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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Frederik Reinder Hak and Karin Sanders

The purpose of this paper is to argue that the adaptation of the principled negotiation approach within organizations demonstrates similarities with the adaptation of…

1802

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue that the adaptation of the principled negotiation approach within organizations demonstrates similarities with the adaptation of evidence-based management and is the result of cognitive biases and cultural values instead of specific and conscious choices within the adopted negotiation style.

Design/methodology/approach

The adaptation of principled negotiation and evidence-based management are considered as a lack of willingness to be innovative at the organizational level, and when these ideas are introduced will meet resistance.

Findings

The analysis of the principled negotiation approach as an approach which – similar to evidence-based management – is vulnerable to cognitive biases and cultural values offers a solution on how to effectively adapt this approach within organizations.

Research limitations/implications

Implications for research include a research design to test the assumptions of this paper to consider principled negotiations and evidence-based management approaches as innovative approaches.

Practical implications

Organizations and decision makers within organizations can benefit from the analysis in this paper.

Social implications

Companies and parties in a negotiation phase can benefit from the analysis by paying attention to the cognitive biases and cultural values of the other parties rather than paying attention to the first offer and the choices made in the negotiation.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to analyze principled negotiations from an evidence-based management perspective.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2022

Isis Gutiérrez-Martínez, Antonio Sancho y Maldonado, Rodrigo Costamagna and Francois Duhamel

This article analyzes the impact of the national culture, the dependence of the sector of activity on human capital, and the multinational character of the firm involved…

Abstract

Purpose

This article analyzes the impact of the national culture, the dependence of the sector of activity on human capital, and the multinational character of the firm involved, on the degree of implementation of high performance work practices (HPWPs) in Ibero-American companies.

Design/methodology/approach

This quantitative study results from a survey of 614 Ibero-American firms, in 6 different countries. Multiple regressions were performed to test the hypothesis proposed.

Findings

HPWPs for employee recruitment and selection have been frequently implemented in Ibero-American countries. Three factors, i.e. national culture, degree of multinationality, and degree of dependence of the sector of activity on human capital, have a strong influence on the degree of implementation of HPWPs in general, at different degrees. For example, recruitment and selection practices are conditioned by the degree of multinationality, individualism, uncertainty avoidance, and power distance, while they are not influenced by masculinity and by the sector of activity.

Practical implications

HR managers must align the design and execution of HPWPs with the national culture, and with the characteristics of the sector of activity, they belong to. Domestic companies should also aspire to achieve the higher standards of multinational companies for specific HPWPs.

Originality/value

This study, to the authors’ best knowledge, is the first to provide insights into the influence of the three factors mentioned above on the degree of implementation of HPWPs in Ibero-American firms, using multiple regression analysis. The authors examine in this article a larger set of HPWPs than does most of the existing empirical literature.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Mark Brown, Barbara Minsky, Richard Voss and Eren Ozgen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between countries’ values of individualism/collectivism and organizations’ top management team (TMT) pay…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between countries’ values of individualism/collectivism and organizations’ top management team (TMT) pay structures. Individualistic countries are expected to prefer more hierarchical TMT pay structures and collectivist countries are expected to prefer more egalitarian TMT pay structures. The manuscript also investigates the international implications of the relation between TMT pay structures and organizational performance. Specifically, it is proposed that a country’s level of individualism/collectivism will mediate the relation between TMT pay structure hierarchy and organizational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A pooled sample of data from 56 organizations in 12 countries was used to investigate the research questions. Individualism/collectivism was measured using country specific individualism/collectivism scores and top management pay structures were operationalized using Gini coefficients. Organizational performance was evaluated using return on assets.

Findings

Support was found both for a preference for more hierarchical TMT pay structures in individualistic countries, and that a country’s level of individualism/collectivism mediates the relationship between an organization’s top management’s pay structure and company performance.

Originality/value

Findings demonstrate that organizations use pay structures consistent with their environments. Results suggest cultural dimensions can contribute to understanding cross-national TMT pay structures and that national culture plays a significant role in the relationship between TMT pay structure and company performance.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 July 2020

Ali Aldhaheri

This paper presents a quantitative measurement instrument for Leadership Adaptability.

2054

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents a quantitative measurement instrument for Leadership Adaptability.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative themes are examined, grouped and developed into 13 quantitative statements of Leadership Adaptability. A robust analysis is conducted to understand the relationships and underlying dimensions in the statements. Three types of dimension reduction techniques are employed: principal components analysis and two types of exploratory factor analysis. The instrument is tested in the form of a survey for the first time with public and private school leaders in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi (n = 167).

Findings

The quantitative Leadership Adaptability scale is validated by applying robust tests of dimensionality, validity and reliability. The three dimension reduction tests identified that the 13 statements are measuring a single dimension of Leadership Adaptability, and should therefore be treated as a single homogeneous scale. Reliability analyses further confirmed the results of the dimension reduction results, with a high score for Cronbach's alpha of 0.953, classified as an “excellent” level of reliability. Discriminant validity tests of the 13 statements, analysed alongside the 20-item Cultural Intelligence Scale, further confirmed the statements as being a distinct scale. Applying the instrument to Abu Dhabi school leaders showed they have high levels of adaptability.

Originality/value

This paper presents the first known quantitative measurement instrument for understanding Leadership Adaptability. This instrument addresses a need by developing a quantitative tool for researchers studying Leadership Adaptability, and it can be used to facilitate further exploration of this topic.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

Details

Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Pedro Rey-Biel, Roman Sheremeta and Neslihan Uler

We study how giving depends on income and luck, and how culture and information about the determinants of others’ income affect this relationship. Our data come from an…

Abstract

We study how giving depends on income and luck, and how culture and information about the determinants of others’ income affect this relationship. Our data come from an experiment conducted in two countries, the USA and Spain – each of which have different beliefs about how income inequality arises. We find that when individuals are informed about the determinants of income, there are no cross-cultural differences in giving. When uninformed, however, Americans give less than the Spanish. This difference persists even after controlling for beliefs, personal characteristics, and values.

