Search results

1 – 10 of 849
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 October 2019

Tony Yan and Michael R. Hyman

Studies on cross-culture marketing often focus on either localization or globalization strategies. Based on data from pre-communist China (1912–1949), product…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies on cross-culture marketing often focus on either localization or globalization strategies. Based on data from pre-communist China (1912–1949), product hybridization – defined as a process or strategy that generates symbols, designs, behaviors and cultural identities that blend local and global elements – emerges as a popular intermediate strategy worthy of further inquiry. After examining the mechanisms and processes underlying this strategy, a schema for classifying product hybridization strategies is developed and illustrated. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Critical historical research method is applied to historical data and historical “traces” from pre-communist China’s corporate documents, memoirs, posters, advertisements, newspapers and secondhand sources.

Findings

Strategic interactions between domestic and foreign companies in pre-communist China fostered products and a city (Shanghai) containing Chinese and non-Chinese elements. Informed by historical traces and data from pre-communist China (1912-1949), a 2 × 2 classification schema relating company type (i.e. foreign or domestic) to values spectrum endpoint (i.e. domestic vs foreign) was formulated. This schema reflects the value of communication, negotiation and cultural (inter)penetration that accompanies cross-culture product flows.

Research limitations/implications

Cross-culture marketing strategies meant to help companies satisfy diverse marketplace interests can induce a mélange of product design elements. Because product hybridization reflects reciprocity between domestic and foreign companies that embodies multiple interests and contrasting interpretations of product meanings, researchers should examine globalization and localization synergistically.

Practical implications

Strategies adopted by domestic and foreign companies in pre-communist China (1912–1949) can help contemporary companies design effective cross-culture marketing strategies in a global marketplace infused with competing meanings and interests.

Originality/value

Examining historical strategies adopted in pre-communist China (1912–1949) can inform contemporary marketers’ intuitions. Understanding product hybridization in global marketplaces can improve marketing efficiency.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Rama Prasad Kanungo

In recent years multi‐cultural practices and values have become significantly conspicuous in corporate business. Cultures and managerial values become co‐terminous when…

Downloads
20623

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years multi‐cultural practices and values have become significantly conspicuous in corporate business. Cultures and managerial values become co‐terminous when organisations cross boundaries. The synergy between corporate culture and managerial values institutes cross‐cultural practices garnering effective strategic options, helping to perform a set task successfully. This has a far‐fetching effect on what people in different cultures perceive and how these cultural values affect business affairs in an altogether different environment. In essence, organisational practices are based on culture and most organisations avoid cultural risks to manage their businesses. Skills, capabilities, knowledge, technology and experiences are better facilitated by a cross‐cultural approach, particularly in geo‐centric organisations. This paper aims to discuss the phenomenon as a global norm, with the implication of its effect on business practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach adopted in this paper is based on the critical review and discussion of extant literature emphasising the effect of cross‐culture on business practices in a culture‐specific environment.

Findings

The paper illustrates how business practices and managerial values are functional to cultural synergy.

Research limitations/implications

Irrespective of the significant effect of cross‐culture on business practices, it has been challenged by many contradictions, paradoxes and conflicts that have not been reviewed in this paper.

Originality/value

The paper outlines the interconectedness of cross cultural business practices and managerial values.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

David Starr-Glass

This article, which is exploratory in nature, considers the experiences of migrant students enrolled in the transnational degree program of an accredited American college…

Abstract

Purpose

This article, which is exploratory in nature, considers the experiences of migrant students enrolled in the transnational degree program of an accredited American college located in the Czech Republic. Migrant students have considerable experience in negotiating the different national cultures of their college and of the new country in which they live. Students, participating in a Cross-culture Management course, were asked to maintain reflective journals in which they recorded their experiences of national culture difference. The purpose was to encourage consideration, reflection, and the growing internalization of cross-cultural appreciation and negotiation.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were asked to maintain reflective journals during the semester, in which they identified and considered critical incidents and defining issues in their cross-cultural experiences. Journals were analyzed from an inductive phenomenological perspective with no preconceived imposition of structure, although participants had been informed that the root-metaphor of the journal should be that of “journeys”. Ten emergent themes were identified and a number of these, which seemed to impact national culture adaptation, are discussed. In an attempt to retain the authentic voice of participants, verbatim quotations are reproduced in some detail.

