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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2008

Ching‐Hsiang Liu and Hung‐Wen Lee

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between job satisfaction, family support, learning orientation, organizational socialization and cross‐cultural

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9042

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between job satisfaction, family support, learning orientation, organizational socialization and cross‐cultural training and cross‐cultural adjustment in the proposed model.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative research method was used, and correction and regression were employed. The study undertook a multidimensional approach in its assessment of the adjustment of Taiwanese financial institution expatriates.

Findings

This study found that job satisfaction played an important role in the proposed model of expatriate adjustment in an international assignment. Also found to be of importance was the role of organization socialization.

Research limitations/implications

The conclusions of this study pertain only to Taiwanese financial institution expatriates in the USA, and cannot be generalized for cross‐cultural adjustment in other countries.

Practical implications

Given the associations between job satisfaction and cross‐cultural adjustment, multinationals should ensure that they have human resource policies and practice to support the job satisfaction of expatriates. Modifying socialization policies and practices can have a positive influence on expatriates' adjustment.

Originality/value

This study both replicates and extends previous research on cross‐cultural adjustment. It provides objective information for expatriate selection, management and socialization.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Manli Gu, John Horng Li Tan, Muslim Amin, Md Imtiaz Mostafiz and Ken Kyid Yeoh

This paper aims to address how national culture moderates the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address how national culture moderates the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine the most recent data collected from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) in 2015 from a group of 33 countries. Hofstede's cultural model is used to represent and measure national culture.

Findings

One of the most significant findings from the authors’ two-level regression analysis is that having an interesting job contributes more to job satisfaction in individualistic countries than in collectivist countries. The authors also find that the newly introduced cultural dimension indulgence vs restraint has some significant moderating effect on the relationship between job security, salary, the perceived interest of a job and job satisfaction. Job security also seems to contribute less to job satisfaction in societies that are long-term oriented.

Practical implications

This study provides further support for a more careful, nuanced examination of job motivation theories. Multinational companies should understand the needs of their employees and diversify their compensation packages accordingly. More attention should be paid to job design in individualistic or indulgent-oriented countries to create a satisfying job experience.

Originality/value

The authors examine the most recent data from ISSP and extend the literature by incorporating two additional cultural dimensions from Hofstede's model as moderators.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Jeanine Karin Andreassi, Leanna Lawter, Martin Brockerhoff and Peter J. Rutigliano

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of high-performance human resource practices on job satisfaction across four cultural regions – Asia, Europe, North…

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7242

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of high-performance human resource practices on job satisfaction across four cultural regions – Asia, Europe, North America, and Latin America. High-performance human resource practices were used to predict job satisfaction for each region and then compared to determine significant differences. Hofstede's cultural dimensions were employed as a basis for structuring hypothesized differences across cultural regions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a proprietary industry survey on employee work attitudes. The sample consisted of over 70,000 employees from four large multinational organizations with at least four offices in each of the four regions. Data were analyzed using regression analysis and comparison testing across models.

Findings

There are significant relationships between job characteristics and job satisfaction across all regions of the world, with a sense of achievement universally the most important driver. Although job characteristics impact job satisfaction across all regions, there are significant differences in the relative importance of job characteristics on job satisfaction, consistent with Hofstede's cultural dimensions.

Practical implications

The findings have implications for tailoring human resource management practices across locations within multinationals.

Originality/value

This research is believed to be the first cross-cultural study of human resource practices affecting job satisfaction using multiple organizations and industries.

Details

Cross Cultural Management, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Muhammad Awais Bhatti, Mohammed Alshagawi, Ahmad Zakariya and Ariff Syah Juhari

Globalization has brought many challenges to organizations, namely, in managing the performance of multicultural workforces to achieve organizational objectives. Past…

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1205

Abstract

Purpose

Globalization has brought many challenges to organizations, namely, in managing the performance of multicultural workforces to achieve organizational objectives. Past researchers have highlighted many factors that influence the employee’s performance, but the nature and scope of these factors is limited to the conventional setting. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework to better understand the role of the psychological diversity climate, HRM practices and personality traits (Big Five) in job satisfaction and performance of the multicultural workforce.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 258 faculty members working in Saudi Arabia’s higher educational sector. Structural equation modeling was used with Amos 18 to analyze the data.

Findings

The findings of this study suggest that managers should adopt diversity practices to improve the psychological diversity climate among multicultural workforce. In addition, diversity training and unbiased performance appraisal systems also increase the faculty member’s job satisfaction and performance in multicultural settings. Finally, managers should consider openness to culture and sociability traits while selecting faculty members to work in multicultural settings.

