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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2009

Ling Deng and Paul Gibson

This paper aims to present an empirically informed model of the underlying factors that enable effective cross‐cultural leadership. It also outlines procedures for using…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an empirically informed model of the underlying factors that enable effective cross‐cultural leadership. It also outlines procedures for using the model to assist expatriate managers to develop the capacities that underlie effective cross‐cultural leadership. The model encompasses the complexity of cross‐cultural leadership issues in China, the importance of having some theoretical knowledge on the topic, and the need to be flexible and pragmatic in applying this knowledge.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework of the factors that interact to produce effective cross‐cultural leadership was developed from the literature. Semi‐structured in‐depth interviews were conducted with 32 Western expatriate managers and 19 local Chinese managers working in Australian businesses operating in Shanghai and Beijing. Within each interview, respondents were asked what they believe are the keys to successful leadership in Australian‐Chinese cross‐cultural workplaces.

Findings

The interviews revealed a core series of cross‐cultural leadership competencies that call upon all three of transformational leadership, emotional intelligence, and cultural intelligence.

Practical implications

The findings and perspectives presented here should assist organizations in their selection and development of expatriate leaders. The paper argues that organizations should focus less upon skills and more upon underlying attitudinal and cognitive enablers.

Originality/value

Whilst most cross‐cultural leadership studies to date have focused on examining and explaining cultural differences and their influence on leadership effectiveness, this paper focuses on individual orientation and capacities.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Vesa Suutari, Kusdi Raharjo and Timo Riikkilä

International assignments are becoming more and more typical parts of a managerial career. As an outcome, cross‐cultural leadership competencies are required within…

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5752

Abstract

International assignments are becoming more and more typical parts of a managerial career. As an outcome, cross‐cultural leadership competencies are required within international companies. Still, real cross‐cultural leadership interaction between expatriate managers and their local subordinates has not been much studied. In the light of this, the goals of the present study were to analyse whether and how expatriate managers adjust their leadership style due to cross‐cultural differences, and whether and how local subordinates perceive the styles of expatriate managers to differ from the styles of local managers after possible adjustments. The data were collected by interviewing Finnish expatriate managers and their Indonesian subordinates in real cross‐cultural business settings with a bicultural interview team.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 7 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 28 April 2020

Saima Ahmad, Syed Fazal-e-hasan and Ahmad Kaleem

This paper empirically addresses the question of whether the meaning of ethical leadership is constant across cultures. Drawing on the implicit leadership theory (ILT), we…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper empirically addresses the question of whether the meaning of ethical leadership is constant across cultures. Drawing on the implicit leadership theory (ILT), we examine whether people in Australia and Pakistan respond to perceived ethical leadership in a similar or different manner. By comparing employees' interpretation of the key attributes associated with ethical leadership, we advance construct-specific knowledge in cross-national contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

Since meaningful cross-country comparisons of a research construct require an equivalent measurement of it, we examine the issue of cross-cultural measurement invariance of ethical leadership. Specifically, this study explores the configural, metric and scalar invariance of ethical leadership by obtaining data from matched international samples.

Findings

The findings broadly support cross-cultural generalisability of the construct's meaning and cross-cultural transferability of the ethical leadership scale (ELS). They suggest that measures of ethical leadership constructs should be used in different cultures with caution because significant differences may exist at the item level.

Originality/value

This study provides cross-cultural endorsement to the construal of ethical leadership by presenting evidence that supports convergence in the construct's meaning across Eastern and Western cultures. The study has enhanced the construct validity of ethical leadership through the use of the refined multiple-sample analytical approach. Previous studies have assumed that measures of ethical leadership are invariant across various contexts. However, this is the first study to employ a robust methodological technique (metric and path invariance) that demonstrates the significant difference between each item and path and generalises the validity of ethical leadership construct and its measures by using international samples.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Guohua He, Yanfei Wang, Xinnian Zheng, Zisheng Guo and Yu Zhu

This study explores how paternalistic leadership (PL) influences Chinese expatriates' work engagement in a cross-cultural context, and examines how expatriates'…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores how paternalistic leadership (PL) influences Chinese expatriates' work engagement in a cross-cultural context, and examines how expatriates' cross-cultural adaptability sets a boundary condition for this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from two-wave surveys of 82 supervisors and 318 Chinese expatriate teachers from 57 Confucius Institutes in 18 countries. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

Benevolent and moral leadership as job resources are negatively related to work–family conflict (WFC), whereas the job demand of authoritarian leadership positively relates to WFC. Further, WFC mediates the effect of PL styles on Chinese expatriates' work engagement. Cross-cultural adaptability moderates the negative relationship between WFC and work engagement, and the indirect effect of PL styles on work engagement through WFC.

