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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2021

Waled Shehata, Craig Langston, Marja Sarvimäki and Ranka Novak Camozzi

Many heritage-listed gaols in Australia have become obsolete in terms of their original function and were decommissioned decades ago. As a default management practice…

Abstract

Purpose

Many heritage-listed gaols in Australia have become obsolete in terms of their original function and were decommissioned decades ago. As a default management practice, decommissioned gaols are usually transformed into museums which are mostly empty and underused without considering other viable alternatives. This research challenges this mainstream thinking and demonstrates that among the entire stock of heritage-listed gaols in Australia, even the least ranked gaol in terms of its potential for reuse can be turned into a thriving and vibrant new function.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypothetically, if the least ranked Australian heritage-listed gaol in terms of its potential for reuse is in fact “reusable”, then the remaining heritage gaols have more chance of being successfully reused to accommodate a vibrant new function. To be able to test this hypothesis, first, the Adaptive Reuse Potential (ARP) model is applied to rank Australia's decommissioned heritage gaols which are spatially and structurally sound to accommodate new uses. Second, an architectural design concept was designed to adaptively reuse the lowest scored gaol (Richmond Gaol) to a boutique hotel. The conceptual design proposal was then assessed by three local heritage architecture firms to validate its applicability and viability.

Findings

The research showed that Richmond Gaol can be reused successfully to at least one function, and accordingly, the whole stock of heritage gaols can be expected to also be reused to more sustainable purposes. The research identifies several considerations for the reuse of heritage gaols in Australia: the careful intervention to their significant fabric; maintaining sufficient evidence of the gaol's original components, the importance of the new use being compatible to the gaol's morphology to ensure minimum alterations or demolitions in the significant fabric of the site; and evaluating the new use and its components to achieve financial viability.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the continuing closure of Tasmania's state borders amid the spread of the COVID-19 virus, the researchers were not able to travel to Tasmania to conduct a site visit and to run the in-depth interviews with the architects in person. Most of the data of the current status of the site, its current layout, museum elements, historical data and photos were provided by Heritage Authorities in Tasmania and the Tasmanian State Library and Archive Service. Supplementary information and photos were acquired in March 2020 from visitors of the gaol who uploaded their trip images to Google maps or to their travel blogs. Topographical data of the site was gathered from Topographic Base-map of Land Information System Richmond Tasmania (2020). Due to travel restrictions, in-depth interviews with the local architects were done virtually, or over the phone in one case.

Practical implications

Challenges discussed in this research encourage creating nationally designed support programs to better vitalise and help preserve Australia's carceral heritage.

Originality/value

This research utilises architectural design in an empirical research paradigm.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Hossein Derakhshanfar, J. Jorge Ochoa, Konstantinos Kirytopoulos, Wolfgang Mayer and Craig Langston

The purpose of this research is to identify the most impactful delay risks in Australian construction projects, including the associations amongst those risks as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to identify the most impactful delay risks in Australian construction projects, including the associations amongst those risks as well as the project phases in which they are most likely present. The correlation between project and organisational characteristics with the impact of delay risks was also studied.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was used to collect data from 118 delayed construction projects in Australia. Data were analysed to rank the most impactful delay risks, their correlation to project and organisational characteristics and project phases where those risks are likely to emerge. Association rule learning was used to capture associations between the delay risks.

Findings

The top five most impactful delay risks in Australia were changes by the owner, slow decisions by the owner, preparation and approval of design drawings, underestimation of project complexity and unrealistic duration imposed to the project, respectively. There is a set of delay risks that are mutually associated with project complexity. In addition, while delay risks associated with resources most likely arise in the execution phase, stakeholder and process-related risks are more smoothly distributed along all the project phases.

Originality/value

This research for the first time investigated the impact of delay risks, associations amongst them and project phases in which they are likely to happen in the Australian context. Also, this research for the first time sheds light on the project phases for the individual project delay risks which aids the project managers to understand where to focus on during each phase of the project.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Xiao-Long Gan, Rui-Dong Chang, Craig Langston and Tao Wen

The purpose of this paper is to identify the interactions of factors impacting the widespread adoption of prefabricated building technologies and the intervention…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the interactions of factors impacting the widespread adoption of prefabricated building technologies and the intervention strategies to facilitate the development of prefabrication based on fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs).

Design/methodology/approach

Through in-depth interviews with six stakeholder groups, namely, the government, developers, designers, contractors, manufacturers and researchers, 13 critical factors were identified and used to construct stakeholder-grouped FCMs, which were further aggregated into a collective FCM. The complexity and density of the collective FCM and the centrality of factors in the FCM were examined. Subsequently, a series of “what-if” simulations of the collective FCM were conducted to analyze the effectiveness of different interventions in promoting prefabrication.

Findings

The results show that three factors including market demand, cost, and policies and regulations have been mentioned by all stakeholder groups. However, these factors were ranked differently by stakeholder groups, implying that different stakeholder groups perceive the barriers to prefabricated building technologies differently. FCM simulations show that strengthening policies and regulations yield the strongest overall effect stimulating prefabrication, alleviating the organizational and environmental barriers more than the technological barriers, while improving the knowledge and expertise alleviate the technological barriers more. These measures need to be accompanied by other approaches, such as reducing cost and improving quality.

