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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Gawaher Muthanna and M.S.M. Amin

The purpose of this paper is to present a procedure to estimate the total irrigation water requirement for a command area of 2,500 hectares in an arid environment under…

1268

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a procedure to estimate the total irrigation water requirement for a command area of 2,500 hectares in an arid environment under various crops and soil types using GIS for data storage, analysis and visualization of results.

Design/methodology/approach

Bani Al‐Harith agricultural area in Sana'a basin, Yemen was chosen for the study. ArcView GIS was used to plan for suitable crops and estimate the irrigation water requirements based on the farmer's preference and soil types. Using the available soil maps, the soil characteristics such as salinity, texture and suitable crop types were overlaid to produce the crop blocks map. The water balance equation was used to produce the crop water requirement map considering the crop coefficient for different crop stages. The total water demand for each irrigation block was calculated by summing the three components, namely percolation loss through the soil, maximum evapotranspiration of the crop and leaching requirement (LR) to maintain an acceptable salinity level.

Findings

The case study is an example of using GIS as an effective tool in irrigation planning. GIS facilities to acquire, store, analyze and display spatial data were used to produce the soil class map, soil profile map, crop map and water requirement map. The profile ECe values for the chosen crops is within the crop salinity tolerance for 100 percent yield except for blocks 4 and 5 where grape and coffee respectively are suggested to be grown. The profile ECe values are 18.37 dS/m in block 4 and 3.27 to 7.88 dS/m in block 5. The tolerance threshold of 100 percent yield for grape is 1.5 dS/m and for coffee is 3 to 6 dS/m. The salinity of the irrigation water was 2.08 dS/m. From the crop blocks map, the salinity tolerance level for 100 percent yield of onion for block 1 is 1.2 dS/m, tomato for block 2 is 2.5 dS/m, alfalfa for block 3 is 2 dS/m, grape for block 4 is 1.5/ dS/m, and the salinity tolerance level for 100 percent yield of coffee for block 5 is 5 dS/m. Leaching requirements were obtained by taking ECw value of 2.08 and ECe of 1.2, 2.5, 2, 1.5 and 5 for onion, tomato, alfalfa, grape and coffee respectively. The peak total water requirement occurred in May and was found to be 5,595 m3/ha, or 560 mm. The design irrigation water requirement for every block is shown in a map for easy visualization and manipulation to produce the best combination of soils, crops and water use.

Research limitations/implications

This method of determining the total irrigation water requirement is dependent on the selected irrigation system and crops whether shallow‐rooted, deep‐rooted or tree crops. The use of water in agriculture should be judicious, precise and sustainable. Application of GIS can be a useful tool in irrigation management since it provides rapid access to underlying information of crop suitability. The designer can try out various combinations of crops, to suit the soils and available water.

Practical implications

This methodology is useful for training irrigation engineers and water resource planners on the use of GIS technique to plan irrigation projects in arid areas.

Originality/value

This technique has never been applied to the study area.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2018

Rui Manuel de Sousa Fragoso and Carlos José de Almeida Noéme

This paper aims to assess the economic effects of climate change on the Mediterranean’s irrigated agriculture and how the adoption of alternative crop varieties adapted to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the economic effects of climate change on the Mediterranean’s irrigated agriculture and how the adoption of alternative crop varieties adapted to the expected length of the growing season can be an effective adaptation measure.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study of two irrigation areas in Southern Portugal is used to assess the response to climate change impacts on crop yields and irrigation requirements, and an agricultural supply model is calibrated using a positive mathematical programming (PMP) approach was developed.

Findings

Climate change reduces crop yields and causes a slight decrease in irrigation requirements, which could allow an increase in the irrigated area. However, positive impacts on rural areas regarding employment and investment are not expected. The adoption of adaptation measures based on alternative crop varieties, which could maintain crop yields at current levels, increases dramatically the economic value of water and mitigates losses in farm income.

