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Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7656-1306-6

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2010

Leah Watkins

Cross‐cultural research in marketing has been dominated by survey‐based quantitative approaches; however, the assumption of prior validity required for the adoption of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Cross‐cultural research in marketing has been dominated by survey‐based quantitative approaches; however, the assumption of prior validity required for the adoption of the survey approach to values in cross‐cultural research has yet to be established. This paper aims to review the literature and outlines the problems of the survey‐based approach to cross‐cultural values research. These criticisms relate both to the choice of the method and its execution. The paper outlines the multiplicative effects of these problems, that threaten the validity of the survey methodology in this context, and suggests a methodological alternative.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews and synthesises the relevant literature on conceptual and methodological issues pertinent to the survey approach to values research in a cross‐cultural context.

Findings

A review of the literature suggests numerous methodological problems that threaten the validity and reliability of the survey approach to cross‐cultural values research. This review exposes a methodological gap that can be filled by a qualitative approach to the study of values in cross‐cultural research. In particular, the paper advocates means‐end methodology as offering significant strengths and addressing several of the weaknesses of the survey‐based approach to cross‐cultural values research.

Originality/value

The paper synthesises the literature on methodological issues in cross‐cultural values research, bringing together disparate criticisms which reveal the range of unresolved problems with the empirical, survey‐based approach to cross‐cultural values research; the paper also offers a suggestion for an alternative methodological approach. The means‐end approach is increasingly being used in various research areas; this paper highlights its appropriateness in a cross‐cultural context, as an alternative to predefined and culturally determined measures that limit our understanding of cross‐cultural values. Means‐end addresses many of the specific weaknesses of the survey method identified in the literature review. This discussion of methodological issues has implications for the field of cross‐cultural research more generally and suggests a critical re‐assessment of cross‐cultural methods is needed.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2010

Keyong Dong and Ying Liu

The purpose of this paper is to: summarize the major research that has been conducted regarding cross‐cultural issues in China; show the current practices on cross‐cultural

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to: summarize the major research that has been conducted regarding cross‐cultural issues in China; show the current practices on cross‐cultural management in Chinese organizations; and then identify future research needs on cross‐cultural management in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Meta‐analysis was carried out to summarize research of cross‐cultural management in China.

Findings

Empirical studies on cross‐cultural management in China have been conducted since the 1990s, and numerous empirical studies have been done in the past two decades across different level of constructs and practices (individual, group and organization). Among all the intercultural research concerning China, there are mainly two common types: the first type focuses on foreign managers and employees, center on their adjustment and performance in Chinese culture; and the second type of study examines Chinese who work with these foreigners in the multinational management setting. Furthermore, in recent years, emphases have been shifted from examining the effects of culture on single variables to examining the relationships among same and different level of variables.

Research limitations/implications

Systematic conceptual model development and assessment of important topics are in great need. Although there is an increasing amount of comparative studies being done in China, very few studies have been conducted to study Chinese firms that are doing business abroad, which represents one of the most critical problems in the field of cross‐cultural management research in China. Most studies focus on cultural value identification and practical issues in Western global companies, which is concerned with comparison between Eastern and Western culture. Research should be conducted to study cultural differences among eastern countries, for example, countries in Asia.

Practical implications

Future cross‐culture management practices in China should follow several basic principles: be applicable, that is, build unique organizational culture that is embedded in the host country; be practical, since there is no well‐developed multinational culture in China, new culture should be concerned with both sides; be systematic, cross‐culture management practices should have supporting system; be equal, no single culture is better than another; cultural penetration, two different cultures have mutual impact; merit‐based appointment and promotion, use local personnel, not just talents from the home country. In Chinese settings, the most common cross‐cultural management interventions include: cross‐cultural training, cross‐cultural communication system and unified organizational culture.

Originality/value

This paper comprehensively reviews the research and practices on cross‐cultural management in China; identifies topics that have been studied in individual, group and organizational level. Implications on cross‐cultural selection, training are provided based research evidence.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1996

Naresh K. Malhotra, James Agarwal and Mark Peterson

Notes that methodological problems are hampering the growth of cross‐cultural marketing research and presents a review of methodological issues to address these problems…

Abstract

Notes that methodological problems are hampering the growth of cross‐cultural marketing research and presents a review of methodological issues to address these problems. Organizes these issues around a six‐step framework which includes elements such as problem definition, the development of an approach and research design formulation. Notes that the marketing research problem can be defined by comparing the phenomenon or behaviour in separate cultural contexts and eliminating the influence of the self‐reference criterion. Discusses issues in data analysis such as treatment of outliers and standardization of data. Concludes with an interpretation of results and report presentation.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

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Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol and Arti Pandey

This paper aims to examine the effect of the cultural intelligence (CQ) of salespeople, who engage in cross-cultural selling, on the quality of cross-cultural sales…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effect of the cultural intelligence (CQ) of salespeople, who engage in cross-cultural selling, on the quality of cross-cultural sales presentations (CSSP) they demonstrate. Based on the self-efficacy theory, this research proposes that the effect of CQ on the quality of CSSP is mediated by sales self-efficacy (SSEF). Moreover, this research explores whether the effect of CQ on SSEF and the quality of CSSP can be moderated by the level of challenge orientation (CHO) that salespeople exhibit.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 282 salespeople who work at international tradeshows in Japan, India and Vietnam. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used for data analysis.

