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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

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Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2010

Keyong Dong and Ying Liu

The purpose of this paper is to: summarize the major research that has been conducted regarding cross‐cultural issues in China; show the current practices on cross

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to: summarize the major research that has been conducted regarding cross‐cultural issues in China; show the current practices on cross‐cultural management in Chinese organizations; and then identify future research needs on cross‐cultural management in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Meta‐analysis was carried out to summarize research of cross‐cultural management in China.

Findings

Empirical studies on cross‐cultural management in China have been conducted since the 1990s, and numerous empirical studies have been done in the past two decades across different level of constructs and practices (individual, group and organization). Among all the intercultural research concerning China, there are mainly two common types: the first type focuses on foreign managers and employees, center on their adjustment and performance in Chinese culture; and the second type of study examines Chinese who work with these foreigners in the multinational management setting. Furthermore, in recent years, emphases have been shifted from examining the effects of culture on single variables to examining the relationships among same and different level of variables.

Research limitations/implications

Systematic conceptual model development and assessment of important topics are in great need. Although there is an increasing amount of comparative studies being done in China, very few studies have been conducted to study Chinese firms that are doing business abroad, which represents one of the most critical problems in the field of cross‐cultural management research in China. Most studies focus on cultural value identification and practical issues in Western global companies, which is concerned with comparison between Eastern and Western culture. Research should be conducted to study cultural differences among eastern countries, for example, countries in Asia.

Practical implications

Future crossculture management practices in China should follow several basic principles: be applicable, that is, build unique organizational culture that is embedded in the host country; be practical, since there is no well‐developed multinational culture in China, new culture should be concerned with both sides; be systematic, crossculture management practices should have supporting system; be equal, no single culture is better than another; cultural penetration, two different cultures have mutual impact; merit‐based appointment and promotion, use local personnel, not just talents from the home country. In Chinese settings, the most common cross‐cultural management interventions include: cross‐cultural training, cross‐cultural communication system and unified organizational culture.

Originality/value

This paper comprehensively reviews the research and practices on cross‐cultural management in China; identifies topics that have been studied in individual, group and organizational level. Implications on cross‐cultural selection, training are provided based research evidence.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Satish Pandey

The present study aims to understand context and dynamics of cognitive learning of students as an outcome of the usage of popular movies as a learning tool in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to understand context and dynamics of cognitive learning of students as an outcome of the usage of popular movies as a learning tool in the management classroom and specifically in the context of a course on cross‐cultural management issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an exploratory study based on qualitative analysis of reflection notes of 14 students who participated in an elective course on “managing cross‐cultural issues (MCCI)” in the second year of their MBA programme. Students were asked to submit reflection notes focused on classroom learning as an outcome of the course MCCI with specific reference to used movies Outsourced and My Big Fat Greek Wedding. Students' reactions in their reflection notes were analyzed through qualitative content analysis.

Findings

The findings of this study reveal that students found selected movies very relevant and effective in learning cross‐cultural theories, issues and developing cross‐cultural competence. They also enjoyed movies as learning experience in the classroom. Both instructor's observations and students' reactions regarding the effectiveness of movies as classroom learning tool are very positive.

Practical implications

Popular movies, if appropriately selected and included in cross‐cultural training programmes for expatriate managers, immigrant workers and managers who travel to different countries, could be very useful as a learning tool for developing multicultural perspective and cross‐cultural competence.

Originality/value

This paper could be very useful to academicians and researchers who want to use popular movies as an instructional or research tool for exploring the psychodynamics of classroom learning in management and social sciences courses or professional training programmes focused on cross‐cultural management skills, global leadership skills, diversity management.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Rama Prasad Kanungo

In recent years multi‐cultural practices and values have become significantly conspicuous in corporate business. Cultures and managerial values become co‐terminous when…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years multi‐cultural practices and values have become significantly conspicuous in corporate business. Cultures and managerial values become co‐terminous when organisations cross boundaries. The synergy between corporate culture and managerial values institutes cross‐cultural practices garnering effective strategic options, helping to perform a set task successfully. This has a far‐fetching effect on what people in different cultures perceive and how these cultural values affect business affairs in an altogether different environment. In essence, organisational practices are based on culture and most organisations avoid cultural risks to manage their businesses. Skills, capabilities, knowledge, technology and experiences are better facilitated by a cross‐cultural approach, particularly in geo‐centric organisations. This paper aims to discuss the phenomenon as a global norm, with the implication of its effect on business practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach adopted in this paper is based on the critical review and discussion of extant literature emphasising the effect of crossculture on business practices in a culture‐specific environment.

