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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Matthew J. Giblin

Studies of police organizations typically involve examining predictors consistent with structural contingency theory while comparatively fewer have examined the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Studies of police organizations typically involve examining predictors consistent with structural contingency theory while comparatively fewer have examined the applicability of institutional theory. The purpose of the current study is to examine the influence of institutional factors on the elaboration of organizational structure, specifically the incorporation of a crime analysis unit into a police organization's structure.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained using a 2002 mail survey of law enforcement agencies focusing on the crime analysis function and environmental factors influencing the organization of that function. Additional information complementing the survey data was obtained through telephone interviews with representatives from 12 of the surveyed departments.

Findings

Multivariate results show that, consistent with contingency theory, size is an important predictor of structural elaboration. Analyses and interview responses suggest that institutional factors, particularly accreditation standards, may play some role in shaping organizational structures.

Research limitations/implications

The survey was returned by 160 agencies for a response rate of 56 percent but analyses were based on relatively small samples of 67‐77 agencies. Telephone interviews were conducted using a purposive, non‐probability sampling method.

Practical implications

The results of this exploratory study provide insight into factors contributing to the adoption of structures and strategies in policing.

Originality/value

The research is one of only a small number of studies in policing to explicitly test propositions derived from institutional theory, particularly the concept of institutional isomorphism.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 29 September 2021

Nicholas Gilmour

This paper aims to demonstrate the benefit of applying crime script analysis at a macro level to expose money laundering as an interconnected series of events that…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to demonstrate the benefit of applying crime script analysis at a macro level to expose money laundering as an interconnected series of events that contradict understanding which defines money laundering as a series of typological studies.

Design/methodology/approach

Using previously captured data and detailed research studies alongside the professional experience of the author, this study creates a horizontal crime script for three distinct methods of money laundering – to determine characteristic nodes and identify pathways.

Findings

Despite significant research into money laundering typologies, this paper demonstrates that the process of money laundering cannot be separated into typological studies. By applying crime script analysis to each method of money laundering prior to analysing the nodes, activities and behaviours, money laundering can be identified as a series of interconnected services, business formalities and management activities.

Practical implications

This study is of value to government policymakers, regulators and financial institutions considering future preventative measures. It is also of value to financial investigators and law enforcement agencies intent on investigating money laundering. By applying the method of analysis outlined in this paper to each method of money laundering and then combining them together, it is possible to understand money laundering as a holistic process, in which webs of interconnected criminal events can be identified for investigative and preventative purposes.

Originality/value

Interest in crime script analysis is now supporting understanding of different crime types. This study goes beyond the analysis of individual types of money laundering and applies it in a “test format” against three methods of money laundering to create, for the first time, a holistic or macro appreciation of the interconnected series of events, activities and behaviours which exist beyond the characteristics routinely captured in money laundering typology reports.

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Rachel Boba Santos and Bruce Taylor

The purpose of this paper is to examine national survey data of police agencies in the USA to explore the current state of crime analysis integration to patrol crime

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1211

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine national survey data of police agencies in the USA to explore the current state of crime analysis integration to patrol crime reduction work.

Design/methodology/approach

The data examined in this paper are from a national quantitative survey which sought to understand how crime analysis results are used by officers as well as higher ranking personnel in the patrol division and what types of strategies are implemented using crime analysis.

Findings

The findings show that the routine use of crime analysis is not well integrated. Despite the low integration, however, some differences were found. Management uses crime analysis the most overall, but officers and first-line supervisors use tactical crime analysis more routinely than management, where management personnel use evaluation most routinely. Tactical crime analysis is used most often for directed patrol, strategic for both directed patrol and general information, and evaluation for both general information and crime prevention. Analysis of using analysis proactively shows that agencies use tactical crime analysis most proactively, followed by the strategic crime analysis, then evaluation.

Research limitations/implications

The study relies on self-report surveys, so the results may suffer from some of the general limitations of self-reports. Also, the study resulted in a lower response rate than surveys of police agencies typically achieve. Although responding and non-responding agencies were comparable in terms of population size, number of officers, and region of the country, the response rate was about 55 percent. However, it is a possibility based on the analysis results that non-responses may reflect a disinterest in the topic or the lack of integration of crime analysis.

Originality/value

This is the first national survey that focussed specifically on crime analysis integration in patrol work for crime reduction. The value of the results presented here are in the description of the current state of crime analysis integration in the USA which has not been investigated in such depth before and the identifications of gaps in both research in practice.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2020

Jan-Martin Winter and Gina Rossi

Traditional crime linkage studies on serial sexual assaults have relied predominantly on a binary crime linkage approach that has yielded successful results in terms of…

Abstract

Purpose

Traditional crime linkage studies on serial sexual assaults have relied predominantly on a binary crime linkage approach that has yielded successful results in terms of linkage accuracy. Such an approach is a coarse reflection of reality by focussing mainly on the outcome of an offence, neglecting the forceful differences due to the intricate offender-victim interaction. Only few researchers have examined sexual assaults through the lens of a sequence analysis framework. This paper aims to present the first empirical test of offence sequence-based crime linkage, moving beyond exploratory analyses.