Originality/value

This framework has never been tested in higher educational institutions and in multicultural setting.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 43 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Gwyneth Edwards, Abdulrahman Chikhouni and Rick Molz

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the relative institutional distance of the subsidiary from the multinational enterprise (MNE) headquarters influences job

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the relative institutional distance of the subsidiary from the multinational enterprise (MNE) headquarters influences job satisfaction in the subsidiary. The authors argue that job satisfaction in the MNE subsidiary will be influenced by the institutional distance between the firm’s home (headquarter) and host (subsidiary) countries, such that the greater the institutional distance, the less satisfied the subsidiary employees. The authors also argue that the degree of function interdependence (global vs local roles) will moderate this relationship, such that high interdependence will result in lower job satisfaction as distance increases.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from a global high-tech Canadian MNE, consisting of over 15,000 employees located in 19 subsidiaries, the research undertakes an empirical investigation that identifies if and how job satisfaction varies between countries and tests the influence of subsidiary-level institutional distance from the headquarters on subsidiary-level job satisfaction, using a multilevel model.

Findings

The results demonstrate that subsidiary distance from the headquarters has a complex effect on subsidiary-level job satisfaction; in some distances, no effect is found, while in others, either some or all job satisfaction facets are affected (depending on the distance and facet) in both positive and negative ways. Unlike much of the past research on distance, which has treated distance as a barrier to be overcome or reduce (Stahl et al., 2016), the paper’s finding demonstrate that “negative” distance operates independently (and at varying strengths and significance) than “positive” distance, due to underlying mechanisms.

Research limitations/implications

There is a real opportunity to push ahead on linking international business strategy research with organizational theory and organizational behavior research. To do so, it requires not only a positive organizational scholarship approach (Stahl et al., 2016) but also methods that will allow researchers to study the influence of distance on mechanisms and processes, as opposed to stand-alone variables. The authors therefore suggest that future work in this area pursue qualitative methods as called for by Chapman et al. (2008).

Practical implications

Findings are surprising, in that results vary across job facets and distances. Practitioners need to therefore focus on the mechanisms that influence job satisfaction, not just differences and their potential negative impact.

Originality/value

The firm-level study provides a rich perspective on the complex way in which country-level differences influence subsidiary-level job satisfaction.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2013

Luo Lu, Cary L. Cooper and Hui Yen Lin

The aim of this study was two-fold: first, to examine the noxious effects of presenteeism on employees' work well-being in a cross-cultural context involving Chinese and…

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2108

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was two-fold: first, to examine the noxious effects of presenteeism on employees' work well-being in a cross-cultural context involving Chinese and British employees; second, to explore the role of supervisory support as a pan-cultural stress buffer in the presenteeism process.

Design/methodology/approach

Using structured questionnaires, the authors compared data collected from samples of 245 Chinese and 128 British employees working in various organizations and industries.

Findings

Cross-cultural comparison revealed that the act of presenteeism was more prevalent among Chinese and they reported higher levels of strains than their British counterparts. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that presenteeism had noxious effects on exhaustion for both Chinese and British employees. Moreover, supervisory support buffered the negative impact of presenteeism on exhaustion for both Chinese and British employees. Specifically, the negative relation between presenteeism and exhaustion was stronger for those with more supervisory support.

Practical implications

Presenteeism may be used as a career-protecting or career-promoting tactic. However, the negative effects of this behavior on employees' work well-being across the culture divide should alert us to re-think its pros and cons as a career behavior. Employees in certain cultures (e.g. the hardworking Chinese) may exhibit more presenteeism behaviour, thus are in greater risk of ill-health.

Originality/value

This is the first cross-cultural study demonstrating the universality of the act of presenteeism and its damaging effects on employees' well-being. The authors' findings of the buffering role of supervisory support across cultural contexts highlight the necessity to incorporate resources in mitigating the harmful impact of presenteeism.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Fauziah Noordin and Kamaruzaman Jusoff

One of the main issues that many organizations will face in the coming years is the management of increasing diversity in the workforce. The purpose of this paper is to…

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7965

Abstract

Purpose

One of the main issues that many organizations will face in the coming years is the management of increasing diversity in the workforce. The purpose of this paper is to examine the levels of individualism and collectivism of managers in two different cultural environments, that is, Malaysia and Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected by questionnaire from middle managers in a total of 18 organisations in Malaysia and ten organisations in Australia. Individualism‐collectivism was measured using Singelis et al.'s 32‐item scale. The items in the scale are designed to measure the horizontal and vertical aspects of individualism‐collectivism. The items were answered on seven‐point scale where 1 indicates strong disagreement and 7 indicates strong agreement. In addition, the seven‐item job satisfaction measure, which is part of the Survey of Organizations questionnaire developed by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, was used.

