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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

David Finkel, Craig E. Wills, Brian Brennan and Chris Brennan

Describes a system for using the World Wide Web to distribute computational tasks to multiple hosts on the Web. A programmer with a computation to distribute registers it…

Abstract

Describes a system for using the World Wide Web to distribute computational tasks to multiple hosts on the Web. A programmer with a computation to distribute registers it with a Web server. An idle host uses this server to identify available computations and downloads a Java class to perform the computation ‐ we call this class a distriblet. The paper describes the programs written to carry out the load distribution, the structure of a distriblet class, and our experience in using this system.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

David Finkel, Craig E. Wills, Michael J. Ciaraldi, Kevin Amorin, Adam Covati and Michael Lee

Anonymous distributed computing systems consist of potentially millions of heterogeneous processing nodes connected by the global Internet. These nodes can be…

Abstract

Anonymous distributed computing systems consist of potentially millions of heterogeneous processing nodes connected by the global Internet. These nodes can be administered by thousands of organizations and individuals, with no direct knowledge of each other. This work defines anonymous distributed computing systems in general then focuses on the specifics of an applet‐based approach for large‐scale, anonymous, distributed computing on the Internet. A user wishing to participate in a computation connects to a distribution server, which provides information about available computations, and then connects to a computation server with a computation to distribute. A Java class is downloaded, which communicates with the computation server to obtain data, performs the computation, and returns the result. Since any computer on the Internet can participate in these computations, potentially a large number of computers can participate in a single computation.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2011

Craig E. Wills and Mihajlo Zeljkovic

The purpose of this paper is to take a novel approach to help users better understand and be more aware of what third parties are learning about them as they browse the web.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to take a novel approach to help users better understand and be more aware of what third parties are learning about them as they browse the web.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach the authors take is to personalize the awareness by using JavaScript embedded in a web page to examine portions of a user's web‐browser history in order to ascertain web sites that the user has visited. The authors then personalize information reported to the user about what third‐party sites are tracking the user's behavior along with demographic information these sites may be inferring from these visited sites and the user's geographic location.

Findings

It was found that 63 percent of users agreed with a statement of concern for third parties monitoring activities, about half of the respondents agreed with a concern for knowledge about a user's location and a little more than half agreed to concern about inference of demographic information. It was found that females are more concerned about these issues than males. In terms of possible actions, a majority of users report using an ad blocker tool and even more delete cookies at least some amount of time. Using an opt‐out mechanism or removing browser history is done by less than 20 percent of users. Despite expressing more concern for information known by third parties, females are not significantly more likely to take actions that may limit what is leaked to these third parties. A contributor to this discrepancy is that females were much less likely to know their settings for many of the actions, indicating less familiarity with them.

Social implications

Web privacy is an important social issue so helping users to better understand tracking of their actions, along with what actions can be taken to limit tracking, is important.

Originality/value

The paper takes an original approach to helping users understand what third parties learn about them and follows up that approach with a survey of user attitudes and actions on this important topic.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

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Book part
Publication date: 2 November 2020

Yvette J. Lazdowski

Abstract

Details

Persistence and Vigilance: A View of Ford Motor Company’s Accounting over its First Fifty Years
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-998-9

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Book part
Publication date: 18 February 2011

Cheryl J. Craig

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to trace the origins of narrative inquiry as an empirical research method specifically created to examine how teachers come to…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to trace the origins of narrative inquiry as an empirical research method specifically created to examine how teachers come to know in their own terms.

Approach – The chapter reviews key conceptualizations in the teaching and teacher education field chronologically.

Findings – The review begins with Clandinin and Connelly's groundbreaking work concerning teachers’ personal practical knowledge, the professional knowledge landscapes of schools, and stories to live by (teacher identity). Three other important narrative conceptualizations on the research line are then highlighted: narrative resonance, narrative authority, and knowledge communities. Special attention is also paid to how narrative inquiry has fueled studies having to do with curriculum, subject matter, and culture. Narrative inquiry's important contributions to the emergence of the self-study of teaching and teacher education practices genre of research is additionally highlighted, along with several more recent advances having to do with collaborative narrative inquiries, studies with children, and reforming school landscapes.

Research implications – Lingering issues relating to narrative inquiry's acceptance as a legitimate research approach are also discussed; latent opportunities are likewise paid attention.

Value – The value of the chapter is that it is the first work that has specifically followed developments on the Connelly–Clandinin research line. The chapter shows the major contributions that the world-class research program – and the associated research projects spawned from it – have made to teaching and teacher education internationally.

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Craig Bennell, Brittany Blaskovits, Bryce Jenkins, Tori Semple, Ariane-Jade Khanizadeh, Andrew Steven Brown and Natalie Jennifer Jones

A narrative review of existing research literature was conducted to identify practices that are likely to improve the quality of de-escalation and use-of-force training…

Abstract

Purpose

A narrative review of existing research literature was conducted to identify practices that are likely to improve the quality of de-escalation and use-of-force training for police officers.

