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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2022

Caroline Winzenried and Jennifer Coburn

The purpose of this study was twofold: to explore the everyday experiences and interpretations of verbalised self-criticism in emergent adult males (ages 18–25) in social…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was twofold: to explore the everyday experiences and interpretations of verbalised self-criticism in emergent adult males (ages 18–25) in social contexts and, secondly, to explore the utilisation of vignettes in phenomenological research exploring social processes.

Design/methodology/approach

Four Australian male participants participated in semi-structured interviews to share the participants' experiences and sense-making of self-criticism in social contexts. Vignettes of verbalised self-criticism were used to prompt attentive reflection. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the data.

Findings

Four superordinate themes emerged from participant responses: (1) searching for context, (2) self-improving or self-attacking, (3) self-criticism as a social tool, and (4) engaging and distancing responses.

Originality/value

This study provides useful insights into how verbalised self-criticism in social contexts was experienced by four emergent adult males. Furthermore, this study provides a working example of how vignettes can be used within an interpretative phenomenological analysis frame to prompt attentive reflection on sensitive, nuanced social phenomenon. Implications for future research are discussed. Further research could use this study's findings to explore female responses to verbalised self-criticism and potential causality between contextual factors and the nature of responses.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Dominik Breitinger and Jean-Philippe Bonardi

Private politics refers to situations in which activists or NGOs try to push firms to conform to social standards (regarding, for instance, human rights and environmental…

Abstract

Private politics refers to situations in which activists or NGOs try to push firms to conform to social standards (regarding, for instance, human rights and environmental protection) without public policy intervention. The existing literature on private politics has focused on large campaigns such as consumer boycotts, and looked at the impact of those boycotts on firms’ financial performance and on the likelihood that firms comply with activist demands. Even though these large campaigns are important, focusing on them leads to neglecting the fact that a large portion of the time and resources that activists consecrate to private politics is used to monitor firms and criticize them through Internet posting and media statements, rather than to launch high profile campaigns. Little is known, however, about what drives these activists when they criticize companies, why they target certain companies and not others, and whether this criticism should be considered as a primary step in the production of full-fledged campaigns. In this paper, we fill this gap by exploring a unique international database of CSR-based criticisms against Fortune 500 companies for the 2006–2009 period. This database allows us to look at the impact of a broad range of factors including industry differences, country/institutional differences and firm-specific dimensions, on the likelihood that a certain firm will be targeted by activist critique. Results indicate that criticism is driven by strategic intents. Similar to previous literature, large and visible firms in certain industries are more targeted than others. In addition, these firms also tend to come from countries with strong institutions and high standards of living.

Details

Strategy Beyond Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-019-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 December 2021

Yi Zhu and Mary Jiang Bresnahan

Group criticism plays an important role in intergroup relations and conflicts, but few studies have related group criticism to intercultural communication contexts. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Group criticism plays an important role in intergroup relations and conflicts, but few studies have related group criticism to intercultural communication contexts. This study aims to explore two cultural groups’ (Chinese international students in the USA and American domestic students) collective face concern as a unique experience in intercultural communication and other psychological responses while encountering group criticism targeting their country image.

Design/methodology/approach

A laboratory experiment was conducted assessing Chinese international students (n = 115) and American domestic students’ (n = 100) responses to a research-confederate critic (whose group membership was manipulated) criticizing participants’ country image such as blaming China and the USA for air pollution or using drugs in the Olympics. analysis of covariance, correlational analysis and regression analysis were adopted to analyze the data.

Findings

Chinese international students reported higher collective face concerns and lower liking toward the critic compared with American students. When criticism specifically targeted participants’ country image, Chinese international students reported more discomfort feelings than American students; and while responding to the critic who identified as participants’ ingroup member, Chinese international students’ discomfort feelings were more susceptible to their collective face than American students in the same condition.

Originality/value

This study illustrates cultural differences in collective face concerns and psychological reactions in responding to criticism targeting a country image in intercultural communication contexts.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Yi Fei Gong, Sarah Kim and Noel Harding

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether accountability pressure and ignorance with regard to the preferences and views of the superior are necessary…

1748

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether accountability pressure and ignorance with regard to the preferences and views of the superior are necessary characteristics of the decision environment to effectively encourage pre-emptive self-criticism and elevate professional scepticism. Auditors continue to be called to account for a perceived lack of professional scepticism in the conduct of their audits. Pre-emptive self-criticism has been proposed as one means by which the level of professional scepticism exercised by auditors may be enhanced.