Findings

The paper illustrates how business practices and managerial values are functional to cultural synergy.

Research limitations/implications

Irrespective of the significant effect of crossculture on business practices, it has been challenged by many contradictions, paradoxes and conflicts that have not been reviewed in this paper.

Originality/value

The paper outlines the interconectedness of cross cultural business practices and managerial values.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Norhayati Zakaria

Cross‐cultural training is fast becoming a recognizably important component in the world of international business. This paper discusses the effectiveness of cross

Abstract

Cross‐cultural training is fast becoming a recognizably important component in the world of international business. This paper discusses the effectiveness of cross‐cultural training in facilitating the process of acculturation, and in developing the culture‐specific and culture‐general skills needed to increase the sociocultural and psychological adjustments of sojourners and expatriates when they encounter a foreign culture. A new cross‐cultural training model is created by integrating acculturation and training effectiveness models. This new model suggests that providing two different types of training program prior to cultural contact will help recipients to effectively modify existing culture‐general and culture‐specific skills. As a consequence, they will achieve a higher degree of sociocultural and psychological adjustment. Experiential training should trigger affective and behavioral responses, which are the basis of intercultural effectiveness skills, and thus enhance psychological adjustment. By contrast, cognitive training should trigger cognitive responses, especially cultural awareness and interpersonal skills, and enhance sociocultural adjustment.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2017

Ryan W. Tang

To address three issues of survey-based methods (i.e. the absence of behaviors, the reference inequivalence, and the lack of cross-cultural interaction), the purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

To address three issues of survey-based methods (i.e. the absence of behaviors, the reference inequivalence, and the lack of cross-cultural interaction), the purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of using the behavioral experiment method to collect cross-cultural data as well as the possibility of measuring culture with the experimental data. Moreover, challenges to this method and possible solutions are elaborated for intriguing further discussion on the use of behavioral experiments in international business/international management (IB/IM) research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper illustrates the merits and downside of the proposed method with an ultimate-game experiment conducted in a behavioral laboratory. The procedure of designing, implementing, and analyzing the behavioral experiment is delineated in detail.

Findings

The exploratory findings show that the ultimate-game experiment may observe participants’ behaviors with comparable references and allow for cross-cultural interaction. The findings also suggest that the fairness-related cultural value may be calibrated with the horizontal and vertical convergence of cross-cultural behaviors (i.e. people’s deed), and this calibration may be strengthened by incorporating complementary methods such as a background survey to include people’s words.

Originality/value

The behavioral experiment method illustrated and discussed in this study contributes to the IB/IM literature by addressing three methodological issues that are not widely recognized in the IB/IM literature.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

David Starr-Glass

This article, which is exploratory in nature, considers the experiences of migrant students enrolled in the transnational degree program of an accredited American college…

Abstract

Purpose

This article, which is exploratory in nature, considers the experiences of migrant students enrolled in the transnational degree program of an accredited American college located in the Czech Republic. Migrant students have considerable experience in negotiating the different national cultures of their college and of the new country in which they live. Students, participating in a Cross-culture Management course, were asked to maintain reflective journals in which they recorded their experiences of national culture difference. The purpose was to encourage consideration, reflection, and the growing internalization of cross-cultural appreciation and negotiation.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were asked to maintain reflective journals during the semester, in which they identified and considered critical incidents and defining issues in their cross-cultural experiences. Journals were analyzed from an inductive phenomenological perspective with no preconceived imposition of structure, although participants had been informed that the root-metaphor of the journal should be that of “journeys”. Ten emergent themes were identified and a number of these, which seemed to impact national culture adaptation, are discussed. In an attempt to retain the authentic voice of participants, verbatim quotations are reproduced in some detail.

