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Purpose – Crime, criminals, the criminal justice system, and criminal justice system actors have traditionally occupied a prominent place in popular media. Comic books and…
Purpose – Crime, criminals, the criminal justice system, and criminal justice system actors have traditionally occupied a prominent place in popular media. Comic books and graphic novels are no exception to this trend. Despite this, these media have received comparatively little attention from criminal justice scholars. This chapter seeks to explore the depiction of crime and justice in modern-era comic books and graphic novels.
Methodology/approach – Content analysis techniques were used to examine 166 individual comic books from the modern age (mid-1980s to present), including those compiled in graphic novel form. Particular emphasis was placed on issues of crime control and due process.
Findings – Clear criminal justice themes were seen across the sample, including an emphasis on crime control and crime prevention. Further, comic books featuring the individual characters of Superman and Batman portrayed opposing conceptions of justice, such as justified/unjustified use of force and a willingness to follow or break the law.
Research limitations – This research represents an exploration of the depiction of crime-related themes in comic books and graphic novels, but is by no means definitive. It would be useful to extend this research by examining other eras in comic book history as well as other comic book characters and publishing companies.
Practical implications – The public's perceptions of the criminal justice system ultimately affect societal views of the legitimacy of the system. Since legitimacy is a requisite for compliance, it is important to understand factors that may influence these perceptions. These may include comic books, graphic novels, and other popular media.
Originality/value of paper – Comic books stories and themes have long reflected the times. However, it is unclear how crime and the criminal justice system are portrayed in the comic book world. This chapter is an attempt to fill a gap in the extant literature by examining this often neglected form of popular media.
The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of some of the deficiencies in the criminal justice system in Jamaica, particularly relating to financial crime. The…
The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of some of the deficiencies in the criminal justice system in Jamaica, particularly relating to financial crime. The author also examines possible alternatives in the approach that may be taken in tackling financial crime.
The methodology used was a review of data on financial crime in Jamaica as well as recent significant cases. An analysis of key pieces of legislation was also undertaken. In some instances, a comparative approach was invoked, with special reference to the UK and US laws.
Some essential findings include the positive impact that may be gained from restorative justice principles, the effective enforcement of asset recovery provisions and stricter regulation of the financial services industry.
There is no similar comprehensive examination of these issues concerning Jamaica.
The G7 finance ministers, at a meeting in London on 8th May, 1998, called for international action to enhance the capacity of anti‐money‐laundering systems to deal…
The G7 finance ministers, at a meeting in London on 8th May, 1998, called for international action to enhance the capacity of anti‐money‐laundering systems to deal effectively with tax‐related crimes, with a view to achieving the following objectives: the extension of suspicious transaction reporting to money laundering related to tax offences; the permission to money‐laundering authorities to the greatest extent possible to pass information to their tax authorities to support the investigation of tax‐related crimes; and the communication of such information to other jurisdictions in ways which would allow its use by tax authorities.
In this chapter, the author analyzes sentencing and incarceration practices in South Africa during the last 20 years, a period which saw the country transforming into a…
In this chapter, the author analyzes sentencing and incarceration practices in South Africa during the last 20 years, a period which saw the country transforming into a fully flexed democracy.
The concepts of sentencing, mandatory minimum sentencing, sentencing of children and incarceration are discussed. The past 20 years of democracy serve as a point of departure for this discussion. The retrospective nature of the adopted approach necessitates a heavy reliance on existing literature, but a statistical analysis is also relied upon. The author also reflects on research conducted during the last 20 years.
While it is almost impossible to duly consider all sentencing-related developments in democratic South Africa, important advances have been made but they were not always systematically followed through. Well-intended policies have at times been poorly executed. Specially, the correctional system destroyed all types of staff motivation through poor human resource practices.
Few scholars have considered the influence of sentencing practices on the South African inmate population, more particularly during the period of democracy that has been running for 20 years. This influence in the South African criminal justice system will be highlighted. The contribution of sentencing in the democratization of the country may be drawn from this discussion. The study may contribute to policy implementation for decades to come and through that, strengthen the South African democracy. At the same time, lessons from South Africa may serve as a roadmap for other young and established democracies.