Design/methodology/approach

Offence accounts from 90 serial sexual assault and rape victims from the UK were analysed and sequentially coded. Sequence analysis allowed to compare all offences combinations regarding their underlying sequence of events. The resulting comparison was transformed and plotted in two-dimensional space by multidimensional scaling analysis for a visual inspection of linkage potential. The transformed proximities of all offences were used as predictors in a receiver operating characteristic analysis to actually test their discriminatory accuracy for crime linkage purpose.

Findings

Sequence analysis shows significant discriminatory accuracy for crime linkage purpose. However, the method does perform less well than previous binary crime linkage studies.

Research limitations/implications

Several limitations due to the nature of the data will be discussed.

Practical implications

The practical limitations are as follows: the study is a potential practical value for crime analysts; it is a complimentary methodology for statistical crime linkage packages; it requires automated coding to be useful; and it is very dependent on crime recoding standards.

Originality/value

The exploratory part of this study has been published in a book chapter in 2015. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the succinct test of crime linkage accuracy is the first of its kind.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Manish Gupta, B. Chandra and M.P. Gupta

– The purpose of this paper is to introduce architecture of an Intelligent Decision Support System to fulfill the emerging responsibilities of law enforcement agencies.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce architecture of an Intelligent Decision Support System to fulfill the emerging responsibilities of law enforcement agencies.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed Intelligent Police System (IPS) is designed to meet the emerging requirements and provide information at all levels of decision making by introducing a multi-level structure of user interface and crime analysis model. The proposed framework of IPS is based on data mining and performance measurement techniques to extract useful information like crime hot spots, predict crime trends and rank police administration units on the basis of crime prevention measures.

Findings

IPS has been implemented on actual Indian crime data provided by National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), which illustrates effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed system. IPS can play a vital role in improving outcome in the crime investigation, criminal detection and other major areas of functioning of police organization by analyzing the crime data and sharing of the information.

Research limitations/implications

The research in intelligent police information system can be enhanced with some important additional features which include web-base management system, geographical information system, mobile adhoc network technology, etc.

Practical implications

IPS can easily be applied to any police system in the world and can equally be useful for any law enforcement agencies for carrying out homeland security effectively.

Originality/value

The research reported in this manuscript is outcome of the research project funded by NCRB. This paper is the first attempt to build framework of IPS for Indian police who deal with large volume and high rate of crimes that are unmatched to any police force of the world.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Timothy C. Hart and Paul A. Zandbergen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of reference data, input address quality, and crime type on completeness and positional accuracy of street geocoded…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of reference data, input address quality, and crime type on completeness and positional accuracy of street geocoded crime events.

Design/methodology/approach

Existing data were analyzed using ArcGIS, including crime incident information, street network reference data, and address point and/or parcel reference data. Geocoding completeness was determined by the overall match rate. Positional accuracy was determined by comparing the Euclidian distance between street geocoded locations of crime events to the corresponding address point/parcel geocoded location.

Findings

Results indicate that match rates vary by reference data, input address quality, and crime type. Local street centerline files consistently produced match rates that were as good as – and in many cases superior to – other types of reference data, including commercial data. Greater variability in positional accuracy was observed across reference data when crime type and input address quality was considered, but results were consistent with positional accuracy analysis conducted using data from other disciplines.

Practical implications

Results provide researchers and practitioners with valuable guidance and insight into one of the most basic – albeit fundamental – procedures related to the spatio‐temporal analysis of crime, suggesting that reference data required to produce geocoded crime incidents successfully and of high quality does not necessarily mean a large financial investment on the part of law enforcement agencies or researchers interested in the geospatial analysis of crime.

Originality/value

Prior to this investigation, a comprehensive examination of the impact of data quality on geocoded crime events was absent from the literature.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2007

Gisela Bichler and Stefanie Balchak

The purpose of this paper is to show that despite the critical importance of using accurate data when identifying geographic patterns and studying hotspots, few have…

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1037

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show that despite the critical importance of using accurate data when identifying geographic patterns and studying hotspots, few have explored the data quality issues introduced by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software applications. While software manufacturers provide some information about the address matching process, critical details are left out or are buried in technical, and sometimes proprietary, jargon. The purpose of this paper is to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper demonstrates, with three datasets of 100 cases each, how the assumptions built into popular GIS software produce systematically missing data during the data importing process commonly referred to as address matching.