Design/methodology/approach

The role of accountability pressure and knowledge of the superior’s preferences in an experimental setting has been investigated, eliciting self-assessed measures of accountability pressure and manipulating whether the superior’s preferences were known or unknown. Judgements are made in the context of a preliminary analytical review setting.

Findings

It was found that greater application of pre-emptive self-criticism is associated with the presence of perceived accountability pressure, but only when the superior’s preferences are not known.

Research limitations/implications

Prior research reports that the effectiveness of prompts to be self-critical is limited. Findings suggest that pre-emptive self-criticism may be more effective in elevating professional scepticism than the findings of these studies suggest, and that the absence of an effect may be the result of low levels of accountability pressure in previous research settings. The results of this study imply that future research investigating pre-emptive self-criticism as a means of elevating professional scepticism should incorporate, as is the case in actual audit environments, accountability pressure in the decision setting.

Practical implications

Qualified by the need for further research, our study guides audit firms in their efforts to meet the expectations of regulators, oversight bodies, standard setters and the public at large for an elevated level of professional scepticism. Our findings suggest that placing auditors under accountability pressure might assist audit firms in meeting these expectations. Our findings also encourage auditors to exercise caution when making their preferences known to subordinates.

Originality/value

Despite its potential to help auditors meet demands for an elevated level of professional scepticism, pre-emptive self-criticism has received very little attention in the audit literature. Moreover, the few studies that have examined pre-emptive self-criticism find that prompts to be self-critical elevate professional scepticism in only limited circumstances. We make an original contribution towards an explanation for these findings, and guide future research by showing that accountability pressure is an important characteristic of the decision environment that should be in place before attempting to elevate professional scepticism through the encouragement of pre-emptive self-criticism.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Gilles Barouch and Stéphane Kleinhans

This paper aims at summing up the main criticisms concerning quality management (QM) in order to address them through objective arguments or extant research. Since its…

1185

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims at summing up the main criticisms concerning quality management (QM) in order to address them through objective arguments or extant research. Since its diffusion in the Occident in the 70s, QM gained as much approvals as criticisms. Therefore, with 40 years distance, it seems useful to sum up the main criticisms addressed to QM, to present a synthesis of the answers provided by researchers to these criticisms and to propose extant research when it appears that some criticisms have not received yet the adequate response.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a literature review.

Findings

This paper comes up with a list of the main criticisms addressed to QM. Then, main causes of criticisms are identified: ignorance of QM, confusion concerning QM definitions and theory and misuse of QM by senior managers. At last, QM organizational solutions are proposed which answer most expressed criticisms. Extant research tracks are considered for those relevant criticisms which have not been sufficiently addressed until now.

Research limitations/implications

Further research will look into depicting a survey conducted among QM professionals concerning QM criticisms in their organization and confronting them to these academic results.

Originality/value

This paper actualizes and completes Giroux and Landry’s (1998) article which dealt extensively with QM criticisms. Professionals will find in this paper answers to most criticisms against QM and a better understanding of the present limits of this discipline. Researchers will be provided with a state of the art concerning this sensitive topic, allowing them to go deeper in the fields that require special attention.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 7 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 February 2020

Bettina Lis and Maximilian Fischer

This study aims to investigate if different types of negative electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) have various negative effects on the attitude of the consumer toward a…

1453

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate if different types of negative electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) have various negative effects on the attitude of the consumer toward a product (Laptop) and whether this newfound attitude remains unaffected by the subsequent influence of positive eWOM.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative study in Germany was conducted. In the two-part experimental setting, first, a factorial repeated-measures between-subjects design was used in which the types of negative eWOM have been manipulated. The second part is characterized by a mixed between–within subjects design to test the durability of attitudinal changes.

Findings

The results demonstrate that destructive and ethical eWOM only provoke a small decline in consumer attitude compared to functional product criticism. Furthermore, the examination shows that renewed positive eWOM can improve the attitude, whereas ethical criticism is the most difficult to correct.

Research limitations/implications

The study views negative eWOM differentiated. Researchers could adopt this approach by analyzing online communication more precisely. Ambivalent relationships between negative eWOM and their outcomes can be explained.

