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Article

Karla M. Acosta, Zahra H. Mohammad, Heyao Yu, Kristen Kirkwood, Kristen Gibson, Jack A. Neal and Sujata A. Sirsat

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the layout has an effect on cross-contaminations levels at farmers markets.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the layout has an effect on cross-contaminations levels at farmers markets.

Design/methodology/approach

We used social cognitive theory's triadic reciprocity model to investigate how influencing the environment could change the behaviors of farmers’ market consumers and reduce the risk of microbial cross-contamination using a Fluorescent Compound (FC). For this purpose, a 3 × 2 experimental between-subject factorial design was utilized in this study: three farmers market layouts (i.e. U-shaped [U-S], L-shaped [L-S] and square-shaped [S–S]) and two different set-ups per market (i.e. produce and non-produce vendors completely separated, and alternating produce and non-produce vendors). FC was utilized to simulate microbial contamination on the participants (n = 54) hands. The participants were allowed to walk through the layout for 3 min and touch items after which a total of 475 swab samples were processed and recorded for absorbance levels.

Findings

The results indicated that the cross-contamination level of the U-S market was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than those of the L-S and S–S markets. The best market layout and set-up based on the average levels of simulated cross-contamination were the U-S market, particularly with the A set-up, where produce and non-produce booths were scattered.

Originality/value

This study is the first to use the quantification of FC to identify the impact of a farmers’ market layout/design on cross-contamination levels. These results can be used to provide guidance to market managers on layout and design from a safety standpoint to reduce the risk of cross-contamination.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Richard A.E. North, Jim P. Duguid and Michael A. Sheard

Describes a study to measure the quality of service provided by food‐poisoning surveillance agencies in England and Wales in terms of the requirements of a representative…

Abstract

Describes a study to measure the quality of service provided by food‐poisoning surveillance agencies in England and Wales in terms of the requirements of a representative consumer ‐ the egg producing industry ‐ adopting “egg associated” outbreak investigation reports as the reference output. Defines and makes use of four primary performance indicators: accessibility of information; completeness of evidence supplied in food‐poisoning outbreak investigation reports as to the sources of infection in “egg‐associated” outbreaks; timeliness of information published; and utility of information and advice aimed at preventing or controlling food poisoning. Finds that quality expectations in each parameter measured are not met. Examines reasons why surveillance agencies have not delivered the quality demanded. Makes use of detailed case studies to illustrate inadequacies of current practice. Attributes failure to deliver “accessibility” to a lack of recognition on the status or nature of “consumers”, combined with a self‐maintenance motivation of the part of the surveillance agencies. Finds that failures to deliver “completeness” and “utility” may result from the same defects which give rise to the lack of “accessibility” in that, failing to recognize the consumers of a public service for what they are, the agencies feel no need to provide them with the data they require. The research indicates that self‐maintenance by scientific epidemiologists may introduce biases which when combined with a politically inspired need to transfer responsibility for food‐poisoning outbreaks, skew the conduct of investigations and their conclusions. Contends that this is compounded by serious and multiple inadequacies in the conduct of investigations, arising at least in part from the lack of training and relative inexperience of investigators, the whole conditioned by interdisciplinary rivalry between the professional groups staffing the different agencies. Finds that in addition failures to exploit or develop epidemiological technologies has affected the ability of investigators to resolve the uncertainties identified. Makes recommendations directed at improving the performance of the surveillance agencies which, if adopted will substantially enhance food poisoning control efforts.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 98 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

I.W. Haysom and A.K. Sharp

Many cases of food poisoning originate in the domestic environment and can be associated with improper food handling and ineffective cleaning by consumers. These practices…

Abstract

Purpose

Many cases of food poisoning originate in the domestic environment and can be associated with improper food handling and ineffective cleaning by consumers. These practices could lead to the introduction and spread of bacterial contamination in the kitchen and if not subsequently removed could present an infection risk. This study proposes investigating changes in levels of bacterial contamination at five key sites in ten domestic kitchens during a period of 24 hours.

Design/methodology/approach

Microbiological swabs were used to provide an aerobic colony count and an Enterobacteriacea count. A record was kept of cooking, cleaning and other activities within the kitchen.

Findings

Results showed that contamination levels varied during the day, peaking after meal preparation and generally falling overnight. There was also indirect evidence of cross contamination, particularly from hands to other surfaces. Sites such as the refrigerator handle, kettle handle and taps, which generally only come into contact with hands, show increases in the levels of contamination recorded. Levels of microbiological contamination were lower in vegetarian than non‐vegetarian households. A variety of data showed that non‐food preparation activities also take place in the kitchen. These could also introduce bacterial contamination into the kitchen and facilitate their spread.