Findings

Inclusion of directional indicators and zip codes are more important than previously thought. The results highlight the critical need to provide complete descriptions of research methodology. All geographic analyses must be accompanied with: information about the hit rate (percent of cases plotted), details about the software and process used to import tabular crime data, information about the software parameters set for the importation process (geocoding preferences), reference information about the street file used; and, an examination of the missing cases to identify some of the sampling error. When forecasting crime issues or identifying hot spots, analysts must be cognizant of the differential impact this bias will have on the generalizability of the results.

Originality/value

The paper explores previously neglected issues in data quality introduced by GIS software applications.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

David McIlhatton, William McGreal, Paloma Taltavul de la Paz and Alastair Adair

There is a lack of understanding in the literature on the spatial relationships between crime and house price. This paper aims to test the impact of spatial effects in the…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a lack of understanding in the literature on the spatial relationships between crime and house price. This paper aims to test the impact of spatial effects in the housing market, how these are related to the incidence of crime and whether effects vary by the type of crime.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis initially explores univariate and bivariate spatial patterns in crime and house price data for the Belfast Metropolitan Area using Moran’s I and Local Indicator Spatial Association (LISA) models, and secondly uses spatial autoregression models to estimate the role of crime on house prices. A spatially weighted two-stage least-squares model is specified to analyse the joint impact of crime variables. The analysis is cross sectional, based on a panel of data.

Findings

The paper illustrates that the pricing impact of crime is complex and varies by type of crime, property type and location. It is shown that burglary and theft are associated with higher-income neighbourhoods, whereas violence against persons, criminal damage and drugs offences are mainly associated with lower-priced neighbourhoods. Spatial error effects are reduced in models based on specific crime variables.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper is the application of spatial analysis in the study of the impact of crime upon house prices. Criticisms of hedonic price models are based on unexplained error effects; the significance of this paper is the reduction of spatial error effects achievable through the analysis of crime data.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Rachel B. Santos

This paper aims to present the evaluation results of a practice‐based research partnership to develop and implement a new police organizational model for crime reduction…

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1625

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the evaluation results of a practice‐based research partnership to develop and implement a new police organizational model for crime reduction into one police agency which was implemented based on the best practices of problem‐oriented policing, hot spots policing, and Compstat.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative process evaluation of organizational changes and an impact evaluation examining specific crime types was conducted over seven years to determine increased efficiency, collaboration, and effectiveness of the police department's crime reduction strategies.

Findings

The process evaluation found that the agency improved its crime analysis capabilities as well as its coordination and communication, expanded its problem solving activities, and made a significant cultural shift towards incorporating problem solving and accountability throughout the organization. The impact evaluation found that the crimes addressed in the implementation – theft from vehicle – did decrease overall and when compared to other crime types and to neighboring jurisdictions.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the research are that these results are from one agency and that the impact evaluation is not conclusive.

Originality/value

The work was carried out over seven years in which the collaboration between the researcher and the agency was seminal. The model developed can be used by other police departments, and a key finding was that strong leadership played the most important role in the implementation of the crime reduction strategies and accountability practices.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Hyunseok Jang, Chang‐Bae Lee and Larry T. Hoover

The majority of the previous research on hot spots policing focuses on a single set of relatively small selected experimental areas. However, given limited resources, most…

Abstract

Purpose

The majority of the previous research on hot spots policing focuses on a single set of relatively small selected experimental areas. However, given limited resources, most law enforcement agencies dispatch hot spots intervention units to several areas on a rotation basis. The purpose of this paper is to examine policing activities in hot spots to determine if the various types of crimes were affected when deployment was applied on a rotation basis.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses data from the Dallas Police Department. The differential influence of police activities, including stops, citations, and arrests, are observed against a number of aggregate crime measures (i.e. violent, property, nuisance offenses, and total index crimes). The impact of police activities have been observed for their immediate and lagged effects during the following week to measure residual deterrence effects.

Findings

It was found that the DPD's Disruption Unit's hot spots policing immediately affected violent crimes, nuisance offenses, and total index crimes, while there were no residual effects of hot spots policing. The Disruption Unit was engaged in policing activities that include motor vehicle and pedestrian stops, issuing citations, and making arrests. Among these activities, the number of police stops was the most significant factor for the reduction in violent crime and nuisance offenses.

Research limitations/implications

The researchers use a patrol sector as a unit of analysis in order to compare the influence of various types of police activities on crime across a broader area. Future research should consider using an intermediate geographic unit of analysis (e.g. patrol beat).

Originality/Value

The paper examines the differential influence of policing activities on different types of crime around hot spots when deployment was applied on a rotation basis. Both immediate and lagged effects were investigated to find residual deterrence effects of hot spots policing.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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