Findings

The emergent themes identified give insight into the range of national cultural complexities that these migrant students confronted. Sharing these issues with those who have less national culture experience might increase their understanding of the adaption process. More importantly, the journal increased reflection, prompted deeper sensemaking, and allowed participants to articulate their experiences. Making explicit their own cultural adaption problems may also be beneficial for these participants.

Originality/value

Cross-culture education has often taken a didactic approach that emphasized teaching and learning. The reflective journal focuses on an experiential approach to making sense of cultural experience. From a learner perspective, the use of a reflective journal stimulates reflection and contributes to resolution. From an instructor perspective, journals provide valuable insight into issues significant in a developing awareness of a national culture. Journals also provide an unrecognized insight into the personal experiences of international and transnational students that may have implications in their general learning and broader education.

Details

Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Pamela Zapata-Sepúlveda, Phiona Stanley, Mirliana Ramírez-Pereira and Michelle Espinoza-Lobos

The purpose of this paper is to present a collaborative (auto)ethnography that has emerged from the meeting of four academic researchers working with and from the heart in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a collaborative (auto)ethnography that has emerged from the meeting of four academic researchers working with and from the heart in various Latin American contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

Our “I’s” have mingled with our very varied participations in different themes, latitudes, and disciplines – health, education and psychosocial approaches. We have worked, variously, in both English and Spanish. At the core of this piece are our own biographies, motivations, senses, academic dreams, international contexts, and the injustices and suffering felt in our bodies.

Findings

We seek to reflect from our experience of traveling as young researchers and as women with Latin souls. Through our stories, we show how crossing cultures as part of our research and work gives us both a privileged position but also the constant stress and questioning that goes beyond the intellectual and appears in our embodied experiences of interculturality.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this piece of research is that it is based on personal experiences, that although there may be people who feel identified with these experiences, these are not generalizable or transferable.

Practical implications

Performative autoethnography is an instance to understand the world like a crisol with different faces; self, social, cultural and methodology, which allows us to understand the world from a holistic perspective.

Social implications

With this paper, we hope to contribute for other women in academia to see themselves reflected in the experience of moving through a globalized world.

Originality/value

Through both living in and reflecting on this process, we show how our experiences provide us with new, intercultural “worlds under construction.”

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 October 2018

Rania Kamla and Naoko Komori

The purpose of this paper is to break the silence surrounding the politics of translation that influence cross-language/cultural accounting research. It gives due…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to break the silence surrounding the politics of translation that influence cross-language/cultural accounting research. It gives due consideration to the ways in which translation gaps are produced and re-produced in qualitative interdisciplinary accounting research (IAR).

Design/methodology/approach

First, the authors discuss backstage insights and the authors’ own life experiences vis-à-vis translating cross-cultural/language research. The authors provide a critical self-reflection on the process as non-Western female researchers publishing in English-language accounting journals. Second, the authors carry out a content analysis to examine reported translation practices in three long-established interdisciplinary accounting journals from 2015 to 2017. The conclusion integrates these analyses to discuss the reproduction process of the translation gap in accounting research and its outcomes.

Findings

The study identifies inherent contradictions in IAR and its emancipatory agenda, where translation gaps are structural outcomes of overlaps between the politics of translation and the politics of publishing IAR. The study highlights the IAR community’s lack of awareness regarding political and methodological sensitivities in dealing with particularities in cultural contexts. The authors argue that this reflects the institutional norms for publishing in IAR, which contributes to neutralising cultural diversity and complex translation processes in the name of objectivity. This could ultimately lead to further marginalisation of non-Western cultural knowledge and values, while producing academic “elites” within the IAR community, meanwhile missing opportunities for innovation.

Originality/value

By opening the “black box” pertaining to translation gaps in the context of cross-language/cultural accounting research, the study calls for IAR scholars to help raise awareness of their role and identity as “cultural brokers”.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 July 2021

Nahla Mohamed Moussa

As there are many Arab students seek to earn an international degree, this research article aims to explore the factors that influence Arab students' adaptation to the…

Abstract

Purpose

As there are many Arab students seek to earn an international degree, this research article aims to explore the factors that influence Arab students' adaptation to the foreign cross-culture of the USA and how it is related to their academic achievement. Exploring these factors will introduce different insights into the effectiveness of adaptation and studying in a foreign country and earning an international degree. Besides, this study contributes to the body of knowledge of international higher education by including Arab students as a less-researched group. Arab students' adaptation process is explained in terms of the Cross-cultural Adaptation Theory (Kim, 2001).