Originality/value

The implications of these results are that the most important time for cleaning in the kitchen is immediately after food has been prepared, with attention focussing on high risk areas such as the work surface, chopping board, taps and other hand contact surfaces.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 107 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Lucy Meredith, Roger Lewis and Mary Haslum

Artificial contamination of chicken pieces with bioluminescent E. coli DH5a (pLITE 27) was used to examine the relationship between food hygiene interventions and the…

Abstract

Artificial contamination of chicken pieces with bioluminescent E. coli DH5a (pLITE 27) was used to examine the relationship between food hygiene interventions and the extent of contamination in a model kitchen. Analysis showed that, during the preparation of chicken casserole, bacteria were widely disseminated throughout the kitchen and equipment used. Food hygiene interventions were shown to reduce the extent of contamination. Demonstrates that effective cleaning and hand washing are important in preventing crosscontamination in the domestic kitchen.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 103 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore a methodology for connecting microelectromechanical system sensors – i.e. inertial measurement unit (IMU) – to an Arduino-based microcontroller, using graphene-based conductive filament and flexible thermoplastic polyurethane (FTPU) filament and low-cost dual material extrusion technology.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of electrical tests were carried out to determine the maximum resistance the conductive paths may take to connect printed circuit boards (PCB). To select the most suitable printing material, three types of conductive filaments were examined. Then an experiment was carried out to find the best printing parameters in terms of printing speed, printing temperature and layer height to minimise resistivity. The size of the conductive path was also analysed. A final prototype was designed and printed according to optimised printing settings and maximum allowable resistances for each line and considering different geometries and printing strategies to reduce cross-contamination among paths.

Findings

For the Black Magic 3D conductive filament, the printing speed and layer height played a significant role regarding resistivity, while the printing temperature was not very important. The infill pattern of the conductive paths had to be aligned with the expected current path, while using air gaps between two adjacent paths resulted in the best approach to reducing cross-contamination. Moreover, the cross-section size of the conductive path did not affect the volume resistivity. When combined with FTPU filament constraints, the prototype yielded suitable electrical performance and printing quality when printed at a temperature of 220°C, speed of 20 mm/s and layer height of 0.2 mm.

Originality/value

This paper explores a systematic methodology for the additive manufacturing of commercial conductive material using low-cost extrusion technology to connect complex electronics when data transmission is a key feature.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article

Daniela Borda, Miles R. Thomas, Solveig Langsrud, Kathrin Rychli, Kieran Jordan, Joop van der Roest and Anca Ioana Nicolau

The purpose of this paper is to determine how well cooking shows promote safe food handling via TV and to suggest their use for providing good hygiene and good cooking…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine how well cooking shows promote safe food handling via TV and to suggest their use for providing good hygiene and good cooking practices examples for consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Principal component analysis was applied for the multivariate statistical analysis of the cooking shows, the components being: personal hygiene, cross-contamination, cooking and storing practices and risk communication. Data were collected via a questionnaire special designed for the purpose of the study. The positive attributes were converted into numbers using a nine-point Likert scale. This conversion enabled ranking of the cooking shows as a function of the total results obtained and considering the best show as the one with the maximum score attained.

Findings

Evaluation of cooking practices by food safety professionals highlighted the most frequent safety errors and poor practices that are disseminated by the TV shows.

Practical implications

While the repetition of good food handling and cooking practices risks antagonizing viewers, an increase in occasional emphasis of good hygiene would be of benefit to domestic viewers and potentially improve food safety practices among the public.

Originality/value

This is the first study that gives an European perspective on presentation of safety practices during food handling and preparation in a range of TV cooking shows as it examines 19 such shows broadcasted in six European countries over three months. Adherence to food safety standards and introduction of a star rating system for safety practices in TV cooking shows is proposed.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Kadri Koppel, Loreida Timberg, Roman Shalimov, Laura Vázquez-Araújo, Angel A. Carbonell-Barracchina, Brizio Di Donfrancesco and Edgar Chambers IV

Foodborne illnesses are often related to raw and cooked poultry and meat, eggs, and their products. Consumer practices related to these foods have been studied in many…

Abstract

Purpose

Foodborne illnesses are often related to raw and cooked poultry and meat, eggs, and their products. Consumer practices related to these foods have been studied in many countries, however, little comparison has been made among different countries. The purpose of this paper is to characterize consumers’ purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs in four European countries: Russia, Estonia, Italy, and Spain.

Design/methodology/approach

Approximately 100 selected consumers in each location completed a questionnaire that included sections about poultry products and eggs purchase temperatures and locations, storage locations such as refrigerator, freezer, or cabinet, and preparation such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and the use of cutting boards.

Findings

Although educating consumers in European countries is common, some food safety aspects may need to be additionally addressed. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. In Russia and Estonia consumers who participated in the study purchased both refrigerated and room temperature eggs whereas in Italy (84 percent) and Spain (87 percent) eggs typically were purchased at room temperature. However, almost all consumers in all countries stored eggs in the refrigerator. In Russia 70 percent of the consumers who participated in the study immediately froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood after purchase; while in other countries about a quarter of the consumers froze the raw meat.

