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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Caroline L. Davey and Andrew B. Wootton

This paper aims to understand the delivery of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) across Europe – from European-wide procedures through national schemes…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand the delivery of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) across Europe – from European-wide procedures through national schemes to effective local strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The findings come from a review of published literature and reports, case studies and site visits conducted primarily during COST Action TU1203 (2013-2016).

Findings

Innovative approaches and methods to integrate crime prevention into urban design, planning and management have been generated by multi-agency partnerships and collaborations at European, national and city levels. Methods and procedures developed by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Working Group on “Crime Prevention through Urban Planning and Building Design” are pioneering. However, findings show that implementation is best achieved at a local level using methods and procedures tailored to the specific context.

Research limitations/implications

In-depth research is required to appreciate subtle differences between local approaches and conceptual models developed to better understand approaches and methods.

Practical implications

Practitioners and academics working to prevent crime benefit from participation in focused, multi-agency collaborations that, importantly, facilitate visits to urban developments, discussions with local stakeholders responsible for delivery “on the ground” and structured and sustained exploration of innovations and challenges.

Originality/value

The authors hope that this paper will contribute to developing a new direction for CPTED practice and research that builds on significant progress in creating safer environments over previous decades.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Herbert Schubert

The contribution is focussed on the question of which logic and which distinctive lines of development have shaped the discourse on urban crime prevention and will…

Abstract

Purpose

The contribution is focussed on the question of which logic and which distinctive lines of development have shaped the discourse on urban crime prevention and will probably shape it in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

Comparing the line of development in thinking about urban crime prevention: starting with the approaches of the rational choice theory and of architectural determinism that were integrated in the practical approach of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). Looking on the continuation in the recent past: aspects of social cohesion and disorganization in the neighbourhood – represented by the collective efficacy – were integrated with the traditional lines of argumentation. Continuing to the present, the actor network theory opens up advanced perspectives of the integration and development of urban crime prevention.

Findings

Comparison of the approaches of the rational choice theory and of architectural determinism. Their combination in the practical approach of CPTED. Integration of these lines of argumentation with aspects of social cohesion and disorganization in the neighbourhood represented by the collective efficacy and the absorption in the concept of second-generation CPTED in the recent past. Opening up for advanced perspectives of the integration and development of urban crime prevention by the actor network theory.

Originality/value

The process analysis by linking the rational choice theory, the architectural determinism, the collective efficacy theory and the actor network theory to a continuous development represents an innovative perspective on the discourse on urban crime prevention.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Sarah Isabella Chiodi

The purpose of this study is to analyse the nexus between Crime Prevention through Urban Design and Planning (CP-UDP) and e-participation in urban planning, with the idea…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyse the nexus between Crime Prevention through Urban Design and Planning (CP-UDP) and e-participation in urban planning, with the idea that a comprehensive planning approach is needed in order to have effective safe cities.

Design/methodology/approach

This study relies on some European case studies on CP-UDP learned by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (EU COST) Action TU1203 and on a personal research experience focused on CPTED and its potential development in Italy – which was based on literature review and interviews with key informants.

Findings

CP-UDP, as a proactive and potentially effective crime prevention strategy plays an important role in order to implement safer cities. Information and communications technology (ICT) can provide a valuable tool to enhance participatory planning. The thesis supported in this paper is that through the widespread of e-participation in urban planning is possible to implement safer cities if a comprehensive planning approach is applied and Italy has already made its first steps forward this direction.

Originality/value

The smart city concept pervades contemporary urban studies, supported by European policies, according to the logic that the use of ICT could contribute to sustainable development in its various dimensions. A new-generation CP-UDP focused on e-participation may enhance safer cities.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Melinda Benkő and Tibor Germán

Security is one of the most important challenges for contemporary integrated urban developments. In Hungary, every strategic document highlights this goal, seeking social…

Abstract

Purpose

Security is one of the most important challenges for contemporary integrated urban developments. In Hungary, every strategic document highlights this goal, seeking social and smart city solutions to the problem. Yet, what about crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED)? The purpose of the paper is to introduce a Central-European perspective into the international discussion of the topic.

Design/methodology/approach

Focusing on European Union-funded renewal of public space in the historic city centre of Budapest, the research investigates how urban security can be facilitated through urban planning and design. The analysis of two projects based on design documents and interviews with actors highlights the importance of CPTED, although it is not recognised officially either in the development or in the management phase.

Findings

March 15th Square is an attractive contemporary public space in the tourist-historic city centre. The project was centrally planned, executed with typical EU indicators, but without any special requirements for security. The process resulted in a safescape. By contrast, the main principal for the renewal of Teleki László Square, the first Hungarian example of community-based planning, was to instil a feeling of security. The public square became a fenced defensible space.

