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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2022

Hester Van Herk and Sjoukje P. K. Goldman

In business and management, cross-national and cross-cultural comparisons between countries have been a topic of interest for many decades. Not only do firms engage in…

Abstract

In business and management, cross-national and cross-cultural comparisons between countries have been a topic of interest for many decades. Not only do firms engage in business in different countries around the world but also within countries. The population has become more diversified over time, making cross-cultural comparisons within country boundaries increasingly relevant. In comparisons across cultural groups, measurement invariance (MI) is a prerequisite; however, in practice, MI is not always attained or even tested. Our study consists of three parts. First, we provide a bibliometric analysis of articles on cross-cultural and cross-national topics in marketing to provide insight into the connections between the articles and the main themes. Second, we code articles to assess whether researchers follow the recommended steps as outlined in the multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) approach. The results indicate that MI testing is incorporated in the toolbox of many empirical researchers in marketing and that articles often report the level of invariance. Yet, most studies find partial invariance, meaning that some items are not comparable across the cultural groups studied. Researchers understand that MI is required, but they often ignore noninvariant items, which may decrease the validity of cross-cultural comparisons made. Third, we analyze the dissemination of MI in the broader literature based on co-citations with Steenkamp and Baumgartner (1998), a widely cited article on MI in the field of marketing. We conclude by noting methodological developments in cross-cultural research to enable addressing noninvariance and providing suggestions to further advance our insight into cross-cultural differences and similarities.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2022

Poompak Kusawat and Surat Teerakapibal

Global adoption of the internet and mobile usage results in a huge variation in the cultural backgrounds of consumers who generate and consume electronic word-of-mouth…

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Abstract

Purpose

Global adoption of the internet and mobile usage results in a huge variation in the cultural backgrounds of consumers who generate and consume electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM). Unsurprisingly, a research trend on cross-cultural eWOM has emerged. However, there has not been an attempt to synthesize this research topic. This paper aims to bridge this gap.

Methodology

This research paper conducts a systematic literature review of the current research findings on cross-cultural eWOM. Journal articles published from 2006 to 2021 are included. This study then presents the key issues in the extant literature and suggests potential future research.

Findings

The findings show that there has been an upward trend in the number of publications on cross-cultural eWOM since the early 2010s, with a relatively steeper increase toward 2020. The findings also synthesize cross-cultural eWOM research into four elements and suggest potential future research avenues.

Value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is currently no exhaustive/integrated review of cross-cultural eWOM research. This research fills the need to summarize the current state of cross-cultural eWOM literature and identifies research questions to be addressed in the future.

El boca a boca electrónico cross-cultural: una revisión sistemática de la literatura

Objetivo

La adopción global de Internet y los móviles da lugar a una enorme diferencia en el origen cultural de los consumidores que generan y consumen el boca a boca electrónico (eWOM). No es de extrañar que haya surgido una tendencia de investigación sobre el eWOM transcultural. Sin embargo, no se ha intentado sintetizar este tema de investigación. El objetivo de este artículo es subsanar esta carencia.

Metodología

Este trabajo de investigación realiza una revisión bibliográfica sistemática de las investigaciones realizadas sobre eWOM transcultural. Se incluyen artículos de revistas publicados desde 2006 hasta 2021. A continuación, el estudio presenta las cuestiones clave de la literatura existente y sugiere posibles investigaciones futuras.

Resultados

Los resultados muestran que ha habido una tendencia al alza en el número de publicaciones sobre eWOM intercultural desde principios de la década de 2010, con un aumento relativamente creciente hacia 2020. Los resultados también sintetizan la investigación sobre eWOM intercultural en cuatro elementos y sugieren posibles vías de investigación futuras.

Valor

Actualmente no existe una revisión exhaustiva/integrada de la investigación sobre el eWOM cross-cultural. Esta investigación satisface la necesidad de resumir el estado actual de la literatura sobre eWOM cross-cultural e identifica las cuestiones de investigación que deben abordarse en el futuro.