Practical implications

Organizations should consider WFC an important intervening mechanism linking PL and Chinese expatriates' work engagement. Cross-cultural organizations can mitigate the negative impact of WFC on work engagement by enhancing expatriates' cross-cultural adaptability.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the PL–work engagement relationship via a work–family interface, which contributes to integrating leadership and work–family outcomes. It enriches research on the JD-R model by showing that job resources and job demands affect employee outcomes through the mediation of stressors. Furthermore, this study identifies a new personal resource by examining cross-cultural adaptability's moderating role.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2019

Katherine C. Cotter and Rebecca J. Reichard

The ability to effectively engage in cross-cultural interactions is imperative for leaders in our increasingly globalized world. Those who possess certain key…

Abstract

The ability to effectively engage in cross-cultural interactions is imperative for leaders in our increasingly globalized world. Those who possess certain key psychological resources are more likely to engage in cross-cultural interactions successfully. Psychological resources include cross-cultural hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism, which together comprise cross-cultural psychological capital (CC PsyCap). Previous research has indicated that CC PsyCap predicts cultural competence, yet the pathways underlying this relationship remain unexplored. We examined the relationships among CC PsyCap, engagement in cross-cultural interactions, stress during cross-cultural interactions, and cultural competence. The hypothesized relationships were tested using a sample of 135 undergraduate students (76% female) participating in study abroad programs. Participants completed measures of cultural competence, CC PsyCap, engagement, and stress approximately one month into their study abroad. Structural equation modeling analyses indicate that CC PsyCap and stress influence cultural competence directly and indirectly through engagement level during cross-cultural interactions. Furthermore, the results suggest that CC PsyCap indirectly influences engagement through stress during cross-cultural interactions. We discuss the implications of these results for people preparing to enter cross-cultural environments.

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

Hui‐Wen Vivian Tang, Mu‐Shang Yin and Darwin B. Nelson

This paper seeks to explore the relationship between the emotional intelligence (EI) and transformational leadership practices of academic leaders in Taiwan and the USA…

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10658

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to explore the relationship between the emotional intelligence (EI) and transformational leadership practices of academic leaders in Taiwan and the USA. It aims to investigate whether cross‐cultural differences exist in academic leaders' EI, leadership practices, and the relationship between them.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs a casual‐comparative approach to draw cross‐cultural comparisons. Convenience samples of 50 academic leaders in Taiwan and 50 in the USA were selected as two comparison sample groups. Two instruments were selected to measure emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness.

Findings

Results of the correlational analyses indicate that Taiwanese participants' overall EI was found to be positively correlated in a statistically significant manner with all five areas of leadership practice. The US participants were found to have statistically significant positive relationships between overall emotional intelligence and all areas of leadership practice except Challenging the process, and Inspiring a shared vision. ANOVA results reveal that significant differences exist in distinct areas of EI and distinct areas of leadership practice as a function of cultural difference.

Research limitations/implications

An important limitation of the present study is the probability of response bias resulting from self‐reported data.

Originality/value

The study has significance in three aspects. First, it investigates a less understood and explored issue: cross‐cultural differences in the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership practices. Second, findings of the study make contributions to the body of research in a number of related disciplines, such as leadership effectiveness, emotional intelligence, cross‐cultural research on leadership, and cross‐cultural studies of emotional intelligence. Third, the results of the study bring significant insights into the field of cross‐cultural leadership development in the academic context.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2018

Pooja B. Vijayakumar, Michael J. Morley, Noreen Heraty, Mark E. Mendenhall and Joyce S. Osland

In this contribution, we systematically review the extant global leadership literature to identify important bibliometric and thematic patterns in evidence in this…