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative research study was conducted using a focus group discussion (FGD). Multiple face-to-face interviews were conducted to obtain data from the participants. Participants were divided into four groups, each female group contained nine participants and each male group contained seven participants. The researcher explained to each group independently about their perception, beliefs and attitude toward earning international degrees, the adaptation to the host culture and their academic achievement. The researcher carried out five FGDs for each group. Each interview continued for 60 minutes in length. All participants received a consent form. The discussions were audio-recorded and then transcribed.

Findings

Arab students are a group of enthusiastic learners; however, their feelings of homesickness enable them to develop overwhelming sorrowful emotions, howbeit their communication with their ethnic group facilitates the adaption and acceptance of the host cultures, which requires quite some time to adjust to new surroundings. Arab students are recognized with high academic achievements; nevertheless, they require prolonged periods to complete course assignments. American society gives international students a warm welcome; this may encourage other Arab students to consider earning an American degree and prepare themselves for this intercultural transition.

Research limitations/implications

This is subjective qualitative data; some limitations need to be addressed when interpreting the findings. Participants are English as a Second Language (ESL)learners, which may influence their word choice during the discussion. Interesting future research could be related to designing an assessment model to evaluate the academic achievement of ESL in different methods that focus on their achievement motivations and communication skills.

Practical implications

Based on the findings, professors can integrate the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) to help multi-cultural students to learn and earn an international higher education degree.

Social implications

Higher education institutions can offer more social multi-cultural opportunities to include multi-cultural students and develop their social skills to facilitate the adaptation process to the new host culture.

Originality/value

This qualitative research study represents an original work of the researcher, and it has not submitted elsewhere. All research ethical codes were followed by the researcher and participants. There is no fund for this research project.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Michal Perlstein and Sylwia Ciuk

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to cross culture training (CCT) literature by exploring the HR managers roles in CCT provision and the reasons affecting the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to cross culture training (CCT) literature by exploring the HR managers roles in CCT provision and the reasons affecting the given role enactment.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory study is based on in-depth interviews with 15 Israeli HR managers in charge of the provision of CCT in their respective companies and five interviews with CCT professionals who provide CCT training for a wide range of companies operating in Israel.

Findings

The study highlights the significant impact of HR managers’ awareness and perceptions of CCT on its provision and discusses a related self-perpetuating cycle of current practice reinforcement that limits the likelihood of practice improvement.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the exploratory design of the study call for further research on HR roles in CCT provision.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that HR managers partly design and implement practice according to what they believe are unmet expatriate needs and what they perceive as effective HR tools. The authors discuss the practical value of raising their awareness not only of CCT designs and methodologies, but also of the complexities of expatriate adjustment and the opportunities offered by rigorous evaluation of current practice.

Originality/value

The study departs from the dominant focus in the literature on the content and methodologies of CCT and instead explores the neglected role of HR managers in CCT provision.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 August 2010

Keyong Dong and Ying Liu

The purpose of this paper is to: summarize the major research that has been conducted regarding cross‐cultural issues in China; show the current practices on…

Downloads
31889

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to: summarize the major research that has been conducted regarding cross‐cultural issues in China; show the current practices on cross‐cultural management in Chinese organizations; and then identify future research needs on cross‐cultural management in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Meta‐analysis was carried out to summarize research of cross‐cultural management in China.

Findings

Empirical studies on cross‐cultural management in China have been conducted since the 1990s, and numerous empirical studies have been done in the past two decades across different level of constructs and practices (individual, group and organization). Among all the intercultural research concerning China, there are mainly two common types: the first type focuses on foreign managers and employees, center on their adjustment and performance in Chinese culture; and the second type of study examines Chinese who work with these foreigners in the multinational management setting. Furthermore, in recent years, emphases have been shifted from examining the effects of culture on single variables to examining the relationships among same and different level of variables.