Findings

The study reveals the existence of differences between Malaysian and Australian managers on the level of vertical individualism, horizontal collectivism, and vertical collectivism. In addition, the Australian managers appear to have a significantly higher level of job satisfaction than their counterpart in Malaysia.

Research limitations/implications

Overall, the findings of the present study suggest that there have been significant shifts in value classifications in Malaysia since Hofstede conducted his original study. This finding underscores the fact that, although a nation's work‐related values and attitudes are deep‐seated preferences for certain end states; they are subject to change over the years as external environmental changes shape a society. Therefore, researchers and practitioners should use caution before attempting to use work‐related values and attitudes to understand human behaviours in organizations.

Practical implications

The results of this study may be of interest and assistance to managers of multinational and international organizations who need to manage in global contexts and, therefore, need to understand cultural‐driven differences in personal and interpersonal work‐related conditions between and across nations.

Originality/value

The results of this study provide empirical corroboration of the theoretical perspectives of Singelis et al. on individualism‐collectivism and horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism respectively. In addition, they may be of interest and assistance to managers of multinational and international organizations who need to manage in global contexts and, therefore, need to understand cultural‐driven differences in work attitudes of employees between and across nations. Finally, the study's findings contribute to a growing body of research that illustrates the need to take a multidimensional approach to the study on individualism‐collectivism.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2014

Louis Tay, Vincent Ng, Lauren Kuykendall and Ed Diener

The relationship between demographic factors and worker well-being has garnered increased attention, but empirical studies have shown to inconsistent results. This chapter…

Abstract

The relationship between demographic factors and worker well-being has garnered increased attention, but empirical studies have shown to inconsistent results. This chapter addresses this issue by examining how age, gender, and race/ethnicity relate to worker well-being using large, representative samples. Data from the Gallup Healthways Index and Gallup World Poll provided information on both job and life satisfaction outcomes for full-time workers in the United States and 156 countries, respectively. In general, results indicated that increasing age was associated with more workers reporting job satisfaction and fewer people reporting stress and negative affect. Women were comparable to men in reported job satisfaction and well-being, but more women reported experiencing negative affect and stress. Less consistent well-being differences in ethnic/racial groups were found. Finally, we found strong evidence for direct and indirect national demographic effects on worker well-being showing need for considering workforce demography in future theory building. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Details

The Role of Demographics in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-646-0

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2007

Betty Jane Punnett, Jo Ann Duffy, Suzy Fox, Ann Gregory, Terri Lituchy, John Miller, Silvia Inés Monserrat, Miguel R. Olivas‐Luján and Neusa Maria Bastos F. Santos

This project aims to examine levels of career and life satisfaction among successful women in nine countries in the Americas.

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2681

Abstract

Purpose

This project aims to examine levels of career and life satisfaction among successful women in nine countries in the Americas.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured survey and in‐depth interviews were used, and a variety of occupations, demographics, and personality characteristics assessed – 1,146 successful women from nine countries in the USA responded the survey: 105 from Argentina, 210 from Brazil, 199 from Canada, 84 from Chile, 232 from Mexico, 126 from the USA, and 190 from three countries in the West Indies (Barbados, Jamaica, SVG).

Findings

Results show no differences in satisfaction based on occupation or country and most demographic variables investigated did not have a significant relationship with satisfaction. Age had a small, significant, relationship, with satisfaction increasing with age; married women were significantly more satisfied than single women. Higher scores on self efficacy and need for achievement, and a greater internal locus of control were all related to higher levels of satisfaction. The relationship between career satisfaction and general life satisfaction was stronger in Argentina and Chile that in the other countries.

Originality/value

Extends understanding of professional success and satisfaction, in terms of demographic variables and personality, as well as geographically.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2016

Jessie Ho

Past research on transformational leadership in organizations has neglected the organizational context in which such leadership is embedded, and the significance of the…

Abstract

Past research on transformational leadership in organizations has neglected the organizational context in which such leadership is embedded, and the significance of the disposition of followers. The purpose of the present study was to enrich and refine transformational leadership theory by linking it to organizational context and the self-esteem of followers. It was expected that organizational characteristics and subordinatesʼ self-esteem could moderate the effects of transformational leadership behavior on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior. Results revealed that only organizational-based self-esteem (OBSE) significantly moderated the impact of transformational leadership behavior on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Within-and-between-analysis procedures (WABA) were used to determine the appropriate level of data analysis. Research finding suggests that managers should provide individualized performance feedback for high OBSE subordinates and spend more time coaching those subordinates with low OBSE on a one-to-one basis.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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