Abstract

In this contribution, we systematically review the extant global leadership literature to identify important bibliometric and thematic patterns in evidence in this evolving field of scholarship. Conceptualizing the phenomenon to include leaders/managers/supervisors who hold global, expatriate, or international positions, we draw out insights accumulated from a total of 327 published articles in key management and organizational behavior journals listed in Scopus. Our analysis proceeds in two sequential phases. Our bibliometric analysis first identifies the most cited articles, most published first authors, country bases of first authors, and frequently publishing journals in this field. This characterizes both the diversity and innovative nature of scholarship in the field. Our thematic content analysis, generated through Nvivo 11, isolates two dominant overarching themes that represent the wellspring for the body of literature, namely global leader development and global leader effectiveness. These themes of development and effectiveness are further explicated through six distinct lenses namely cultural, cognitive, learning, personality trait, social/relational, and political. These lenses are underpinned by a suite of theoretical perspectives encompassing individual, system, and contextual considerations. In combination, these sets of analyses bring added systematics to the field and serve as a point of departure for future inquiry.

Details

Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-297-6

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Book part
Publication date: 6 May 2004

Eduardo Salas, C.Shawn Burke, Jennifer E Fowlkes and Katherine A Wilson

Fostered by technological developments and globalization, culturally diverse teams are becoming a mainstay of organizational strategy. As the use of multi-cultural teams…

Abstract

Fostered by technological developments and globalization, culturally diverse teams are becoming a mainstay of organizational strategy. As the use of multi-cultural teams continues to increase, it becomes paramount to understand the mechanism(s) by which leaders can promote effectiveness within these teams. Despite this need, there are numerous challenges facing those who seek to understand these phenomena and move science and practice forward. The purpose of this chapter is to present a few of these challenges and approaches which can assist in mitigating these challenges. Finally, we identify what we see as key research needs within this area.

Details

Cultural Ergonomics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-049-4

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Amanda Bullough, Fiona Moore and Tugba Kalafatoglu

The purpose of this paper is to address the paradox that represents a shortage of women in management and senior leadership positions around the world, while research has…

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3691

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the paradox that represents a shortage of women in management and senior leadership positions around the world, while research has consistently shown that having women in positions of influence leads to noteworthy organizational benefits, as guest editors for this special issue, the authors provide an overview of four key streams of cross-cultural research on gender – women in international management, anthropology and gender, women’s leadership, and women’s entrepreneurship – which have been fairly well-developed but remain underexplored.

Design/methodology/approach

Each author led the review of the scholarly literature stream that aligned most with personal research areas of expertise, while particularly focusing each literature review on the status of each body of work in relation to the topic of women and gender in international business and management.

Findings

The authors encourage future work on the role of women and gender (including gay, lesbian, and transgender) in cross-cultural management, and the influence of cross-cultural matters on gender. In addition to new research on obstacles and biases faced by women in management, the authors hope to see more scholarship on the benefits that women bring to their organizations.

Practical implications

New research could aim to provide specific evidence-based recommendations for: how organizations and individuals can work to develop more gender diversity in management and senior positions around the world, and encourage more women to start and grow bigger businesses.

Social implications

Scholars can lead progress on important gender issues and contribute to quality information that guides politicians, organizational leaders, new entrants to the workforce.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to cover these topics and review the body of work on cross-cultural research on women in international business and management. The authors hope it serves as a useful launch pad for scholars conducting new research in this domain.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Susan R. Madsen and Robbyn T. Scribner

There is still a lack of understanding why there is little progress when it comes to women seeking and obtaining top management and leadership positions in organizations…

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3069

Abstract

Purpose

There is still a lack of understanding why there is little progress when it comes to women seeking and obtaining top management and leadership positions in organizations today, and this is particularly true within the cross-cultural and international management and leadership contexts. One step forward, however, is to understand current work and trends in research and theory to identify these gaps. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the most recently published literature on the role of gender in management teams within and across cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

This content analysis has examined the most recent literature (i.e. January 1, 2010 to March 1, 2016) in 15 influential academic journals within the cross-cultural and international management field. The study has analyzed 152 primary and 85 secondary articles that met the strict criteria of the study.

Findings

Results include findings on journals/articles, gender of authors, countries included in data collection, constructs measured, tone of manuscripts (i.e. adverse outcomes associated with gender compared to the neutral/mixed or positive effects), and the theoretical frameworks utilized in the articles.

Research limitations/implications

This analysis will be useful for researchers, theorists, and practitioners in understanding the current knowledge base and in discovering the emerging gaps and needs.

Originality/value

This is the first study of its kind within gender and cross-cultural/international management. The findings clearly show gaps in research and theory that will help guide future work.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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