Practical implications

The findings lessen the fear of permanent loss of brand reputation caused by negative reviews. The harmful effects on the attitude can be compensated through targeted marketing management actions. The study shows which content companies need to focus on.

Originality/value

Previous literature has predominantly overlooked the complex nature of negative eWOM. Therefore, the study provides first empirical results about the divergent effect of different content types of negative eWOM on consumer attitude toward a product. Additionally, the durability of consumer negativity could be measured over time.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

Robert Kieft

The heady system of high‐pressure Continental air that drifted across the Atlantic and collided with the traditional cyclonic patterns of U.S. literary academe in the…

Abstract

The heady system of high‐pressure Continental air that drifted across the Atlantic and collided with the traditional cyclonic patterns of U.S. literary academe in the mid‐1960s precipitated a “Theory Revolution” that has brought a couple of decades of stormy and stimulating weather to the campus. The collision has produced occasionally furious debate and resulted for higher education in the kind of public attention customarily reserved for athletic scandals; it has kept tenuring processes in turmoil and publish‐or‐perish mills working round the clock.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Book part
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Jose Miguel Abito, David Besanko and Daniel Diermeier

We model the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm and an activist using an infinite-horizon dynamic stochastic game. The firm enhances its reputation through…

Abstract

We model the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm and an activist using an infinite-horizon dynamic stochastic game. The firm enhances its reputation through “self-regulation”: voluntary provision of an abatement activity that reduces a negative externality. We show that in equilibrium the externality-reducing activity is subject to decreasing marginal returns, which can cause the firm to “coast on its reputation,” that is, decrease the level of externality-reducing activity as its reputation grows. The activist, which benefits from increases in the externality-reducing activity, can take two types of action that can harm the firm’s reputation: criticism, which can impair the firm’s reputation on the margin, and confrontation, which can trigger a crisis that may severely damage the firm’s reputation. The activist changes the reputational dynamics of the game by tending to keep the firm in reputational states in which it is highly motivated to invest in externality-reducing activity. Criticism and confrontational activity are shown to be imperfect substitutes. The more patient the activist or the more passionate it is about externality reduction, the more likely it is to rely on confrontation. The more patient the firm and the more important corporate citizenship is to firm’s brand equity, the more likely that it will be targeted by an activist that relies on confrontation.

Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2017

Magdalena Nowicka-Franczak

Public acts of self-criticism in Eastern Europe – a genre cultivated and extorted by the communist parties – did not disappear with the end of communism. In the young…

Abstract

Public acts of self-criticism in Eastern Europe – a genre cultivated and extorted by the communist parties – did not disappear with the end of communism. In the young democracies of the region self-criticism has become an attempt to diagnose society’s ‘backward’ character and to develop ‘self-correction’ scenarios in order to participate in the Western modernising discourse. On the one hand, conservative and right-wing elites suppose that public acts of self-criticism (performed by politicians, artists or scholars) can endow the vetting procedures of the ancien régime with a sense of social catharsis and retroactive justice. On the other hand, liberal and left-wing intellectuals subject themselves to collective self-reckoning, not only with their choices made in the transition period, but also with the memory of WWII, in order to shape a civil society free of anti-Semitism and intolerance. An analysis based on the discourse-historical approach in critical discourse analysis, Reinhart Koselleck’s historical semantics and Michel Foucault’s notion of discourse, and carried out on the text corpus of selected acts of self-criticism in Poland, aims to diagnose the role these acts had in shaping public discourse on the troublesome past.

Details

National Identity and Europe in Times of Crisis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-514-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

Jay T. Knippen and Thad B. Green

Describes a five‐step strategy for handling criticism from your boss. Gives numerous theoretical examples of conversational exchanges between boss and employee. Subdivides…

1115

Abstract

Describes a five‐step strategy for handling criticism from your boss. Gives numerous theoretical examples of conversational exchanges between boss and employee. Subdivides three of the five steps into three or four sub‐stages. The five steps are: prepare yourself mentally to be criticized; accept the criticism; understand the criticism; reach agreement on how you will change; give positive reinforcement to your boss. Concludes that criticism should not be taken personally but should be allowed to be a catalyst for improved future behaviour in order to gain the maximum advantage from the boss’s feedback.

Details

Employee Councelling Today, vol. 8 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-8217

Keywords

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