Practical implications

The analysis method can be used for other projects evaluating changes in urban security due to public space renewal: history, requirements for security, design solutions for space division, materials and urban furniture, as well as use of space and management after the regeneration.

Originality/value

The paper uncovers Hungarian cases where environmental crime prevention criteria are not explicitly but implicitly present in contemporary urban planning and design. In relation to urban security, it highlights the gap that exists among disciplines, indicative of a lack of dialogue among policymakers, researchers, designers and management.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Paul Michael Cozens, Greg Saville and David Hillier

The purpose of this paper is to critically review the core findings from recently published place‐based crime prevention research. The paper aims to critically evaluate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically review the core findings from recently published place‐based crime prevention research. The paper aims to critically evaluate the available evidence on the contribution of crime prevention through environmental design as a crime prevention strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

Large‐scale evaluations of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) are reviewed with a view to clarifying current knowledge on the evidence of crime prevention through environmental design.

Findings

The review concludes that there is a growing body of research that supports the assertion that crime prevention through environmental design is effective in reducing both crime and fear of crime in the community.

Research limitations/implications

Although the paper may not review all the evaluations of CPTED, it nonetheless provides a detailed compilation and overview of the most significant research in the area, including an extensive and modern bibliography on the subject. Research implications will be the subject of a forthcoming paper.

Practical implications

CPTED is an increasingly fashionable approach and is being implemented on a global scale. Additionally, individual components such as territoriality, surveillance, maintenance, access control, activity support and target‐hardening are being widely deployed. However, the evidence currently available is inconclusive and much criticised, which effectively prevents widespread intervention and investment by central government. The paper details the difficulties associated with demonstrating the effectiveness of CPTED.

Originality/value

The paper concludes that although empirical proof has not been definitively demonstrated, there is a large and growing body of research, which supports the assertion that crime prevention through environmental design is a pragmatic and effective crime prevention tool. This review provides an extensive bibliography of contemporary crime prevention through environmental design and a follow‐up paper will discuss the future research priorities for it.

Details

Property Management, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Miguel Saraiva, Irina Matijosaitiene, Mónica Diniz and Vilius Velicka

The purpose of this paper is to respond to the need for comparative studies on methodologies for implementing Crime Prevention through Urban Design and Planning (CP-UDP…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to respond to the need for comparative studies on methodologies for implementing Crime Prevention through Urban Design and Planning (CP-UDP) at the local level, particularly in peripheral Europe where CP-UDP’s top-down standards have poor dissemination and acceptance. This paper debates how local partnerships can help reduce crime and how a CP-UDP-based model can be introduced into municipal planning.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper discusses the challenge of CP-UDP in the framework of a post-crisis Europe and Europe 2020. Because there is a large gap between theory and practice, lack of a shared holistic approach, and scepticism, or lack of knowledge, of public authorities, at local-level planning professionals and the police have devised bottom-up initiatives based on interdisciplinary partnerships with the community. The paper describes, discusses and compares the implementation of such approaches in Lisbon (Portugal) and Vilnius (Lithuania).

Findings

The paper addresses the processes and challenges of establishing synergies and working relationships between police officers, public officials and the community, and it discusses six main causes for its (un)success. When these conditions were met, crime and social constraints reduced.

Practical implications

Lessons learned are deemed crucial to disseminate knowledge and best practices, paving the way for proper top-down policies and planning legislations in these and other countries.

Originality/value

This paper analyses the potentialities and shortcomings of local-level implementation of CP-UDP strategies as an alternative to failed top-down strategies in two realities mostly unknown of the international scientific community. The case study material is previously unpublished internationally.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

Paul Cozens, David Hillier and Gwyn Prescott

This paper provides a critical review of “Defensible Space” (Newman, 1973) and traces the development of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) in America…

Abstract

This paper provides a critical review of “Defensible Space” (Newman, 1973) and traces the development of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) in America and Canada, and Secured By Design (SBD) initiatives in the UK. It is argued that various aspects of the theory have avoided consideration and require further investigation and research. It is opined that “defensible space” is the theoretical foundation to both CPTED and SBD and it is posited that a thorough re‐examination of Newman’s ideas will serve to deepen our understanding of the complex relationship between the built environment and crime. British (BS8220) and European (CEN TC/325) Standards relating to urban planning and environmental design and crime reduction are currently receiving detailed deliberation and are based firmly upon Newman’s ideas. The projected need for some 4.4 million new homes in Britain (DOE, 1995) by 2016 and Lord Roger’s call for improvements in urban design to reduce suburban migration from cities (DETR, 1999) reiterates the importance of the subject matter. This paper (the first of two) recognises that design per se does not represent the panacea for reducing criminogeneity, rather, that “defensible space” CPTED and SBD should be considered as crime prevention strategies, which can, in common with all other initiatives, contribute to tackling the problem of residential crime. In conclusion, it is argued that further research concerning how “defensible space” is perceived by various crucial stakeholders in society is the way forward in this regard. A second, forthcoming paper (PM, Vol. 19 No. 3) will present these research findings.