Research limitations/implications

The impacts on output and input market prices, as well as other biophysical impacts (for instance, CO2 and water availability), are important in understanding the effects of climate change on irrigated agriculture, but they were not considered in this study. While this may be a limitation, it can also be a stimulus for further research.

Practical implications

This is an empirical paper, whose results contribute to improving knowledge about the effects of climate change on irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean areas, namely, its economic impacts on returns and the use of agricultural resources (land, water, labour and capital). Other practical implications of the paper are associated with the methodological approach, which provides a framework able to deal with the complexity and multidimensional effects of climate change.

Social implications

The results of the paper provide important information for scientists, politicians and other stakeholders about the design of more effective adaptation measures able to mitigate the effects of climate change.

Originality/value

Crop yields and irrigation requirements were previously calculated based on data generated by the regional climate models. This is the first time that an application is developed for Portugal. Two distinct profiles of irrigation areas were studied and a large set of crops was considered, which is not common in the existing studies. To specify the PMP approach used to calibrate the agricultural supply model, exogenous crop-specific supply elasticities were estimated through a least square model, which is not common in previous studies.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 March 2019

Tarek Bouregaa

The purpose of this paper is to show the impact of climate change on yield and water requirement of three rainfed crops in Setif region.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show the impact of climate change on yield and water requirement of three rainfed crops in Setif region.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigates likely changes in annual temperature and precipitation over Setif high plains region (North East of Algeria) among three future periods: 2025, 2050 and 2075. The projections are based on the SRES A2 and B2 scenarios. MAGICC-SCENGEN 5.3 v.2 was used as a tool for downscaling the four selected general circulation models (GCMs) output data. The expected impact of climate change on yield and water requirement of winter wheat, barley and olive was evaluated using the CROPWAT model.

Findings

The projection of the four GCMs showed that average temperature will increase by 0.73 to 3.42°C, and the precipitation will decrease by 1 to 52.7 percent, across the three future periods under the two SRES scenarios. Winter wheat and olive yields are expected to decrease under the three types of soils (heavy, medium and light). However, barley yield is expected to reduce under light soil only. Crop water requirements and irrigation water requirements are expected to increase under the two scenarios and across the three future periods.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first to study the impact of future climate change on water requirement and yield of rainfed crops over Setif region.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2014

Yongxi Ma, Wencong Lu and Holger Bergmann

The purpose of this paper is to optimize manure allocation through nutrient budgeting strategy to meet crop nutrient requirements under maximizing economic returns and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to optimize manure allocation through nutrient budgeting strategy to meet crop nutrient requirements under maximizing economic returns and environmental constraints, and then to evaluate the economic and environmental effects of different nutrient budgeting strategies in animal excreta treatment.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, a holistic integrated “ecological-economic” model is developed. It incorporates the systems of animal-crop production and waste treatment is developed for a pilot pig farm in China in order to simulate the economic and environmental effects of several nutrient budgeting strategies in excreta treatment for resource use.

Findings

The results reveal nutrient management deficiencies cause some serious environmental problems. The operations including biogas and composting are economically and environmentally efficient methods for manure management through nutrient budgeting strategy in an intensive animal farming with limited access to cropland. The nutrient budgeting strategy of constrained phosphorus, however, creates better environmental effects and brings more income from the waste treatment than the strategy of constrained nitrogen. The current standard of manure application in cropland which emphasizes on crop requirements for nitrogen should be reconsidered.

Originality/value

The paper is an original work and its methodology makes a meaningful contribution to understanding the relations between different nutrient budgeting strategies and their economic and environmental effects.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 October 2021

Kurt A. Wurthmann

This study aims to provide a new method for precisely sizing photovoltaic (PV) arrays for standalone, direct pumping PV Water Pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation purposes.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide a new method for precisely sizing photovoltaic (PV) arrays for standalone, direct pumping PV Water Pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

The method uses historical weather data and considers daily variability in regional temperatures and rainfall, crop evapotranspiration rates and seasonality effects, all within a nonparametric bootstrapping approach to synthetically generate daily rainfall and crop irrigation needs. These needs define the required daily supply of pumped water to achieve a user-specified level of reliability, which provides the input to an intuitive approach for PV array sizing. An economic comparison of the costs for the PVWP versus a comparably powered diesel generator system is provided.

