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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2019

Björn A. Hüttel, Zelal Ates, Jan Hendrik Schumann, Marion Büttgen, Stephanie Haager, Marcin Komor and Julian Volz

This paper aims to investigate the influence of individual customer characteristics on frontline employees’ (FLEs) customer need knowledge (CNK), a construct that…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the influence of individual customer characteristics on frontline employees’ (FLEs) customer need knowledge (CNK), a construct that objectively measures FLEs’ ability to accurately identify a given customer’s hierarchy of needs.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses hierarchical data involving the customer and bank advisor levels in the banking sector of three European countries. The matched sample consisted of 1,166 customers and 332 employees. To account for the nested structure of the data, the study used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) using HLM software.

Findings

The results show that customers’ financial experience and risk aversion positively influence CNK and customer-perceived responsibility for the service outcome negatively impacts CNK. The results further show the impact of individual customer cultural values on CNK, which can be influenced by customer-oriented employee training. Cross-level interaction effects indicate that training measures can reverse negative influences of customers’ high power distance and uncertainty avoidance on CNK, whereas for customers characterized by high long-term orientations, training measures can backfire.

Originality/value

This study contributes to research on the antecedents of FLEs’ CNK by examining the currently overlooked influence of individual customer characteristics that are pertinent to the employee–customer interaction process. The study reveals customer characteristics as a new area of antecedents influencing FLEs’ accurate perceptions of customer needs.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Olga L. Clark and Benjamin M. Walsh

Research has consistently shown that organizational constraints lead to deviant behavioral reactions. Although many studies have investigated personality variables as…

Abstract

Purpose

Research has consistently shown that organizational constraints lead to deviant behavioral reactions. Although many studies have investigated personality variables as moderators of such predictors of deviance, considerably less research has considered cross-level moderators of these effects. The purpose of this paper is to draw on several related theories to test team civility climate as a cross-level moderator of the organizational constraints – interpersonal deviance relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using paper-and-pencil surveys from 239 employees nested within 68 work teams. Teams were employed in various industries including healthcare, insurance, manufacturing/engineering, and financial services.

Findings

Results from hierarchical linear modeling analyses demonstrated that the effect of organizational constraints on interpersonal deviance varied significantly across teams. In addition, the positive relationship between organizational constraints and interpersonal deviance was attenuated in teams with a high civility climate.

Practical implications

Organizational constraints may be difficult to eliminate in many workplaces. However, results suggest that by developing a positive civility climate, teams can help prevent deviant behaviors that may be associated with experienced constraints.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to examine civility climate as a shared property of the team and as a cross-level moderator. Findings from this research contribute to theories of deviant organizational behavior by highlighting the critical role of variables emanating from levels of analysis beyond the individual.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Yi-Ying Chang

The purpose of this paper is to test a multilevel model, supported by an ambidexterity perspective, to examine the process linking high-performance work systems (HPWS) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test a multilevel model, supported by an ambidexterity perspective, to examine the process linking high-performance work systems (HPWS) and organizational ambidexterity using both unit- and firm-level analyses.

Design/methodology/approach

The author collected multisource and multilevel data from 346 employees and 184 managers of 33 electronic engineering firms.

Findings

The results revealed that unit HPWS were positively related to unit organizational ambidexterity. The author considers that the role of firm-level transformational leadership (TFL) is to create a climate of autonomy that can be delegated to promote organizational ambidexterity within units. Furthermore, a firm-level empowerment climate moderates the effect of unit-level HPWS on a unit’s organizational ambidexterity. The author contributes to the research on leadership and ambidexterity by revealing the impact of HPWS as experienced in the unit- and of firm-level TFL. The author also identify boundary conditions for pursuing unit organizational ambidexterity.

Originality/value

Responding to the call for more research into the effects of the empowerment climate on employees’ behaviors and the behavioral outcomes of employees, this research reveals that not only is the macro perspective of HPWS at the organizational level useful to promote ambidextrous activities at lower levels, but also that the unit experience of HPWS more directly affects employees’ behaviors in engaging in the search for new opportunities for new products/services and refining current products simultaneously at the unit level. The broader implication is that the effectiveness of HPWS as an antecedent for organizational ambidexterity (Gibson and Birkinshaw, 2004; Kang and Snell, 2009) depends on the unit experience of HPWS being used to influence autonomous employees to actively undertake ambidextrous activities at the unit level.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2018

Yi-Ying Chang, Wei-Chung Chao, Che-Yuan Chang and Hui-Ru Chi

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of mediation and moderation mechanisms between firm-level effects of transformational leadership (TFL) on unit-level…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of mediation and moderation mechanisms between firm-level effects of transformational leadership (TFL) on unit-level performance across levels.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used surveys to collect data from 800 senior managers at the firm level and 1,377 unit managers from 800 units of 100 firms from semiconductors, optoelectronics, computer electronics, and telecommunications industries. The industries were chosen because these firms focus on expanding their businesses and encourage extensive knowledge sharing among the firms and at all levels within the organizations.