Findings

The results support the significant effect of sales-efficacy that partially mediates the association between CQ and CSSP. Moreover, the analysis of the moderating effect of CHO significantly shows that the positive association between CQ and CSSP is stronger for salespeople who possess low levels of CHO than those who possess high levels of CHO.

Originality/value

From the theoretical perspective, this research contributes to CQ literature by using the self-efficacy theory as a framework to provide a theoretical explanation as to why CQ could allow salespeople to perform better in sales communication with foreign customers. Moreover, this research broadens the knowledge of previous CQ research by showing that CQ might be particularly more important for individuals who lack CHO attitude toward the tasks they perform.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 43 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2011

David Starr‐Glass

The purpose of this paper is to provide international business students with a deeper appreciation of cross‐culture issues that might impact their future management…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide international business students with a deeper appreciation of cross‐culture issues that might impact their future management practice. Specifically, it considers the use of action research as a driver of the learning dynamics of a course in cross‐cultural management.

Design/methodology/approach

The course was designed around core readings and assignments that suggested action research as a way of coming to a more authentic appreciation of cross‐cultural management scenarios. Action research was not, however, formally discussed or introduced. In this initial study, participant reflections were collected and analyzed from a phenomenological perspective.

Findings

Results suggest that students, when forced into situations that required them to explore a new cultural dimension, were able to implicitly use action research models. This led participants to a deeper appreciation of their own national culture (predominantly Russian) and a more nuanced approach to considering novel cross‐cultural contexts.

Research limitations/implications

Lack of experimental controls, pre‐ and post‐testing, and limited sample size all tend to limit the generalizability of the findings. Initial findings, however, do suggest that deeper explorations of national culture might reduce stereotyping.

Practical implications

Limited engagement and stereotyping are often associated with teaching cross‐cultural management. Action research, as a course drive, potentially increases engagement, forces deeper consideration, and allows participants to reflect on their own cross‐cultural experiences. The use of action research may be useful in college‐level programs, study abroad situations, and vocational or institutional cross‐cultural training.

Originality/value

This study argues for more dynamic ways of teaching cross‐cultural competencies. It seeks to move students beyond stereotyping to a more authentic consideration of dealing across national culture boundaries.

Details

Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1997

S. Tamer Cavusgil and Ajay Das

Methodological consistency and rigour continue to be remaining challenges in cross‐cultural research. Scholars need to reach a degree of standardization in the choice and…

Abstract

Methodological consistency and rigour continue to be remaining challenges in cross‐cultural research. Scholars need to reach a degree of standardization in the choice and application of research methods in conducting research across national and cultural boundaries. Seeks to propose a general framework for conducting cross‐cultural research and to demonstrate the use of such a framework to a specific research domain ‐ global sourcing activities. In the process reviews the existing empirical work in global sourcing and illustrates the application of appropriate research procedures.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Amanda Bullough, Fiona Moore and Tugba Kalafatoglu

The purpose of this paper is to address the paradox that represents a shortage of women in management and senior leadership positions around the world, while research has…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the paradox that represents a shortage of women in management and senior leadership positions around the world, while research has consistently shown that having women in positions of influence leads to noteworthy organizational benefits, as guest editors for this special issue, the authors provide an overview of four key streams of cross-cultural research on gender – women in international management, anthropology and gender, women’s leadership, and women’s entrepreneurship – which have been fairly well-developed but remain underexplored.

Design/methodology/approach

Each author led the review of the scholarly literature stream that aligned most with personal research areas of expertise, while particularly focusing each literature review on the status of each body of work in relation to the topic of women and gender in international business and management.

Findings

The authors encourage future work on the role of women and gender (including gay, lesbian, and transgender) in cross-cultural management, and the influence of cross-cultural matters on gender. In addition to new research on obstacles and biases faced by women in management, the authors hope to see more scholarship on the benefits that women bring to their organizations.

Practical implications

New research could aim to provide specific evidence-based recommendations for: how organizations and individuals can work to develop more gender diversity in management and senior positions around the world, and encourage more women to start and grow bigger businesses.

Social implications

Scholars can lead progress on important gender issues and contribute to quality information that guides politicians, organizational leaders, new entrants to the workforce.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to cover these topics and review the body of work on cross-cultural research on women in international business and management. The authors hope it serves as a useful launch pad for scholars conducting new research in this domain.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2011

Miguel Morales and Riadh Ladhari

The purpose of this paper is to examine the methodological approaches adopted in cross‐cultural service quality (CCSQ) research and the extent to which these approaches…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the methodological approaches adopted in cross‐cultural service quality (CCSQ) research and the extent to which these approaches have adhered to the general principles of established cross‐cultural research methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

A search was conducted to identify CCSQ papers published between 1995 and 2009. The authors searched four well‐known online databases: ABI Inform (Proquest Direct), Emerald Library, ScienceDirect, and EBSCOhost. This search identified 40 studies, which were examined according to three broad groups of methodological issues: research design, instrumentation and data collection, and data analysis and measurement.

Findings

Despite the acknowledged contributions that these selected studies have made to the services‐marketing field, it is evident from this review that researchers have frequently overlooked many important aspects of cross‐cultural research methodology. These methodological deficiencies are discussed and various remedies are suggested.

Originality/value

There has been a growing research interest in comparative cross‐cultural service‐quality in recent decades. As this relatively new branch of service‐quality research becomes more prominent, it seems opportune to examine the methodological approaches adopted in these studies and the extent to which these approaches have adhered to the general principles of established cross‐cultural research methodology. This is the first work to examine such a large number of CCSQ studies.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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