Research limitations/implications

This research was limited by the number of respondents in each country that does not allow extrapolation of results.

Originality/value

Food preparation practices revealed behavior that supports cross-contamination during cooking, such as washing raw poultry and eggs. A uniform approach to food safety practices related research, such as presented in this study, would help define overlapping critical points in consumer behavior and create educational messages based on the information gathered.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Nor Aida Abdul Rahman, Mohammad Fakhrulnizam Mohammad, Suzari Abdul Rahim and Hazariah Mohd Noh

This study aims to discuss the challenges in implementing halal warehouse in the air cargo context along with the standard handling process for the storage of halal…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to discuss the challenges in implementing halal warehouse in the air cargo context along with the standard handling process for the storage of halal product for import and export purposes. This is vital to ensure that halal products do not get contaminated and should comply to halal logistics standard throughout the supply chain process.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory study adopts single case study to better understand the definition of halal warehouse, the challenges in implementing halal warehouse and also the standard handling process for the storage at the warehouse for import and export purposes. A well-guided case study protocol is followed.

Findings

Five categories have found to be the main challenges in implementing halal warehouse. They are coded as halal product trade, halal asset and facility, halal standard of procedure, human factor and perspectives between logistics provider and halal agencies. With regard to standard handling process for import and export purposes in airgo context with compliance to Shariah at the halal warehouse, there are seven main steps involved for import and nine steps involved for export.

Research limitations/implications

As this paper is among the pioneer study that looks into halal warehouse implementation, it has some limitations. Further empirical study in a bigger context may be performed quantitatively, and multiple case study approach may also be adopted to get deeper insight in understanding halal warehouse implementation domain of study.

Practical implications

This study contributes to the understanding on the gap in the field with adhering or complying with the practice. It will provide input to the authority in understanding the current limitation and suggestion by the practicing companies.

Social implications

Halal requirement in non-Muslim countries are not very well implemented and understood, whereby the understanding of the concept of Halalal Toyyiban throughout the supply chain process is critical. The main aim of halal logistics is to avoid cross contamination between halal and non-halal product during the transport, at the storage in warehouse and also in handling. This study contributes to the understanding of halal warehouse implementation.

Originality/value

There is a critical dearth of academic study that focuses on halal logistics specifically in transport and warehouse. This empirical case study provides basic understanding of implementing halal warehouse and presents the challenges and also required guidelines in handling halal product at the warehouse for both import and export purposes.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article

Keyvan Amjadi and Kashif Hussain

The aim of the study is to integrate food hygiene into quantity food production systems.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the study is to integrate food hygiene into quantity food production systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study illustrates the concepts of food hygiene and standard operation of food production systems in detail, and it integrates both of these concepts evidencing that an integrated system can be used as a primary function of every establishment with regard to serving food safely.

Findings

A successful food hygiene system must consist of four components: maintaining safe conditions for the food from the time of purchasing to the time it is served to the customer, development of hygienic behavior in the employees that come in contact, in any way, with the customers’ meal, maintaining clean and sanitary facilities, and application of an adequate Pest Control Management system.

Originality/value

By integrating food hygiene into the operational systems, a powerful message will be sent to the personnel; that food hygiene is a primary function of the establishment and must at all times be enforced.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article

Dima Faour-Klingbeil, Victor Kuri and Ewen Todd

The objectives of this study were to compare the hygiene standards and food handling practices between sole-proprietor and the corporate-managed restaurants in Lebanon and…

Abstract

Purpose

The objectives of this study were to compare the hygiene standards and food handling practices between sole-proprietor and the corporate-managed restaurants in Lebanon and to determine whether the variations between both groups are explained by and directly related to the type of management.

Design/methodology/approach

An in-depth observation assessment of food safety environment and practices was conducted on a convenient sample of 50 food businesses in Beirut, which are typical of foodservice outlets in Lebanon and in many countries of the Middle East. The observation assessment checklist comprised six constructs of 2–7 components for analysis. It covered all areas including documentation and record-keeping requirements, which are crucial parts of a food safety system.

Findings

There was a significant difference in the visual assessment score between sole-proprietor (77.9 ± 18.4) and corporate group (48.5 ± 12.8). Food handlers' behavior and hygiene standards were significantly associated with the type of management. However, there were still critical gaps in the food safety performance of the corporate group suggesting other underlying factors than the type of management.

Practical implications

Additional elements were drawn from this study for future food safety culture research. Understanding the food safety attitudes and perception of risks of the management representatives, leaders, or food business owners is vital to develop appropriate food safety interventions and foster a positive food safety culture in the foodservice industry.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study not only in Lebanon (or MENA) but also in other regions to measure the association of management type, that is, sole-proprietor management and corporate management, with the food hygiene standards and food safety practices in the foodservice establishments. This paper presents new findings that will be of value for researchers in food safety and will complement the existing literature on food safety culture in the foodservice industry.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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