Details

Property Management, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

Chris Butler

The purpose of this paper is to offer a commentary on the implementation of the Guidelines for Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) in New Zealand…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer a commentary on the implementation of the Guidelines for Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) in New Zealand. Published in 2005, the guidelines represented a significant shift in both the appreciation and awareness of CPTED amongst its built environment professionals and those involved in crime prevention. The author refers to a case study from Maraenui, New Zealand, which demonstrates a holistic approach to regeneration through community involvement and decision making.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is an invited opinion piece and comment based upon the specialist experience and viewpoint of the author as an urban designer with an Australasian multi-disciplinary design company. Through the use of a case study, the author discusses creative solutions to reducing crime that has helped to promote and support a more resilient future for Maraenui.

Findings

The author explores the realities and challenges to progressing the practice and evaluation of CPTED in New Zealand, and outlines, in his opinion, what actions may impact its future direction and success.

Originality/value

On the basis of their experience, the author argues the need for four key actions that he believes are required to advance CPTED in New Zealand.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Il-Hyoung Cho and Kyujin Jung

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), a crime prevention tool, on reducing rates of sexual…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), a crime prevention tool, on reducing rates of sexual assault. In addition, the study attempts to understand if CPTED results in crime displacement in non-target areas.

Design/methodology/approach

This research utilizes a Weighted Displacement Quotient (WDQ) model to analyze the effects of CPTED, which is an appropriate tool in fields of regional-scale crime prevention and on sexual assault prevention. WDQ is capable of analyzing policy effectiveness while controlling for geographical crime displacement, a known side effect of CPTED in the literature.

Findings

The analysis results show that CPTED is an effective tool to prevent sexual assaults in South Korea. The sexual assault occurrence rate decreased in the CPTED implementation zone of Yeomri-dong Mapo-gu. WDQ showed that crime displacement occurred in adjacent areas in Daeheung-dong and Ahyun-dong. But, crime displacement was lower than the policy effectiveness in the target zone.

Originality/value

The policy implications of this research are immense. First, CPTED for the prevention of sexual assaults should be considered as a pre-control tool. Second, a strategic method for more effectively implementing CPTED is required. Third, because CPTED is a policy done on a regional scale, provisions need to be in place to manage crime displacement.

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Paul Cozens and Mu Yao Sun

Crime and fear of crime in and around the university campus can affect enrolments and retention rates as well as compromising the safety, security and well-being of…

Abstract

Purpose

Crime and fear of crime in and around the university campus can affect enrolments and retention rates as well as compromising the safety, security and well-being of students and staff. The purpose of this paper is to explore user perceptions of personal safety using the “Prospect and Refuge Model” and crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED).

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a fear of crime survey of 88 students at a university in Western Australia. The respondents were asked to identify on a map, three locations perceived to be “safe” and three locations perceived to be “unsafe”. The six most commonly identified sites were then visually audited to measure the levels of “prospect” and “refuge” and CPTED features at each location.

Findings

The findings indicate the top three “fear spots” were associated with low levels of “prospect” and high levels of “refuge” – and generally, with poor opportunities for natural surveillance and CPTED qualities. The top three “safe spots” had consistently higher levels of “prospect” and lower levels of “refuge” in the site audits and responses to the surveys. Increased opportunities for surveillance were therefore associated with increased levels of personal safety.

Research limitations/implications

The survey is relatively small (88) and a larger study is certainly required to underpin these findings. The methodology is transferable to other universities and facilities seeking to manage crime and fear of crime. The research develops more finely nuanced measures for the concepts of prospect and refuge.

Practical implications

Interestingly, surveillance opportunities and perceptions of personal safety were perceived to be mediated by distance from buildings and by the construction of new buildings and infrastructure being carried out across the campus. This has implications for the construction of new universities and for those which are expanding. Recommendations are provided for new and existing universities and for those undergoing redevelopment.

Social implications

Improving students’ perception of personal safety can enhance their performance and retention at university.

Originality/value

No studies have investigated the campus design and layout and students’ perceptions of personal safety in Australia in this way. The approach is more “bottom-up” by first exploring users’ perceptions of “unsafe” locations, then assessing these sites in terms of the presence or absence of measures for CPTED and prospect-refuge.

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