Technology-Facilitated violence and abuse including image-based sexual abuse (IBSA) is a phenomenon affecting women and girls around the world. Abusers misuse technology…
Technology-Facilitated violence and abuse including image-based sexual abuse (IBSA) is a phenomenon affecting women and girls around the world. Abusers misuse technology to attack victims and threaten their safety, privacy, and dignity. This abuse is gendered and a form of domestic and sexual violence. In this article, the authors compare criminal law approaches to tackling IBSA in Scotland and Malawi. We critically analyze the legislative landscape in both countries, with a view to assessing the potential for victims to seek and obtain redress for IBSA. We assess the role criminal law has to play in each jurisdiction while acknowledging the limits of criminal law alone in terms of providing redress.
The purpose of this paper is to critically explore the impact of anti-social behaviour orders (ASBOs) on young people with mild learning disabilities. In an attempt to…
The purpose of this paper is to critically explore the impact of anti-social behaviour orders (ASBOs) on young people with mild learning disabilities. In an attempt to identify why young people (under the age of 18) with learning disabilities are exposed to the criminal justice system, an emerging body of evidence is considered. The research provides an insight into some of the difficulties vulnerable young people may encounter, such as receiving unrealistic prohibitions and the lack of support provided after receiving a court order. The research also highlights the lack of professional awareness and understanding of learning disabilities and considers the level of training available to professionals. The paper closes with a discussion of the themes identified from the literature reviewed and some of the changes proposed by the coalition government regarding the future of the criminal justice system.
Although a strict systematic review of the literature was not required for the literature review, a less rigorous systematic approach was employed. When searching for literature, the general principles and guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration were employed, this included inclusion and exclusion criteria. The eligibility criteria guided the focus of the literature review and determined the relevance of the research. During the literature review it was recognised that much of the research is discussion/review based, and currently there is a limited amount of empirical research available. An eco-systems perspective was employed to consider the connections between young people, the environment and anti-social behaviour (ASB).
The findings from the literature review, illustrate a growing body of evidence which suggests that young people with learning disabilities have been “caught up” in ASB measures. It is positive that more recently, there has been a much needed focus on early identification and diversion away from the criminal justice system, for those with mental health conditions and learning disabilities. The research findings presented by Cant and Standen, and Talbot, provide possible explanations as to why vulnerable young people are made subject to ASBOs. Indeed this lack of sufficient training has not gone unnoticed by other researchers.
Although the author is aware of the valuable insight qualitative research can provide, the methodological limitations raise questions regarding the validity of the research the author has considered, especially as most of the research the author has drawn upon is based on exploratory approaches. Nevertheless, the concurring themes drawn from the research findings raise much curiosity around the potential links between disability awareness training and the identification of young people with mild learning disabilities.
Despite the governments recent proposal to abolish the ASBO and introduce a new approach to tackling ASB, it appears unclear as to how the new measures will differ from the existing ones. The recent proposed measures are set out in the Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014. Although the accompanying guidance for frontline professionals clearly sets out the need for early intervention, which sits alongside a new menu of ASB powers, including the Criminal Behaviour Order (which seems very similar to the ASBO), it is disappointing that the guidance does not give any direction of how new measures will impact on young people with learning disabilities.
Although the ASBO was not initially designed to target children and young people, it is clear from the literature that certain families and young people are often singled out and labelled as “anti-social”. It is unsurprising, that children and young people from poor families, with low educational attainment, limited employment opportunities and live in the most marginalised and deprived communities are amongst those who are singled out as being particularly problematic.
The research findings have helped me to understand some of the potential difficulties vulnerable young people may encounter if they come into contact with the criminal justice system. As there appears to be a lack of empirical research available which considers the connections between learning disabilities and ASBOs, further research within this area of practice would be beneficial. The research invites an alternative perspective which adds to the existing literature.