Research limitations/implications

It is a tough task to promote prefabrication as it is affected by numerous barriers with complex interactions, which have been overlooked by previous studies. This study clearly shows which strategy could tackle which barriers to prefabrication through the FCM simulations. This provides valuable references for the enterprises’ decision making and the governments’ policy making to facilitate the diffusion of prefabricated building technologies.

Originality/value

Few studies aim to analyze the interactions among the barriers to prefabrication, while this study specifically investigates this issue by illustrating the complex interactions using FCMs. Few studies also aim to identify the intervention strategies promoting prefabrication based on a quantitative approach, while this study employs FCM simulations to directly simulate the effectiveness of different strategies to facilitate prefabrication in a quantitative manner.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Burhan Amarah and Craig Langston

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for producing an objective and holistic assessment of organisational decision-making to measure the procurement success of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for producing an objective and holistic assessment of organisational decision-making to measure the procurement success of built facilities from the perspective of six key stakeholder groups (i.e. company, staff, customers, community, government and the environment).

Design/methodology/approach

This research is based on grounded theory. The methodology comprises a number of sequenced but interdependent steps. The first step involves reviewing the underpinning literature, whereas the second and third steps involve a detailed case study of actual practice and identification of stakeholder models that have been previously published, respectively. A knowledge gap is then highlighted from which a conceptual framework using a six-star rating algorithm as an integration metric is developed. The final steps seek an expert panel to validate the framework through focus group discussion ultimately leading to suggestions for further improvements.

Findings

It is found that the developed stakeholder satisfaction model is capable of assessing the sustainable procurement of built infrastructure using a generic six-star rating algorithm. The overall rating can be used to compare and rank performance across a range of portfolio assets, although some modification is required for non-built assets.

Originality/value

This research makes a contribution to knowledge through the presentation of a model, grounded in practice, that combines the economic, social and environmental performance of organisational decision-making from a stakeholder satisfaction perspective. It is acknowledged that there are a number of techniques that could be used to assess each stakeholder group, although the ones chosen in this research are mostly drawn from existing approaches developed and validated by others.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

Craig Langston

This paper aims to focus on the adaptive reuse of existing buildings that have become obsolete, an important strategy for sustainable development and a pertinent response…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the adaptive reuse of existing buildings that have become obsolete, an important strategy for sustainable development and a pertinent response to excessive resource usage resulting from typical destruction and redevelopment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper looks at the validity of earlier work to model adaptive reuse potential (ARP) using a new multiple criteria decision analysis tool called iconCUR. Based on a review of 12 case studies, the paper determines the extent of agreement between ARP and iconCUR evaluations that both claim to be useful in making decisions about reuse.

Findings

The results show a high correlation between these approaches, whether based on raw scores or on relative ranking, and match expert opinion concerning appropriate actions. This work represents the culmination of a three‐year study into the strategic assessment of building adaptive reuse opportunities.

Originality/value

The paper provides confidence in the modelling of future interventions to revitalise existing built assets using a triple bottom line perspective.

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Sheila Conejos, Craig Langston and Jim Smith

This paper aims to make the case for the development of an adaptive reuse rating tool targeted to new building design that maximises the embedded adaptive reuse potential…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to make the case for the development of an adaptive reuse rating tool targeted to new building design that maximises the embedded adaptive reuse potential of these buildings later in their life, thereby adding to built environment sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory study retrospectively analyses successful adaptive reuse projects to establish and test a multi-criteria decision-making model for new design projects. This paper contains a report on the final stages of the research methodology (quantitative approach) used in the development of the adaptSTAR model that critically assesses the list of design criteria identified in the first stage of the study. Improvements to the case studies that would have further enhanced their reuse potential later in life are proposed. The results are compared to an established decision tool (adaptive reuse potential [ARP] model) to determine their level of consistency.

Findings

The findings of this research show that design criteria can be identified and weighted according to seven categories to calculate a building’s adaptive reuse star rating. Both the adaptSTAR and ARP models exhibit a strong relationship and are positively correlated.

Originality/value

The research demonstrates that by applying adaptSTAR to new designs, it will contribute to greater sustainability for the built environment in the long term via reducing the rate of building obsolescence.

Details

Facilities, vol. 33 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Craig Langston

Project cost is normally a key performance indicator for all projects, and therefore features prominently in benchmarking exercises aimed at identifying best practice…

Abstract

Purpose

Project cost is normally a key performance indicator for all projects, and therefore features prominently in benchmarking exercises aimed at identifying best practice. However, projects in different locations first require all costs to be expressed in equivalent units. Failing to do this leads to erroneous and unreliable results. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Applying international construction as the focus for the study, cost data from 23 cities worldwide are compared using a range of methods including currency conversion and purchasing power parity (PPP). Coefficient of variation (CoV) forms the test for identifying the method with the lowest volatility.

