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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Calum G. Turvey, Amy Carduner and Jennifer Ifft

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the market microstructure related to the Farm Credit System (FCS), Commercial Banks (CB) and Farm Services Administration…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the market microstructure related to the Farm Credit System (FCS), Commercial Banks (CB) and Farm Services Administration (FSA). The commercial banks frequently call out the FCS as having an unfair advantage in the agricultural finance market place due to tax exempt bonds, and an implied guarantee of those bonds. This paper addresses the issue by examining the interrelationships since 1939, while addressing the historically distinctive roles that the FCS, CB and FSA have played in the US agricultural credit market.

Design/methodology/approach

There are two components to our model. The first is the estimation of short and long run credit demand elasticities, as well as land elasticities. These are estimated from a dynamic duality model using seemingly unrelated regression. The point elasticity measures are then used as independent variables in least square regressions, combined with farm specific and related macro variables, for the Cornbelt states. The dependent variable is the year-over-year changes in paired FCS, CB and FSA loans.

Findings

The genesis of the FCS was to provide credit to farmers in good and bad years. Therefore, we expected to see a countercyclical relationship between FCS and CB. This is found for the farm crisis years in the 1980s but is not a continuous characteristic of FCS lending. In good times the FCS and CB appear to compete, albeit with differentiated market segmentation into short- and long-term credit. The FSA, which was established to provide tertiary support to both the FCS and CB, appears to be responding as designed, with greater activity in bad years. The authors find the elasticity measures to be economically significant.

Research limitations/implications

The authors conclude that the market microstructure of the agricultural credit market in the US is important. Our analysis applies a broader definition of market microstructure for institutions and intermediaries and reveals that further research examining the economic frictions caused by comparative bond vs deposit funding of agricultural credit is important.

Originality/value

The authors believe that this is the first paper to examine agricultural finance through the market microstructure lens. In addition our long-term data measures allow us to examine the economics through various sub-periods. Finally, we believe that our introduction of credit and land demand elasticities into a comparative credit model is also a first.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 81 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Leslie J. Verteramo Chiu, Sivalai V. Khantachavana and Calum G. Turvey

– The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent of risk rationing among potential rural borrowers in Mexico and China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent of risk rationing among potential rural borrowers in Mexico and China.

Design/methodology/approach

Using primary survey data from 730 farm households in the Shaanxi province of China and from 372 farmers in northeastern Mexico, the authors investigate factors associated with risk rationed, price rationed and quantity rationed farmers. The survey was instrumented to self-identify borrower typologies. In addition the authors created within the survey a discrete-choice credit demand build to determine borrower credit demand elasticities. The analysis applies a linear probability which the authors found to be consistent with multinomial and binary logit models.

Findings

The authors find in China the incidence of risk rationing in farmers to be 6.5, 14 percent for quantity rationed and 80 percent for price rationed. In Mexico, 35 percent of the sample is risk rationed, 10 percent quantity rationed and 55 percent price rationed. The results from China support the hypothesis that the financially poor are more likely to be quantity rationed; in Mexico, however, the level of education is found to be important in determining quantity rationed. In both countries, asset wealthy farmers are less likely to be risk rationed; however, income does not appear to have an impact. The paper provides evidence that the elasticity of demand for credit is different among the three credit rationed groups: risk rationed, price rationed and quantity rationed. Risk aversion and prudence are significantly correlated with risk rationing in China, while only risk aversion is significant in Mexico. The results suggest that efforts to enhance credit access must also deal with risk and risk perceptions.

Practical implications

Risk rationing is an important concept in the understanding of rural credit markets. The findings that only 6.5 and 35 percent of Chinese and Mexican farmers are in stark contrast to each other. For agricultural economies such as Mexico with a significant number of farmers being risk rationing, more effort should be put into financial education and financial practices, including perhaps the use of risk-contingent credit to remove collateral risk. As property rights in China evolve, and new laws are promulgated to permit borrowing against land use rights, the collateralization issue will become much more important in rural credit markets.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to investigate risk rationing in China and Mexico and one of the few research studies empirically investigating risk rationing. A comparative analysis of Mexico and China is enlightening because of the structural differences in the respective agricultural economies. The use of a credit demand build and the enumeration of individual credit demand elasticities is an original contribution to this literature.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 74 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Wilm Fecke, Jan-Henning Feil and Oliver Musshoff

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the influencing factors of loan demand in agriculture. With the structural changes that agriculture is undergoing…

2090

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the influencing factors of loan demand in agriculture. With the structural changes that agriculture is undergoing and the accordingly higher financing requirements and volumes, the analysis of loan demand in agriculture is of particular interest.