Findings

Pumping 22.8646 m³/day of water would meet the pasture crop irrigation needs on a one-acre (4046.78 m²) tract of land in South Florida, with 99.9% reliability. Given the specified assumptions, an 8.4834 m² PV array, having a peak power of 1.1877 (kW), could provide the 1.2347 (kWh/day) of hydraulic energy needed to supply this volume over a total head of 20 meters. The PVWP system is the low-cost option when diesel prices are above $0.90/liter and total installed PV array costs are fixed at $2.00/Watt peak power or total installed PV array costs are below $1.50/Watt peak power and diesel prices are fixed at $0.65/liter.

Originality/value

Because the approach is not dependent on the shapes of the sampling distributions for regional climate factors and can be adapted to consider different types of crops, it is highly portable and applicable for precisely determining array sizes for standalone, direct pumping PVWP systems for irrigating diverse crop types in diverse regions.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Li Jiang, Karen C. Seto and Junfei Bai

The impact of dietary changes associated with urbanization is likely to increase the demand for land for food production. The purpose of this paper is to examine the…

1139

Abstract

Purpose

The impact of dietary changes associated with urbanization is likely to increase the demand for land for food production. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of urban economic development on changes in food demand and associated land requirements for food production.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on economic estimates from the Almost Ideal Demand System, feed conversion ratios, and crop yields, the authors forecast and compare future dietary patterns and land requirements for two types of urban diets in China.

Findings

The results show that the expenditure elasticities of oil and fat, meat, eggs, aquatic products, dairy, and liquor for the diet of capital cities are greater than those for the diet of small- and medium-sized cities. The authors forecast that capital city residents will experience a more rapid rate of increase in per capita demand of meat, eggs, and aquatic products, which will lead to much higher per capita land requirements. Projections indicate that total per capita land demand for food production in capital cities will increase by 9.3 percent, from 1,402 to 1,533 m2 between 2010 and 2030, while total per capita land demand in small- and medium-sized cities will increase only by 5.3 percent, from 1,192 to 1,255 m2.

Originality/value

The results imply that urban economic development can significantly affect the final outcomes of land requirements for food production. Urban economic development is expected to accelerate the rate of change toward an affluent diet, which can lead to much higher future land requirements.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2020

Mannar Mannan J., Kanimozhi Suguna S., Dhivya M. and Parameswaran T.

The purpose of this paper aims to reduce the manpower, electricity, and water consumption for irrigation.

248

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper aims to reduce the manpower, electricity, and water consumption for irrigation.

Design/methodology/approach

The IoT-based smart irrigation system designed with various sensors to collect farm field data, and stored all the data in the cloud for scheduling the irrigation.

Findings

This system reduces the water and electricity consumption, and labor cost.

Research limitations/implications

Difficult to implement on a small farm field with different crops.

Practical implications

Crop type, soil type and environment data should be considered for better saving of water.

Social implications

Reduces the water consumption, electricity, man power and increase production.

Originality/value

The soil type, crop type and environment data have been added before irrigation. The climate data also included before scheduling. Dynamic changing of irrigation timings based on the climate and sensor data.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2010

K.W.G. Rekha Nianthi and M.A.S. Jayakumara

Sri Lanka, as an island located near the southern tip of India and the Asian Continent and in the core area of the South Asian Monsoon has developed its own unique forms…

Abstract

Sri Lanka, as an island located near the southern tip of India and the Asian Continent and in the core area of the South Asian Monsoon has developed its own unique forms of Hydraulic Civilization. Sri Lanka is covered with a network of thousands of man-made lakes and ponds, known locally as “tanks,” numbering more than 25,000. Some are in the functional mode and others still remaining abandoned type. Many are thousands of years old and almost all show a high degree of sophistication in their construction and design. Sri Lanka's tanks are fascinatingly distributed in the cascades of tanks one below the other conserving water and soil and most effectively, acting as buffers against droughts while giving due consideration to maintaining the ecosystem equilibrium.