跨文化电子口碑研究:系统性文献回顾

摘要

目的

在互联网全球化以及移动手机的广泛使用的背景下, 不同文化背景的消费者都在贡献电子口碑(eWOM)。这使得电子口碑存在文化差异。然而, 还没有人试图对这个研究课题进行综合分析。本文的目的就是要弥补这一空白。

方法

本研究论文对目前关于跨文化eWOM的研究成果进行了系统的文献回顾。包括2006年至2021年发表的期刊文章。然后, 本研究提出了现有文献中的关键问题, 并提出了潜在的未来研究。

研究结果

研究结果显示, 自2010年初以来, 关于跨文化eWOM的出版物数量呈上升趋势, 到2020年时增幅相对较大。研究结果还总结了跨文化eWOM研究的四个要素, 并提出了潜在的未来研究途径。

价值

目前还没有关于跨文化eWOM研究的详尽/综合的回顾。这项研究填补了总结跨文化电子WOM文献现状的需要, 并确定了未来要解决的研究问题。

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2010

Leah Watkins

Cross‐cultural research in marketing has been dominated by survey‐based quantitative approaches; however, the assumption of prior validity required for the adoption of the…

3589

Abstract

Purpose

Cross‐cultural research in marketing has been dominated by survey‐based quantitative approaches; however, the assumption of prior validity required for the adoption of the survey approach to values in cross‐cultural research has yet to be established. This paper aims to review the literature and outlines the problems of the survey‐based approach to cross‐cultural values research. These criticisms relate both to the choice of the method and its execution. The paper outlines the multiplicative effects of these problems, that threaten the validity of the survey methodology in this context, and suggests a methodological alternative.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews and synthesises the relevant literature on conceptual and methodological issues pertinent to the survey approach to values research in a cross‐cultural context.

Findings

A review of the literature suggests numerous methodological problems that threaten the validity and reliability of the survey approach to cross‐cultural values research. This review exposes a methodological gap that can be filled by a qualitative approach to the study of values in cross‐cultural research. In particular, the paper advocates means‐end methodology as offering significant strengths and addressing several of the weaknesses of the survey‐based approach to cross‐cultural values research.

Originality/value

The paper synthesises the literature on methodological issues in cross‐cultural values research, bringing together disparate criticisms which reveal the range of unresolved problems with the empirical, survey‐based approach to cross‐cultural values research; the paper also offers a suggestion for an alternative methodological approach. The means‐end approach is increasingly being used in various research areas; this paper highlights its appropriateness in a cross‐cultural context, as an alternative to predefined and culturally determined measures that limit our understanding of cross‐cultural values. Means‐end addresses many of the specific weaknesses of the survey method identified in the literature review. This discussion of methodological issues has implications for the field of cross‐cultural research more generally and suggests a critical re‐assessment of cross‐cultural methods is needed.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2010

Keyong Dong and Ying Liu

The purpose of this paper is to: summarize the major research that has been conducted regarding cross‐cultural issues in China; show the current practices on cross‐cultural

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to: summarize the major research that has been conducted regarding cross‐cultural issues in China; show the current practices on cross‐cultural management in Chinese organizations; and then identify future research needs on cross‐cultural management in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Meta‐analysis was carried out to summarize research of cross‐cultural management in China.

Findings

Empirical studies on cross‐cultural management in China have been conducted since the 1990s, and numerous empirical studies have been done in the past two decades across different level of constructs and practices (individual, group and organization). Among all the intercultural research concerning China, there are mainly two common types: the first type focuses on foreign managers and employees, center on their adjustment and performance in Chinese culture; and the second type of study examines Chinese who work with these foreigners in the multinational management setting. Furthermore, in recent years, emphases have been shifted from examining the effects of culture on single variables to examining the relationships among same and different level of variables.

Research limitations/implications

Systematic conceptual model development and assessment of important topics are in great need. Although there is an increasing amount of comparative studies being done in China, very few studies have been conducted to study Chinese firms that are doing business abroad, which represents one of the most critical problems in the field of cross‐cultural management research in China. Most studies focus on cultural value identification and practical issues in Western global companies, which is concerned with comparison between Eastern and Western culture. Research should be conducted to study cultural differences among eastern countries, for example, countries in Asia.

Practical implications

Future cross‐culture management practices in China should follow several basic principles: be applicable, that is, build unique organizational culture that is embedded in the host country; be practical, since there is no well‐developed multinational culture in China, new culture should be concerned with both sides; be systematic, cross‐culture management practices should have supporting system; be equal, no single culture is better than another; cultural penetration, two different cultures have mutual impact; merit‐based appointment and promotion, use local personnel, not just talents from the home country. In Chinese settings, the most common cross‐cultural management interventions include: cross‐cultural training, cross‐cultural communication system and unified organizational culture.

