buddhists belonging to the Tibetan Mahayana branch. There are a smaller number of Muslim families who inhabit the larger settlements and the villages that are located on the border with Pakistan. Leh is the regional capital of the region known as Ladakh, which borders both Western Tibet presently in China and Pakistan. Ladakh, like all neglected regions that are made more attractive with the suffix “traditional” has been ruled for the last fifty years with policies that address the administrative needs of the government and not the real needs of the inhabitants. Our study to determine these real needs was commissioned by the government to prepare an action plan for the period 1989 - 2009.

A large team of experts, which focused on macroeconomics, microeconomics, tourism, community health, social structures, master planning, and heritage listing and conservation strategies, evaluated these needs. From these evaluations, some startling conclusions were drawn based on which a prescription was made for future prosperity. The findings of each discipline were overlaid on each other to provide the vital clues for a correct diagnosis of the settlement as a whole including its surrounding region. Some of the more important findings will be presented along with recommendations that need to be followed. The most significant broad proposal that emerged out of the study was the need to redefine the development track for the region. We found that the rapid changes that are taking place in the social fabric were due to the rapid move of resources into the tertiary (service) sector. The consequences of this could be seen in the wheeling dealing and accusations of corruption that dominated all conversations and interviews. Consequently we warned the administration not to remain indifferent to this trend and to take urgent steps to restore the production base of the region and to discourage investment in the tertiary sector. The methodologies developed during this study were later used in a number of successful development reorientation strategies in other regions.

Details

Open House International, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article

Zhenghong Peng and Bin Song

The purpose of this paper is to define a new method (grey relational analysis (GRA)) for extracting pattern samples of dissolved gases in power transformer oil, then a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to define a new method (grey relational analysis (GRA)) for extracting pattern samples of dissolved gases in power transformer oil, then a hybrid algorithm of the back‐propagation (BP) network and fuzzy genetic algorithm‐artificial neural network (FGA‐ANN) is used to power transformer fault diagnosis based on extracted pattern samples.

Design/methodology/approach

The existing manners (e.g. international electro technical commission triple‐ratio method), in practice, have certain faultiness due to the ambiguity of the inference and insufficient standard for judgment. So GRA method is chosen to solve a problem of optimal pattern samples data, then a hybrid algorithm of the BP network and FGA‐ANN is developed to optimize initial weights and to enable fast convergence of the BP network, and lastly, this algorithm is applied to the classification of dissolved gas analysis (DGA) data and power transformer fault diagnosis.

Findings

If possible, the results should be accompanied by significance. For comparative studies, the proposed scheme does not require the three ratio code and high diagnosis accuracy is obtained. In addition, useful information is provided for future fault trends and multiple faults analysis.

Research limitations/implications

Accessibility and availability of data are the main limitations which model will be applied.

Practical implications

This paper provides useful advice for power transformer fault diagnosis method based on DGA data.

Originality/value

The new method of optimal choice of options of pattern samples due to GRA. The paper is aimed at optimized samples data classified and abandons the traditional ratio method.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 39 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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