Findings

It is found that purchasing power is the preferable theoretical base for international cost conversion, and currency conversion (frequently used by practitioners) is not recommended. The citiBLOC PPP method has the lowest CoV across the data set and therefore more closely reflects the Law of One Price that underpins the concept of PPP.

Originality/value

This research highlights the importance of a valid cost conversion methodology to properly understand the comparative performance of projects. Its application to benchmarking is demonstrated using the data envelopment analysis method.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2010

Li‐yin Shen and Craig Langston

Adaptive reuse of existing building stock that has reached the end of its useful life, but not its physical life, is an important ingredient in the necessary adaptation of…

Abstract

Purpose

Adaptive reuse of existing building stock that has reached the end of its useful life, but not its physical life, is an important ingredient in the necessary adaptation of the constructed environment due to the impact of climate change and the need to conserve valuable resources into the future. This paper aims to advance previous research that has developed a means to predict adaptive reuse potential (ARP).

Design/methodology/approach

This study is conducted by comparing ARP (ARP) between urban and non‐urban settings drawn from case studies in both Hong Kong and Australia. The results are also compared to a database of 64 completed adaptive reuse case studies worldwide to provide a comparative benchmark against which to assess the findings.

Findings

Through application of the ARP model, mean values are determined for a number of variables that suggest that the model relates equally well to different contexts. However, the data further suggest that the 12 urban cases in Hong Kong have a lower ARP score on average than the 12 non‐urban cases in Australia, yet the maximum ARP score possible is higher.

Research limitations/implications

The paper indicates that adaptive reuse intervention in Hong Kong is too late and valuable opportunity for economic, social and environmental gain is delayed.

Practical implications

The paper provides useful means to assist decision‐making on how to handle or use existing buildings. Understanding adaptive reuse potential of existing buildings is important and this study provides an effective method for supporting this understanding.

Originality/value

The means to predict ARP in previous studies is advanced in this study.

Details

Facilities, vol. 28 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Craig Langston

Making appropriate decisions concerning the ongoing management of existing built facilities is an important activity for property and facilities managers. Such decisions…

Abstract

Purpose

Making appropriate decisions concerning the ongoing management of existing built facilities is an important activity for property and facilities managers. Such decisions comprise multiple criteria, and the relative importance of these criteria typically reflects the implicit preferences or biases of the decision maker(s). This paper seeks to apply a new property management 3D decision model known as iconCUR to investigate the impact of criterion weights on the decision to intervene.

Design/methodology/approach

A retrospective case study of a real project in Sydney (Australia) that underwent adaptive reuse transformation in 2008 is used to test the sensitivity of implied decision‐maker preferences in practice.

Findings

It is found that significant change to individual criterion weights relating to aspects of building condition, space utilization and triple bottom line reward has minimal influence on the derived spatial coordinates that underpin the 3D decision model and hence the recommended intervention strategy in the particular case studied.

Practical implications

It is further suggested that changes in criterion weights over time as expectations and situations may dictate can be accommodated without undermining the integrity of the decision‐making process.

Originality/value

The deployment of this type of approach, at least, documents the decision‐making process involved in important property management strategies and exposes the frequently implicit preferences of decision makers. These preferences are shown not to be as critical as might have been suspected. This may add further confidence to the use of MCDA in facilities management decisions.

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Craig Langston

The measurement of construction performance is a vexed problem. Despite much research effort, there remains little agreement over what to measure and how to measure it…

Abstract

Purpose

The measurement of construction performance is a vexed problem. Despite much research effort, there remains little agreement over what to measure and how to measure it. The problem is made even more complicated by the desire to benchmark national industry performance against that of other countries. As clearly construction cost forms part of the analysis, the mere adjustment of cost data to an “international currency” has undermined past attempts to draw any meaningful conclusions. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces a new method for comparing international construction efficiency, tested on a data set of 337 modern high-rise buildings in both Australia and the USA, and in so doing demonstrates that the ratio of cost over time is capable of ranking the efficiency of projects, building contractors, cities and even entire industries – not only today, but retrospectively over time.

Findings

It is concluded that, based on data from the largest five cities in each country, efficiency on site is improving in both countries. The growth in baseline cost/m2 suggests a possible rise in project complexity over time. While the trend in efficiency improvement is similar, there is evidence that base costs in Australia have outstripped the USA, meaning that “real” construction efficiency in Australia is relatively less. If Australia held an advantage in the past, then it seems that advantage might be disappearing. The USA is outperforming Australia in terms of construction efficiency by 1.10 per cent per annum.

Originality/value

Cost is measured as the number of standard “citiBLOC” baskets necessary to construct a project, where a standard basket comprises common and globally applicable construction items priced in each city in local currency, removing the need to apply currency exchange rates that otherwise introduce volatility and erroneous outcomes. Time is measured as the number of months between commencement on site and handover, inclusive of delays related to the construction process on site. Construction efficiency is defined as the ratio of construction cost per month, and is used to comment on the relative performance of the procurement process in different locations.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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