Originality/value

This paper comprehensively reviews the research and practices on cross‐cultural management in China; identifies topics that have been studied in individual, group and organizational level. Implications on cross‐cultural selection, training are provided based research evidence.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1996

Naresh K. Malhotra, James Agarwal and Mark Peterson

Notes that methodological problems are hampering the growth of cross‐cultural marketing research and presents a review of methodological issues to address these problems…

16248

Abstract

Notes that methodological problems are hampering the growth of cross‐cultural marketing research and presents a review of methodological issues to address these problems. Organizes these issues around a six‐step framework which includes elements such as problem definition, the development of an approach and research design formulation. Notes that the marketing research problem can be defined by comparing the phenomenon or behaviour in separate cultural contexts and eliminating the influence of the self‐reference criterion. Discusses issues in data analysis such as treatment of outliers and standardization of data. Concludes with an interpretation of results and report presentation.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

Details

Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2011

David Starr‐Glass

The purpose of this paper is to provide international business students with a deeper appreciation of cross‐culture issues that might impact their future management…

1428

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide international business students with a deeper appreciation of cross‐culture issues that might impact their future management practice. Specifically, it considers the use of action research as a driver of the learning dynamics of a course in cross‐cultural management.

Design/methodology/approach

The course was designed around core readings and assignments that suggested action research as a way of coming to a more authentic appreciation of cross‐cultural management scenarios. Action research was not, however, formally discussed or introduced. In this initial study, participant reflections were collected and analyzed from a phenomenological perspective.

Findings

Results suggest that students, when forced into situations that required them to explore a new cultural dimension, were able to implicitly use action research models. This led participants to a deeper appreciation of their own national culture (predominantly Russian) and a more nuanced approach to considering novel cross‐cultural contexts.

Research limitations/implications

Lack of experimental controls, pre‐ and post‐testing, and limited sample size all tend to limit the generalizability of the findings. Initial findings, however, do suggest that deeper explorations of national culture might reduce stereotyping.

Practical implications

Limited engagement and stereotyping are often associated with teaching cross‐cultural management. Action research, as a course drive, potentially increases engagement, forces deeper consideration, and allows participants to reflect on their own cross‐cultural experiences. The use of action research may be useful in college‐level programs, study abroad situations, and vocational or institutional cross‐cultural training.

Originality/value

This study argues for more dynamic ways of teaching cross‐cultural competencies. It seeks to move students beyond stereotyping to a more authentic consideration of dealing across national culture boundaries.

Details

Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1997

S. Tamer Cavusgil and Ajay Das

Methodological consistency and rigour continue to be remaining challenges in cross‐cultural research. Scholars need to reach a degree of standardization in the choice and…

3367

Abstract

Methodological consistency and rigour continue to be remaining challenges in cross‐cultural research. Scholars need to reach a degree of standardization in the choice and application of research methods in conducting research across national and cultural boundaries. Seeks to propose a general framework for conducting cross‐cultural research and to demonstrate the use of such a framework to a specific research domain ‐ global sourcing activities. In the process reviews the existing empirical work in global sourcing and illustrates the application of appropriate research procedures.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol and Arti Pandey

This paper aims to examine the effect of the cultural intelligence (CQ) of salespeople, who engage in cross-cultural selling, on the quality of cross-cultural sales…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effect of the cultural intelligence (CQ) of salespeople, who engage in cross-cultural selling, on the quality of cross-cultural sales presentations (CSSP) they demonstrate. Based on the self-efficacy theory, this research proposes that the effect of CQ on the quality of CSSP is mediated by sales self-efficacy (SSEF). Moreover, this research explores whether the effect of CQ on SSEF and the quality of CSSP can be moderated by the level of challenge orientation (CHO) that salespeople exhibit.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 282 salespeople who work at international tradeshows in Japan, India and Vietnam. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used for data analysis.

Findings

The results support the significant effect of sales-efficacy that partially mediates the association between CQ and CSSP. Moreover, the analysis of the moderating effect of CHO significantly shows that the positive association between CQ and CSSP is stronger for salespeople who possess low levels of CHO than those who possess high levels of CHO.

Originality/value

From the theoretical perspective, this research contributes to CQ literature by using the self-efficacy theory as a framework to provide a theoretical explanation as to why CQ could allow salespeople to perform better in sales communication with foreign customers. Moreover, this research broadens the knowledge of previous CQ research by showing that CQ might be particularly more important for individuals who lack CHO attitude toward the tasks they perform.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 43 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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