Findings

In this study, the authors theorized that firm-level effects of TFL on unit-level performance across levels were positively related to unit-level performance. Unit-level knowledge sharing mediates the positive relationship between firm-level TFL and unit-level performance. A cross-level interaction effect of firm-level TFL and unit-level absorptive capacity showed that a positive unit-level absorptive capacity enhanced firm-level influence of TFL on unit-level knowledge sharing. Unit-level absorptive capacity moderates the positive relationship between unit-level knowledge sharing and unit-level performance.

Originality/value

First, the authors attempt to integrate the leadership and knowledge management research by exploring the critical mediator of unit-level knowledge sharing in explaining the effects of firm-level TFL on employees’ performance at the unit level. This approach is important because it extends the research areas of the two fields, and also clarifies issues regarding how and why TFL at the top of the organization positively impacts the performance of employees at a lower level of the organizational hierarchy. Second, the effectiveness of firm-level TFL depends on the absorptive capacity of each unit. The importance of absorptive capacity and the consequences of leadership behaviors have been emphasized in studies.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Liang-Chih Huang, David Ahlstrom, Amber Yun-Ping Lee, Shu-Yuan Chen and Meng-Jung Hsieh

Given the importance of high performance work systems (HPWS) with respect to firm competitive advantage, this paper holds that the contribution of HPWS toward the desired…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the importance of high performance work systems (HPWS) with respect to firm competitive advantage, this paper holds that the contribution of HPWS toward the desired outcomes for organizations may depend significantly on employee job involvement. Underpinning the argument of happy workers being productive, the purpose of this paper is to propose the critical mediator of employee well-being to explain the hypothesized multilevel relationship between HPWS and job involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors distributed questionnaires to the target participants. Data collected from 451 employees and 50 HR managers/professionals of 50 firms in the three major industrial categories of manufacturing, finance, and service in Taiwan.

Findings

This study identifies the significance of employee well-being by incorporating the theories of planned behavior and positive psychology and provides empirical evidence for the cross-level influence of HPWS on employee well-being and job involvement.

Originality/value

This study incorporates the perspective of positive psychology as an important addition to research on SHRM and performance by highlighting employee well-being as a key mediator of SHRM and job involvement.

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Yi-Ying Chang, Che-Yuan Chang and Chung-Wen Chen

The purpose of this paper is to examine how transformational leadership may relate to corporate entrepreneurship by adopting a multilevel approach. The authors also…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how transformational leadership may relate to corporate entrepreneurship by adopting a multilevel approach. The authors also theorized and tested the top-down and bottom-up intermediate process linking transformational leadership and corporate entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

Multisource data across different timeframes were collected from 129 managers and 244 employees from 55 units of 27 firms.

Findings

The results showed that transformational leadership and corporate entrepreneurship were positively related at the unit level. Furthermore, unit-level collective efficacy mediated the relationship between unit-level transformational leadership and unit-level corporate entrepreneurship. The authors also found that the firm-level empowerment climate moderated the indirect effect of unit-level collective efficacy on the relationship between unit transformational leadership and unit-level corporate entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

First, the goal of this study is to extend the single focus of transformational leadership on corporate entrepreneurship (e.g. Ling et al., 2008) and develop a more thoughtful approach on determining how transformational leaders influence corporate entrepreneurship across levels. This study responds to calls for research to look at the impact of unit-level transformational leaders, such as middle managers, across levels (Ren and Guo, 2011) and creates a multilevel framework in which transformational leaders at the unit level influence the appearance of corporate entrepreneurship at the unit level.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2019

Jun (Justin) Li and Jong-Hyeong Kim

This paper aims to investigate the corporate-level determinants (i.e. management commitment) of work ability. It also examined whether mid-level contextual variables…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the corporate-level determinants (i.e. management commitment) of work ability. It also examined whether mid-level contextual variables intensify the relationship between management commitment and the work ability of senior casino dealers.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-level hierarchical analysis of data from 432 casino dealers from 16 casinos was performed to determine the proportion of variance in the dependent variable when the explanatory variables were at varying hierarchical levels.