Details

Experimental Economics and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-819-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Pak K. Auyeung, Ron Dagwell, Chew Ng and John Sands

This study is an exploratory examination of cultural differences in accounting educators’ epistemological beliefs of accounting ethics education. It is motivated by a…

1075

Abstract

This study is an exploratory examination of cultural differences in accounting educators’ epistemological beliefs of accounting ethics education. It is motivated by a renewed global interest in accounting ethics in recent years following the reported breaches of ethical conducts by individuals from different cultures. In Pratt’s model, conceptions of teaching should be an interdependent and internally consistent trilogy of beliefs, intentions and actions. The purpose of this empirical study is to sketch an outline of how accounting ethics education is broadly understood by accounting educators from three different cultural backgrounds, the Anglo‐influenced Australian, the Chinese and the Moslem‐dominated Malaysian. It explores the cross‐cultural variations in their epistemological beliefs of what to teach, objectives to achieve, the ethics educator, and the learning process. Results suggest that Australian and Malaysian accounting educators differed significantly in their epistemological beliefs on the source of knowledge as well as the acquisition of knowledge. Interestingly, there were no significant statistical differences in the epistemological beliefs held by participants in this study concerning other issues in accounting ethics education, i.e. the delivery of ethics education, transferability, goals of ethics education, separate course, and qualification.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Chun Kit Lok

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption…

Abstract

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption behavior of E-payment systems that employ smart card technology becomes a research area that is of particular value and interest to both IS researchers and professionals. However, research interest focuses mostly on why a smart card-based E-payment system results in a failure or how the system could have grown into a success. This signals the fact that researchers have not had much opportunity to critically review a smart card-based E-payment system that has gained wide support and overcome the hurdle of critical mass adoption. The Octopus in Hong Kong has provided a rare opportunity for investigating smart card-based E-payment system because of its unprecedented success. This research seeks to thoroughly analyze the Octopus from technology adoption behavior perspectives.

Cultural impacts on adoption behavior are one of the key areas that this research posits to investigate. Since the present research is conducted in Hong Kong where a majority of population is Chinese ethnicity and yet is westernized in a number of aspects, assuming that users in Hong Kong are characterized by eastern or western culture is less useful. Explicit cultural characteristics at individual level are tapped into here instead of applying generalization of cultural beliefs to users to more accurately reflect cultural bias. In this vein, the technology acceptance model (TAM) is adapted, extended, and tested for its applicability cross-culturally in Hong Kong on the Octopus. Four cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede are included in this study, namely uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, individualism, and Confucian Dynamism (long-term orientation), to explore their influence on usage behavior through the mediation of perceived usefulness.

TAM is also integrated with the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) to borrow two constructs in relation to innovative characteristics, namely relative advantage and compatibility, in order to enhance the explanatory power of the proposed research model. Besides, the normative accountability of the research model is strengthened by embracing two social influences, namely subjective norm and image. As the last antecedent to perceived usefulness, prior experience serves to bring in the time variation factor to allow level of prior experience to exert both direct and moderating effects on perceived usefulness.

The resulting research model is analyzed by partial least squares (PLS)-based Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. The research findings reveal that all cultural dimensions demonstrate direct effect on perceived usefulness though the influence of uncertainty avoidance is found marginally significant. Other constructs on innovative characteristics and social influences are validated to be significant as hypothesized. Prior experience does indeed significantly moderate the two influences that perceived usefulness receives from relative advantage and compatibility, respectively. The research model has demonstrated convincing explanatory power and so may be employed for further studies in other contexts. In particular, cultural effects play a key role in contributing to the uniqueness of the model, enabling it to be an effective tool to help critically understand increasingly internationalized IS system development and implementation efforts. This research also suggests several practical implications in view of the findings that could better inform managerial decisions for designing, implementing, or promoting smart card-based E-payment system.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

Gael M. McDonald and Patrick C.K. Pak

With limited intracultural ethical research in evidence this paper contributes to the theoretical discussion of expatriate ethical acculturation. Of particular interest to…

Abstract

With limited intracultural ethical research in evidence this paper contributes to the theoretical discussion of expatriate ethical acculturation. Of particular interest to this study are the ethical attitudes of subcultural groups, particularly managers, who because of overseas assignment or immigration, are operating outside their usual national location. Research was undertaken to investigate whether ethical divergence or convergence, through acculturation, exists with ex patriate managers, and over what time period. Two locations, Hong Kong and Canada, were chosen for comparative study and the results indicated an interesting dichotomy. Ethical convergence, the adopting of host country ethical values, is evident with Hong Kong Chinese expatriate managers in Canada but did not occur with North American expatriates in Hong Kong. For the expatriate Chinese manager the research findings indicate that Hong Kong Chinese managers now residing in Canada develop a unique set of ethical attitudes that are significantly different from those of local managers in Hong Kong yet also significantly different from the attitudes held by local Canadian managers. A subtle form of ethical convergence is occurring. No significant relationship was found between ethical acculturation and the length of time being an expatriate Hong Kong Chinese manager in Canada except on two issues. For these issues the longer the time spent in Canada the greater the rise in ethical attitudes. A heterogeneous group of expatriate managers in Hong Kong was also evaluated and while predicate similarities existed between expatriates from China and Macau, statistically significant differences in ethical perceptions were found between the general population of expatriate managers (i.e. American, Australasian, British etc.,) and local Hong Kong Chinese managers.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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