Design/methodology/approach

Detailed actual loan data at farm level, which is provided by a major German development bank for the agricultural sector, is used for the analysis. The data set covers the period from 2010 to 2014 and consists of 68,430 observations. Due to the data structure, an ordinary least square regression is conducted with the loan amount as the dependent variable. Many explanatory variables are included, such as the interest rate, the intended use of the loan, grace periods, the gross value added (GVA) and the business climate index for agriculture.

Findings

Amongst others, the authors find that interest rate, GVA, grace periods and farmers’ business expectations have significant effects on the loan demand in agriculture. According to the results, the interest rate has a significant negative effect, whereas the granted grace periods, the GVA in agriculture and farmers’ business expectations have significant positive effects on the loan demand.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the determinants of loan demand in agriculture in a developed country by using unique and comprehensive data at loan and farm level. Amongst others, elasticities of loan demand in agriculture are determined.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 76 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 October 2020

Rong Kong, Yanling Peng, Nan Meng, Hong Fu, Li Zhou, Yuehua Zhang and Calum Greig Turvey

In this study, the authors examined demand-side credit in rural China with the aims of understanding attribute preferences and the willingness of farmers to pay for credit.

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, the authors examined demand-side credit in rural China with the aims of understanding attribute preferences and the willingness of farmers to pay for credit.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors implemented an in-the-field discrete choice experiment (DCE) using a D-optimal block (6 × 9 × 3) design applied to 420 farm households across five Chinese provinces (Shandong, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Jiangsu and Henan) in the summer and fall of 2018. The DCE included six attributes including the interest rate, term of loan, type of loan, type of repayment, type of institution and mobile banking services.

Findings

Conditional and mixed logit results indicated a downward sloping credit demand curve with variable elasticity across regions. Provincial willingness-to-pay (WTP) indicators suggested that farmers were willing to pay a premium for long-term ( 0.03–0.687%) and low collateral credit loans ( 0.79–2.93%). Also, four of five provinces indicated a preference for loan amortization rather than lump-sum payment. Interestingly, in comparison to the Agricultural Bank of China (ABC), only farmers in Shandong, Sichuan and Shaanxi indicated a preference for rural credit cooperatives (RCCs)/banks and the Postal Savings Bank of China (PSBC). Another quite surprising result was bank services, in our case, access to mobile banking did not appear to induce WTP for agricultural credit. While conditional and mixed logit regression coefficients were similar (and therefore robust), the authors found that there was substantial heterogeneity across attribute preferences on term of loan, type of loan and amortization. Preferences for type of lender and mobile banking were generally homogenous. This result alone suggested that lenders should consider offering a suite of credit products with different attributes in order to maximize the potential pool of borrowers. While there were some differences across provinces, farmers appeared to be indifferent to lenders, and it did not appear that offering banking services such as mobile banking had any bearing on credit decisions.

Research limitations/implications

This paper presents a first step in using in-the-field choice experiments to better understand rural finance in China. Although the sample size satisfies conventional levels of significance and rank conditions, the authors caution against attributing results to China as a whole. Different provinces have different institutional structures and agricultural growing conditions and economies and these effects may differentially affect WTP for credit. Although by all indications farmers were aware of credit, not all farmers, in fact a minority, actually borrowed from a financial institution. This is not unusual in China, but for these farmers, the DCE was posed as hypothetical. Likewise, the study’s design was based on a generic credit product typical of rural China, and the authors caution against making inferences about other products with different attributes and risk structures.

Social implications

This study is motivated by the rapidly changing dynamic in China's agricultural economy. With specific reference to new laws and regulations about the transfer of land use rights (LURs), China's agricultural economy is undergoing significant and rapid change which will require better understanding by policy makers, lenders and practitioners of the changing credit needs of farmers, including the new and emerging class of commercial farmers.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the authors believe that the result provided in this paper present the first use of in-the-field DCE and are the first to be reported in either the English or Chinese literature on rural credit product design.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2013

Calum G. Turvey

The purpose of this paper is to present a discussion on the idea of “policy rationing”. Policy rationing refers to constraining impacts on farm credit through policy…

1012

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a discussion on the idea of “policy rationing”. Policy rationing refers to constraining impacts on farm credit through policy action or inaction. To present the ideas the author discusses ten themes in policy rationing, ranging from macro‐finance policies to smart lending and financial inclusion.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is developed as a narrative on agricultural credit policies based largely on existing literature.