Findings

The findings suggest that management commitment has a positive and significant impact on frontline dealers’ work ability. Furthermore, supervisor support and group trust have moderating effects on the relationship between management commitment and dealers’ work ability.

Research limitations/implications

The current study provides important information on how to increase the ability of aging dealer to remain active and learn new skills.

Originality/value

Work ability has received substantial attention from recent studies of human resources because of its close relationship to employee job skills and competencies. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no conceptual model explains the role of work ability role in promoting and updating human resources management practices and policies.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

Vishwanath V. Baba and Farimah HakemZadeh

The purpose of this paper is to integrate existing body of knowledge on evidence‐based management, develop a theory of evidence, and propose a model of evidence‐based…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate existing body of knowledge on evidence‐based management, develop a theory of evidence, and propose a model of evidence‐based decision making.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a literature review, the paper takes a conceptual approach toward developing a theory of evidence and a process model of decision making. Formal research propositions amplify both theory and model.

Findings

The paper suggests that decision making is at the heart of management practice. It underscores the importance of both research and experiential evidence for making professionally sound managerial decisions. It argues that the strength of evidence is a function of its rigor and relevance manifested by methodological fit, relevance to the context, transparency of its findings, replicability of the evidence, and the degree of consensus within the decision community. A multi‐stage mixed level model of evidence‐based decision making is proposed with suggestions for future research.

Practical implications

An explicit, formal, and systematic collaboration at the global level among the producers of evidence and its users akin to the Cochrane Collaboration will ensure sound evidence, contribute to decision quality, and enable professionalization of management practice.

Originality/value

The unique value contribution of this paper comes from a critical review of the evidence‐based management literature, the articulation of a formal theory of evidence, and the development of a model for decision making driven by the theory of evidence.

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2020

Khalid Mehmood, Yan Li, Fauzia Jabeen, Ali Nawaz Khan, Shouming Chen and Gulfam Khan Khalid

Emotions and emotional labor play a crucial role in professional interactions. Due to the increasing participation share of women managers in the workforce, especially in…

Abstract

Purpose

Emotions and emotional labor play a crucial role in professional interactions. Due to the increasing participation share of women managers in the workforce, especially in the customer-oriented service context, this study adopts a multilevel approach and mobilizes person–job fit theory to investigate whether the emotional labor of female managers influences the association between customer orientation and job satisfaction in frontline employees in a services setting.

Design/methodology/approach

The participants were 124 immediate female managers working in bank branches and their 896 customer-facing employees in China.

Findings

The results show that the positive relationship between customer orientation and job satisfaction in frontline employees is strengthened by increases in female managers' deep acting, but it is weakened with the increase in their surface acting.

Research limitations/implications

The study findings provide support for scholars and financial service organizations as they seek to better understanding the dynamics behind the mobilization of women's emotions and their extent. In term of limitations, the data were taken from a single type of organization located in the northern cities of China, so it can be expected that the findings of this study will not generalize to all contexts.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to investigate female managers' emotional labor employing a cross-level analysis in financial services setting.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2007

Remus Ilies, Irene E. De Pater and Tim Judge

The paper aims to examine, first, how performance feedback influences positive and negative affect within individuals across negative and positive feedback range, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine, first, how performance feedback influences positive and negative affect within individuals across negative and positive feedback range, and secondly, whether self‐esteem moderates individuals' affective reactions to feedback.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 197 undergraduate students completed an 8‐trial experiment. For each trial, participants performed a task, received performance feedback, and were subsequently asked to report their affective state. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test the hypothesized within‐ individual effects and the cross‐level moderating role of self‐esteem.

Findings

Performance feedback did influence both positive and negative affect within individuals and feedback indicating goal non‐attainment (i.e. negative feedback) increased negative affect more than it reduced positive affect. The data offered some support for the prediction with respect to the moderating role of self‐esteem derived from self‐enhancement theory.

Research limitations / implications

The laboratory design and student sample are limitations with the study. However, the nature of our research question justifies an initial examination in a controlled, laboratory setting. Our findings may stimulate researchers to further investigate the role of affect and emotions in behavioral self‐regulation.

Originality/value

This study furthers research on reactions to feedback by examining the feedback‐affect process within individuals across time. Multiple dimensions of affect were considered and positive and negative feedback continua were examined separately.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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