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Abstract

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Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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Article

James Baba Abugre

Given the rising expansion of Western multinational companies (MNCs) to the African contexts, the development of expatriates and local employees has become increasingly…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the rising expansion of Western multinational companies (MNCs) to the African contexts, the development of expatriates and local employees has become increasingly important to the human resource management of these MNCs. This paper aims to provide critical lessons on cross-cultural communication competences for Western expatriates working in the sub-Saharan Africa business environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a qualitative phenomenology that makes use of lived experiences of senior expatriate staff working in Ghana in the form of direct interviews.

Findings

Results showed that cross-cultural communication competence is very important for Western expatriates’ functioning in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings also established a plethora of cross-cultural communication skills that are essential for Western expatriates’ successful adaptation and work outcomes in Africa.

Practical implications

This research argues that there is the need for the appreciations of the differing cultural patterns of expatriates and local staff, and this provides the underlying assumptions of intercultural and cross-cultural communication in global business.

Originality/value

A critical perspective of international business that has scarcely been studied offers lessons for Western expatriates working in sub-Saharan Africa.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 14 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article

Antonina Bauman

– The purpose of this paper is to explore students’ perceptions of the use of technology in cross-cultural communication and to compare findings with current trends in business.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore students’ perceptions of the use of technology in cross-cultural communication and to compare findings with current trends in business.

Design/methodology/approach

Structured interviews with seven open-ended questions were used to explore students’ perceptions of the use of technology in cross-cultural communication.

Findings

Students learn how to use new technology in cross-cultural communication faster than businesses implement those technologies. Students tend to emphasize the use of video conferencing tools rather than e-mail.

Research limitations/implications

Although data saturation has been reached, the sample size was relatively small. Students studying business participated in the study.

Practical implications

The findings of this study suggest considering changes to the curriculum and embedding work-based learning into academic programs.

Originality/value

This paper compares students’ perceptions with business expectations, revealing the areas in the content of the business communication classes that need to be changed.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article

Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol and Arti Pandey

This paper aims to examine the effect of the cultural intelligence (CQ) of salespeople, who engage in cross-cultural selling, on the quality of cross-cultural sales…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effect of the cultural intelligence (CQ) of salespeople, who engage in cross-cultural selling, on the quality of cross-cultural sales presentations (CSSP) they demonstrate. Based on the self-efficacy theory, this research proposes that the effect of CQ on the quality of CSSP is mediated by sales self-efficacy (SSEF). Moreover, this research explores whether the effect of CQ on SSEF and the quality of CSSP can be moderated by the level of challenge orientation (CHO) that salespeople exhibit.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 282 salespeople who work at international tradeshows in Japan, India and Vietnam. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used for data analysis.

Findings

The results support the significant effect of sales-efficacy that partially mediates the association between CQ and CSSP. Moreover, the analysis of the moderating effect of CHO significantly shows that the positive association between CQ and CSSP is stronger for salespeople who possess low levels of CHO than those who possess high levels of CHO.

Originality/value

From the theoretical perspective, this research contributes to CQ literature by using the self-efficacy theory as a framework to provide a theoretical explanation as to why CQ could allow salespeople to perform better in sales communication with foreign customers. Moreover, this research broadens the knowledge of previous CQ research by showing that CQ might be particularly more important for individuals who lack CHO attitude toward the tasks they perform.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 43 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article

Jim R. Macnamara

Research is recognised as an essential part of planning and evaluation in most areas of marketing and corporate communication, including advertising, direct marketing and…

Abstract

Research is recognised as an essential part of planning and evaluation in most areas of marketing and corporate communication, including advertising, direct marketing and, increasingly, public relations and corporate communication disciplines such as employee communication and community relations. Understanding of audience interests, awareness, perceptions and information needs is critical to strategic planning of communication campaigns. Secondly, identification and quantification of changes in awareness, perception and, ultimately, behaviour is necessary to evaluate objectively the effectiveness of communication (ie the outcomes or results). Nowhere is research more important than in multicultural and cross‐cultural communication. International relations began with human migrations and trade and reach new levels today with globalisation, corporations, organisations and governments increasingly seeking to create consistencies and shared values across divergent cultural groups. They seek to create consistencies and shared values in relation to products (eg Coca‐Cola, IBM, McDonalds), policies (eg trade agreements) and in popular culture such as films, television programmes and news media. Social rules and shared values, ie the culture of communities, affect organisations seeking to communicate multiculturally and cross‐culturally at two levels. First, the “home” culture of the organisation wishing to communicate shapes policies, plans and products that are produced. Secondly, the cultures of audiences inform and substantially shape their interpretation and use of information. Often, multicultural and cross‐cultural communication is a case of “Chinese whispers” on an international scale. What one says or shows is frequently not what others hear or see. Studies cited in this paper show that culture is a vitally important factor in communication. Yet, companies and even governments attempt communication with little understanding of audiences which they wish to reach and with which they wish to build relationships and understanding. This paper examines cultural considerations specifically in the field of public relations and corporate communication in the Asia Pacific region which is comprised of a diverse range of cultures and has been identified as the largest market in the world. Thus, it is increasingly a focal point of global communication campaigns.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Book part

Yaolung James Hsieh

Relying on data collected from in-depth interviews and participant observation, as well as secondary data, this chapter compares the cross-cultural communication processes…

Abstract

Relying on data collected from in-depth interviews and participant observation, as well as secondary data, this chapter compares the cross-cultural communication processes between easterners and westerners in an Asian cultural context, namely, that of Taiwan, as well as the potential influences of Confucianism and the theory of “manners of different orders.” Our data reveal that westerners tend to communicate with Taiwanese people in an outspoken and brusque way and to make few changes during the communication process. On the contrary, easterners are inclined to communicate with a gentler approach and make adjustments for the local culture. We also find that Confucianism and the theory of manners of different orders have strong influences on cross-cultural communication strategies and performance. This chapter provides evidence to support the arguments that the theory of manners of different orders may play an even more significant role than the individualism–collectivism paradigm in explaining the causes of better communicational performance in Taiwan and possibly mainland China. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided based on these findings.