Findings

This paper argues that the various critiques of rural credit policy in favor of free market principles have generally not worked in developing economies. Large numbers of farmers do not have access to formal credit. It is argued that there is a role for government and credit programs.

Research limitations/implications

The opinions expressed in this paper are based on existing literature and not all ideas hold with general agreement across researchers and practitioners. The discussion is not exhaustive and in some cases the ideas might have been parsed further.

Practical implications

In this paper the author discusses ten themes that he thinks are relevant for a balanced discussion of farm credit in a development context. These themes illustrate a variety of complexities with respect to rural credit policy. The author ends by restating the themes in the form of ten questions that should be asked in whole, or in part, before any farm credit policy is field‐implemented.

Social implications

This paper deals with a broad range of issues on rural credit policy. It is directed towards a reformation of ideas about credit policy, especially in developing economies. It is argued that, all things considered, on balance there is a role for government in rural credit policy.

Originality/value

There is much discourse amongst development economist about the role of government and credit policy in agricultural development. By thinking of government action or inaction as a form of policy rationing, some clarification is brought to the policy debate.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 73 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Xiaoping Tan and Wanlong lin

The purpose of this paper is to test whether there is higher return rate of investment for poor farmers than for un-poor farmers and to discuss its implication for poverty…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test whether there is higher return rate of investment for poor farmers than for un-poor farmers and to discuss its implication for poverty reduction microcredit rate policy.

Design/methodology/approach

By using the household-level data of six provinces of China, farmer household production function is used in this paper to estimate the investment return rate of farmer.

Findings

The paper indicates that regardless which kind of grouping standard is adopted, the investment return rates of poor farmer households in general are far lower than the non-poor. In general, the richer a farmer household, the higher is the return rate of his household productive operations.

Practical implications

The study of this paper reminds policy makers that poverty reduction microcredit rate should really take endurance capacity of poor farmers for credit rate into accounting because of the low return rate of their family investment. Exorbitant credit rate should be avoided to protect the credit right of poor farmers.

Originality/value

There is seldom study on the comparison of return rates of family operation investment between poor and un-poor farmers; there is also unenough empirical study on the rationality of high interest rate on poor households from the return rate of investment point of view. The authors expect this paper will have some contribution on these two points.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 June 2020

Michael K. Ndegwa, Apurba Shee, Calum G. Turvey and Liangzhi You

Drought-related climate risk and access to credit are among the major risks to agricultural productivity for smallholder farmers in Kenya. Farmers are usually credit

Abstract

Purpose

Drought-related climate risk and access to credit are among the major risks to agricultural productivity for smallholder farmers in Kenya. Farmers are usually credit-constrained due to either involuntary quantity rationing or voluntary risk rationing. By exploiting randomized distribution of weather risk-contingent credit (RCC) and traditional credit, the authors estimate the causal effect of bundling weather index insurance to credit on uptake of agricultural credits among rural smallholders in Eastern Kenya. Further, the authors assess farmers' credit rationing, its determinants and effects on credit uptake.

Design/methodology/approach

The study design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in Machakos County, Kenya. 1,170 sample households were randomly assigned to one of three research groups, namely control, RCC and traditional credit. This paper is based on baseline household survey data and the first phase of loan implementation data.

Findings

The authors find that 48% of the households were price-rationed, 41% were risk-rationed and 11% were quantity-rationed. The average credit uptake rate was 33% with the uptake of bundled credit being significantly higher than that of traditional credit. Risk rationing seems to influence the credit uptake negatively, whereas premium subsidies do not have any significant association with credit uptake. Among the socio-economic variables, training attendance, crop production being the main household head occupation, expenditure on food, maize labour requirement, hired labour, livestock revenue and access to credit are found to influence the credit uptake positively, whereas the expenditure on non-food items is negatively related with credit uptake.

Research limitations/implications

The study findings provide important insights on the factors of credit demand. Empirical results suggest that risk rationing is pervasive and discourages farmers to take up credit. The study results also imply that credit demand is inelastic although relatively small sample size for RCC premium subsidy groups may be a limiting factor to the authors’ estimation.