Research limitations/implications

Systematic conceptual model development and assessment of important topics are in great need. Although there is an increasing amount of comparative studies being done in China, very few studies have been conducted to study Chinese firms that are doing business abroad, which represents one of the most critical problems in the field of cross‐cultural management research in China. Most studies focus on cultural value identification and practical issues in Western global companies, which is concerned with comparison between Eastern and Western culture. Research should be conducted to study cultural differences among eastern countries, for example, countries in Asia.

Practical implications

Future cross‐culture management practices in China should follow several basic principles: be applicable, that is, build unique organizational culture that is embedded in the host country; be practical, since there is no well‐developed multinational culture in China, new culture should be concerned with both sides; be systematic, cross‐culture management practices should have supporting system; be equal, no single culture is better than another; cultural penetration, two different cultures have mutual impact; merit‐based appointment and promotion, use local personnel, not just talents from the home country. In Chinese settings, the most common cross‐cultural management interventions include: cross‐cultural training, cross‐cultural communication system and unified organizational culture.

Originality/value

This paper comprehensively reviews the research and practices on cross‐cultural management in China; identifies topics that have been studied in individual, group and organizational level. Implications on cross‐cultural selection, training are provided based research evidence.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Katarina L. Matthes, Christine A. Zuberbuehler, Sabine Rohrmann, Christina Hartmann, Michael Siegrist, Michel Burnier, Murielle Bochud, Marcel Zwahlen, Nicole Bender and Kaspar Staub

Cross-cultural studies on differences in eating and consumer behavior have several limitations due to differences between countries, for example, in national health…

Abstract

Purpose

Cross-cultural studies on differences in eating and consumer behavior have several limitations due to differences between countries, for example, in national health policies. Switzerland combines cultural diversity between the language regions, but with a common national health policy. Therefore, Switzerland provides an ideal framework to investigate cross-cultural eating and consumer behavior. The aim of this study was to combine food consumption, purchase data and sales data to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of cultural dietary differences.

Design/methodology/approach

Six national Swiss studies on food consumption, one study of food sales from the largest supermarket chain in Switzerland and one national study of food purchasing were included. The estimated marginal mean of each food category in each language region was calculated using linear regression and respective linear random effect models.

Findings

In the French- and Italian-speaking regions more fish was sold, bought and consumed than in the German-speaking region of Switzerland. In contrast, in the German-speaking region, more milk and dairy products were sold, bought and consumed. Language regions explained sales, purchase and consumption of foods, but the findings were only consistent for fish and milk and dairy products.

Originality/value

If possible limitations of cross-culture studies between countries are eliminated, cultural eating and consumer differences are still visible, even in a small country like Switzerland. For the first time, the complexity of studying food consumption, purchasing and sales is shown in one study. This indicates the importance of further studies which consider these three perspectives to better understand cultural differences in eating and consumption behavior.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Hina Munir, Sidra Ramzan, Miao Wang, Yasir Rasool, Muhammad Saleem Sumbal and Asim Iqbal

Drawing on the entrepreneurial event model (EEM), entrepreneurship education programs (EEPs) and perceived contextual support (adapted from social cognitive career theory…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the entrepreneurial event model (EEM), entrepreneurship education programs (EEPs) and perceived contextual support (adapted from social cognitive career theory) and perceived contextual barriers, this study aims to unravel the differences in entrepreneurial activity among university students in higher education institutes in two diverse Asian countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a cross-sectional survey-based data collection technique using paper and electronic methods. The study analyzes data using descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, reliability analysis and logistic regression analysis via SPSS version 25.

Findings

The findings show the positive influence of perceived desirability and feasibility on entrepreneurial intentions; however, the stronger desirability was found among university students in China and stronger feasibility toward entrepreneurial intentions among Pakistani students. The study reveals the negative significant influence of EEPs on entrepreneurial intentions, and this finding is consistent across both samples. Furthermore, the findings show that university students in both countries show insignificant impact of perceived contextual support in predicting entrepreneurial intentions. Finally, the study confirms the negative influence of perceived barriers on entrepreneurial intentions in both contexts.

Originality/value

This study provides differences in entrepreneurial activity by combing EEM, EEPs, perceived contextual support and barriers in two diverse Asian countries, and to the best of author’s knowledge, no previous study considered these factors in a single framework. Furthermore, the findings of the study enrich existing literature and also provide policy recommendations for practitioners.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

1 – 10 of 849