Findings

The emergent themes identified give insight into the range of national cultural complexities that these migrant students confronted. Sharing these issues with those who have less national culture experience might increase their understanding of the adaption process. More importantly, the journal increased reflection, prompted deeper sensemaking, and allowed participants to articulate their experiences. Making explicit their own cultural adaption problems may also be beneficial for these participants.

Originality/value

Cross-culture education has often taken a didactic approach that emphasized teaching and learning. The reflective journal focuses on an experiential approach to making sense of cultural experience. From a learner perspective, the use of a reflective journal stimulates reflection and contributes to resolution. From an instructor perspective, journals provide valuable insight into issues significant in a developing awareness of a national culture. Journals also provide an unrecognized insight into the personal experiences of international and transnational students that may have implications in their general learning and broader education.

Details

Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2008

Ching‐Hsiang Liu and Hung‐Wen Lee

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between job satisfaction, family support, learning orientation, organizational socialization and cross‐cultural…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between job satisfaction, family support, learning orientation, organizational socialization and cross‐cultural training and cross‐cultural adjustment in the proposed model.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative research method was used, and correction and regression were employed. The study undertook a multidimensional approach in its assessment of the adjustment of Taiwanese financial institution expatriates.

Findings

This study found that job satisfaction played an important role in the proposed model of expatriate adjustment in an international assignment. Also found to be of importance was the role of organization socialization.

Research limitations/implications

The conclusions of this study pertain only to Taiwanese financial institution expatriates in the USA, and cannot be generalized for cross‐cultural adjustment in other countries.

Practical implications

Given the associations between job satisfaction and cross‐cultural adjustment, multinationals should ensure that they have human resource policies and practice to support the job satisfaction of expatriates. Modifying socialization policies and practices can have a positive influence on expatriates' adjustment.

Originality/value

This study both replicates and extends previous research on cross‐cultural adjustment. It provides objective information for expatriate selection, management and socialization.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2011

Richard Nicholls

The paper aims to conceptually explore customer‐to‐customer interaction (CCI) in a cross‐cultural context; and to identify research opportunities in the field of cross

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to conceptually explore customer‐to‐customer interaction (CCI) in a cross‐cultural context; and to identify research opportunities in the field of cross‐cultural CCI.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses consultations both with CCI experts and cross‐cultural management experts.

Findings

Cross‐cultural customer‐to‐customer interaction (CC‐CCI) is shown to have received very little research attention. The relevance of CCI to hospitality management is highlighted and opportunities for future investigations are identified. CC‐CCI is shown to be conceptually quite complex.

Practical implications

For hospitality management practitioners and researchers, a variety of perspectives on how CC‐CCI can influence the customer experience are provided. Service managers are provided with a new dimension to incorporate into their strategic and operational plans for managing CCI in an increasingly globalised environment.

Social implications

The article contributes towards developing a scientific approach towards understanding a phenomenon which is a widespread feature of social life. It also provides a fresh focus for cross‐cultural research.

Originality/value

The paper addresses an important and original issue in hospitality management. Many illustrations of the new concept are provided and directions and methods for conducting research into CC‐CCI are put forward. The article also contributes to the hospitality management literature by broadening the discussion of the customer as an operant resource.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Ying Zhang, Yuran Li, Mark Frost, Shiyu Rong, Rong Jiang and Edwin T.C. Cheng

This paper aims to examine the critical role played by cultural flow in fostering successful expatriate cross-border transitions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the critical role played by cultural flow in fostering successful expatriate cross-border transitions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop and test a model on the interplay among cultural intelligence, organizational position level, cultural flow direction and expatriate adaptation, using a data set of 387 expatriate on cross-border transitions along the Belt & Road area.

Findings

The authors find that both organizational position level and cultural flow moderate the relationship between cultural intelligence and expatriate adaptation, whereby the relationship is contingent on the interaction of organizational position status and assignment directions between high power distance and low power distance host environments.

Originality/value

Previous research has shown that higher levels of cultural intelligence are positively related to better expatriate adaptation. However, there is a lack of research on the effect of position difference and cultural flow on such relationship. Our study is among the first to examine how the interaction between cultural flow and organizational position level influences the cultural intelligence (CI) and cultural adjustment relationship in cross-cultural transitions.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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