Originality/value

By implementing a multi-arm RCT, the authors estimate the factors affecting the uptake of insurance bundled agricultural credits along with eliciting credit rationing among rural smallholders in Eastern Kenya. This paper provides key empirical findings on the uptake of RCC and the effect of credit rationing on uptake of agricultural credits, a field which has been majorly theoretical.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 80 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2018

Belinda Laura Del Gaudio, Claudio Porzio and Vincenzo Verdoliva

The purpose of this paper is to draw the state of the art on the trade credit, one of the most alternative form of firm financing, especially for small- and medium-sized…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw the state of the art on the trade credit, one of the most alternative form of firm financing, especially for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

The present study first reviews the theoretical papers focusing on the raison d’être of trade credit financing. Then the study identifies the empirical research studies in SMEs’ context and summarizes them on the basis of the following drivers: the country and the period analysed, the methodology used, the main findings and the presence of a shock in time span.

Findings

Findings reveal a discrepancy of results, especially in testing Meltzer’s hypothesis of substitution effects among trade and bank credit. The heterogeneity of results should be driven by lending infrastructure of the country analysed and the presence or not of a shock in time span considered. Financial constraints can reconcile the discrepancy of results. Then, most of the studies analysed are based on the assumption that trade credit is more expensive than bank credit.

Originality/value

This paper provides valuable conclusion on past and present studies on trade credit. First is providing a rule of the thumb in the reading of empirical evidences. Also researchers and academicians should deal with consideration regarding the cost of trade credit that still appears as a black box. This is an important issue in corporate finance, as it influences the financial decision of firms and it will be useful for conducting a deeper comparison on the alternative cost of firm financing.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 January 2020

Yanling Peng and Rong Kong

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the economic relationship with recent changes in China’s land use policy and rural development through innovation and entrepreneurship.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the economic relationship with recent changes in China’s land use policy and rural development through innovation and entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

The first issue of economic importance is in understanding the market value of land use rights (LUR) transactions. To examine this, the authors build an argument around the idea of economic and marginal rents from Ricardo. The second issue relates to the extent by which deepening the rural financial landscape by allowing the mortgaging of LUR will promote and advance much needed entrepreneurial activity. To explore this issue, the authors draw on Schumpeter. The empirical contribution is based on a survey of 1,465 farm households in Gansu, Henan, Shaanxi and Shandong provinces.

Findings

In an endogenous Two-Stage Least Squares model, the authors find a positive and significant relationship between a willingness to mortgage LUR and entrepreneurship, which suggest that the new policy may well meet that objective. However, the authors do not find that entrepreneurs alone will have a willingness to mortgage LUR; non-entrepreneurs – traditional farmer types – would also be willing to mortgage LUR, but with a caveat that either group already has a disposition or demand for credit.

Originality/value

The value of the analysis is to provide an evidence to understand the market value of LUR transactions and to study the relationship between mortgage of LUR and entrepreneurial activity.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 80 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Cheng Xiang, Xiangping Jia and Jikun Huang

Internationally, microfinance run by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) is often considered an important approach to meeting the credit demand of rural households…

Abstract

Purpose

Internationally, microfinance run by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) is often considered an important approach to meeting the credit demand of rural households, particularly among the poor. However, the perceived competitions with formal financial institutions and concerns about financial risks in the rural economy have impeded the development of microfinance by NGOs in China. Despite these concerns about NGO microfinance, little empirical evidence has been brought to prove them. The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence of the relationship between NGO microfinance and farmers’ demand for formal and informal credit in rural China.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a household longitudinal data set consisting of 749 households from 40 microfinance villages in rural China. This study draws evidence from China's largest NGO microfinance. Out of the five county branches where China Foundation for Poverty Alleviation has launched institutionalized microfinance since 2006, the authors selected two of them. A random sampling approach was applied in surveying villages and households. In an effort to create impact assessments, the authors surveyed the detailed information on household characteristics and credit access during the period 2006-2009. A panel data is thus structured for the analysis.

Findings

The authors found that the demand for credit in rural China is immense and rising, as formal financial institutions have gradually moved away from less developed regions in rural areas. In its place, informal lending has become a primary source of credit for the poor. However, where NGO microfinance has become available, both formal and informal credit has slowed down. The development and expansion of NGO microfinance did stand up as a substitution for institutional lenders and informal financial networks.

Research limitations/implications

The findings have profound policy implications. First, since the development of NGO microfinance fill the demand for credit in rural China and poses low financial risk, the intellectual bias against NGO microfinance is unwarranted. In particular, the regulations that hamper the development of NGO microfinance should be corrected. Second, informal networks do not appear to be costless. Where NGO microfinance can substitute for them, it can mitigate the financial stresses related to the informal credit market.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000