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Article

Frank M. Horwitz, Desmond Bravington and Ulrik Silvis

The aim of the investigation is to identify enabling and disenabling factors in the development and operation of virtual teams; to evaluate the importance of factors such…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the investigation is to identify enabling and disenabling factors in the development and operation of virtual teams; to evaluate the importance of factors such as team development, cross‐cultural variables, leadership, communication and social cohesion as contributors to virtual team effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 115 employees in virtual teams using an on‐line survey contributed a 55 per cent response rate. An on‐line survey combining both quantitative Likert scale and qualitative explanatory questions measured the following variables in addition to those above: team member roles and responsibilities, relationships and trust and team dynamics.

Findings

Results indicated that cross‐cultural communication improvement, managerial and leadership communication, goal and role clarification, and relationship building are most important to virtual team performance.

Research limitations/implications

Further research focusing on particular sectors such as knowledge‐ intensive firms (KIF), including information and telecommunications, and research and development is needed to provide in‐depth insights into virtual team operations. In addition this research highlights potential issues in cross‐cultural composition of virtual teams and the need for further work on appropriate team training, selection factors in comprising virtual teams and communications.

Originality/value

While there is a growing body of research on knowledge and information economy issues and the changing sociology of work for example in the ICT sector and in tele‐remote work and call centres, empirical work specifically on virtual team operation is embryonic. This exploratory research begins to add to the understanding of variables important in the operational effectiveness of virtual teams.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article

Yumeng Peng and Xiang Zhou

The purpose of the paper is to investigate how cross-cultural elements such as cultural difference and stereotype are integrated into collaborative modes and actions and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to investigate how cross-cultural elements such as cultural difference and stereotype are integrated into collaborative modes and actions and to explore their corresponding effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of the quantitative content analysis is drawn from the posts with the topic of China on Quora. A collaborative case, where two users have a question-and-answer interaction, is taken as the unit of analysis. The effectiveness of collaboration is operationalized as the extent to which a collaboratively produced answer is visited and favorably reviewed, using the feedback index (the number of upvotes*1,000/views). One of the sampled collaborative cases is further analyzed qualitatively to see how cultural differences, stereotypes and other factors are incorporated into users' interaction.

Findings

This content analysis reveals nine modes of collaborative production of knowledge on Quora: initial questioning, pointed answering, raising doubts, responding to others, agreeing with others, correcting mistakes, enriching content, further questioning and extending issues. Diversity of the cross-cultural acts of collaborative production, particularly two of often-used collaborative actions, correcting stereotypes and supplementing cultural differences, helps to enhance overall collaborative effectiveness.

Practical implications

This paper offers new perspectives and ideas for strategies to change socially problematic stereotypes, e.g. to correct stereotypes where necessary and use more convincing resources such as reliable images as collaborative actions to bridge cultural differences. It also calls on social Q&A website developers to create more international users-friendly design by providing various channels for users with diverse cultural backgrounds to interact with each other.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to investigate online collaborative knowledge production within a broader cross-cultural context. Specifically, cultural factors and cross-cultural collaborative actions have been innovatively integrated into this research, enriching the dimensions that can be used for collaboration classification. It is helpful for users from different countries to actively adopting different strategies to overcome cultural differences, preconceptions and other negative factors that are not conducive to communication and knowledge acquisition.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 73 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article

Edward Godfrey Ochieng and Andrew David Price

The purpose of this paper is to present literature that suggests that project teams comprising members from culturally diverse backgrounds bring fresh ideas and new…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present literature that suggests that project teams comprising members from culturally diverse backgrounds bring fresh ideas and new approaches to problem solving. The challenge, however, is that they also introduce different understandings and expectations regarding team dynamics and integration. The question becomes how a project manager can effectively work and influence a multicultural construction project team, at the same time being attentive to the diversity and creating the structure required for success.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a qualitative methodology, participants of heavy construction engineering projects revealed a number of multi‐dimensional factors that either facilitated or limited the effectiveness of multicultural teamwork. These were synthesised into a framework of eight key dimensions that need to be considered when managing multicultural teams. The identified key dimensions include: leadership style, team selection and composition process, cross‐cultural management of team development process, cross‐cultural communication, cross‐cultural collectivism, cross‐cultural trust, cross‐cultural management and cross‐cultural uncertainty.

Findings

The proposed framework has implications for construction managers who work with multicultural teams and are committed to improving team performance and productivity. The utilisation of the proposed framework would not instantly transform multicultural teams into high‐performing ones; however, it does identify eight key cross‐cultural dimensions, which need to be considered.

Originality/value

Though the benefits of culturally diverse teams have been acknowledged within the industry, the study highlighted that cultural differences among project teams can cause conflict, misunderstanding and poor project performance.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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