Details

Water Communities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-699-1

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2021

DC Sirimewan, Aparna Samaraweera, NHC Manjula, Raufdeen Rameezdeen, MNN Rodrigo and EMAC Ekanayake

Irrigation System Management (ISM) poses many issues in terms of social and technical aspects. These can be further elaborated as the issues toward the efficiency of…

Abstract

Purpose

Irrigation System Management (ISM) poses many issues in terms of social and technical aspects. These can be further elaborated as the issues toward the efficiency of infrastructure, equity of water sharing, environmental integrity and economic acceptability. Water losses and the structural changes of the system caused many issues putting the irrigation system into distress. Hence, this urges the need for sustainable ISM to improve social and technical attributes in ISM. This paper aims to apply the Socio-Technical Systems (STSs) theory for sustainable ISM.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative expert opinion survey method was selected as the research strategy to approach the research aim. Sixteen industry professionals in the ISM sector were selected through the purposive sampling method to conduct semi-structured interviews to collect data in the Sri Lankan context. Code-based content analysis through a directed approach was used to analyse the data.

Findings

Four main categories of strategies were emerged from the research findings as “engineering strategies”, “operational strategies”, “management strategies” and “regulatory strategies” through STS approach for sustainable ISM. The STS framework was developed by combining engineering and operational strategies into the technical subsystem and the management and regulatory strategies into the social subsystem to approach the aim of achieving contemporary system management in irrigation in a sustainable manner.

Originality/value

The research revealed the links between the strategies emerged from various disciplines to minimise the issues in ISM from the perspectives of technical and social subsystems. The study contributes to knowledge by providing a framework for sustainable ISM by applying the socio-technical systems theory by integrating the concepts of sustainability.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 August 2020

D.C. Sirimewan, A.P.K.D. Mendis, Damitha Rajini, Aparna Samaraweera and Naiduwa Handi Chathuri Manjula

Sustaining the irrigated agriculture, while conserving the natural eco-system, are the two main objectives of sustainable water management (SWM) in irrigation. Achieving…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustaining the irrigated agriculture, while conserving the natural eco-system, are the two main objectives of sustainable water management (SWM) in irrigation. Achieving both the objectives simultaneously is a complex task in most developing countries. This requires a holistic approach of understanding the issues in irrigation water management (IWM) from social, economic and environmental perspectives. Therefore, this paper aims to analyse the issues towards the SWM of irrigation systems in Sri Lanka to help maintain a stable relationship between the aforementioned two objectives.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative interview survey was selected as the research strategy to achieve the research aim. 16 semi-structured interviews were conducted with experts in IWM sector to collect data in the Sri Lankan context. Data were analysed using code-based content analysis, based on directed approach.

Findings

Findings revealed the issues in SWM in terms of efficiency of irrigation infrastructure; equity of water distribution; environmental integrity and economic acceptability. Most of the issues were related to the inefficiency towards SWM of irrigation systems. Conflicts among water users, especially the people in downstreams aggravated the problem of equity of water sharing. Depletion of groundwater and waterlogging were the major issues towards environmental integrity. Loss of water happened due to the issues in different irrigation infrastructure components hindering economic acceptability.

Originality/value

Theoretical contribution includes an analysis of issues in IWM from a sustainability perspective. Practical implications include an overview of deficiencies in the SWM to generate appropriate strategies to achieve sustainability for decision-makers such as policymakers in the irrigation sector in developing countries similar to Sri Lanka.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

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