Design/methodology/approach

Previous reviews of de-escalation and use-of-force training literature were examined to identify promising training practices, and more targeted literature searches of various databases were undertaken to learn more about the potential impact of each practice on a trainee's ability to learn, retain, and transfer their training. Semi-structured interviews with five subject matter experts were also conducted to assess the degree to which they believed the identified practices were relevant to de-escalation and use-of-force training, and would enhance the quality of such training.

Findings

Twenty practices emerged from the literature search. Each was deemed relevant and useful by the subject matter experts. These could be mapped on to four elements of training: (1) commitment to training (e.g. securing organizational support for training), (2) development of training (e.g. aligning training formats with learning objectives), (3) implementation of training (e.g. providing effective corrective feedback) and (4) evaluation and ongoing assessment of training (e.g. using multifaceted evaluation tools to monitor and modify training as necessary).

Originality/value

This review of training practices that may be relevant to de-escalation and use-of-force training is the broadest one conducted to date. The review should prompt more organized attempts to quantify the effectiveness of the training practices (e.g. through meta-analyses), and encourage more focused testing in a police training environment to determine their impact.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Bryce Jenkins, Tori Semple and Craig Bennell

There has been an increasing emphasis on developing officers who can effectively make decisions in dynamic and stressful environments to manage volatile situations. The…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been an increasing emphasis on developing officers who can effectively make decisions in dynamic and stressful environments to manage volatile situations. The aim of this paper is to guide those seeking to optimize the limited resources dedicated to police training.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on research related to stress exposure training, principles of adult learning, the event-based approach to training and policing more broadly, the authors show how carefully crafted training scenarios can maximize the benefits of police training.

Findings

The authors’ review highlights various training principles that, if relied on, can result in scenarios that are likely to result in the development of flexible, sound decision-making skills when operating under stressful conditions. The paper concludes with an example of scenario development, which takes the reviewed principles into account.

Originality/value

The authors hope this discussion will be useful for police instructors and curriculum designers in making evidence-informed decisions when designing training scenarios.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Book part
Publication date: 26 March 2020

Renee Middlemost

In 2015, Idris Elba declared ‘I’m probably the most famous Bond actor in the world … and I’ve not even played the role’. Speculation about Elba taking on the role of the…

Abstract

In 2015, Idris Elba declared ‘I’m probably the most famous Bond actor in the world … and I’ve not even played the role’. Speculation about Elba taking on the role of the world’s most famous spy has circulated for over a decade, fuelled by current Bond Daniel Craig’s assertion that the role has ruined his life. This chapter will examine the role of fans in driving hype about the future of Bond, focusing on the case study of alt-right outrage at the potential casting of Elba. The anti-Elba camp have framed their outrage as informed by authorial intent, and the desire to maintain canon, with claims that Ian Fleming’s Bond was, and should always be white and Scottish. Bond’s expansive narrative universe has remained constant since its inception, enabling fans of the series to form an emotional connection and sense of ownership over the text as a cohesive brand, a form of ‘affective economics’ (Hills, 2015; Jenkins, 2006a). By situating the debate over Elba’s suitability within the timeline of the Bond franchise, the author will posit that the rigid casting and structure of the film series to date enables feelings of fan ownership to flourish. Whilst the influence of vocal fan groups has altered the future direction of numerous popular texts, this chapter will suggest that the sameness of Bond-as-brand provides the justification for fan backlash towards potential change. In sum, this chapter will highlight the Elba-as-Bond rumours as a reflection of the contemporary political moment which seeks to flatten out difference under the auspice of protecting the canon and tradition of ‘brand Bond’.

Details

From Blofeld to Moneypenny: Gender in James Bond
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-163-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

A.C. Sidwell, D. Budiawan and T. Ma

During the tendering process for most major construction contracts there is the opportunity for bidders to suggest alternative innovative solutions. Clearly clients are…

Abstract

During the tendering process for most major construction contracts there is the opportunity for bidders to suggest alternative innovative solutions. Clearly clients are keen to take advantage of these opportunities, and equally contractors want to use their expertise to establish competitive advantage. Both parties may very well benefit from the encouragement of such innovation and the availability of cheaper methods of construction than have been contemplated by the tendering authority. However recent developments in common law have raised doubts about the ability of owners to seek alternative tenders without placing themselves at risk of litigation. This common law has recognised the existence of the so‐called “tendering contract” or “process contract”. Since the tendering process is inherently price competitive, the application of the tendering contract concept is likely to severely inhibit the opportunity for alternative tenders. The “tendering contract” is automatically brought into being upon the timely submission of a conforming tender. This is contrary to the traditional view that an invitation to tender was considered to be no more than an invitation to treat, therefore submission of a tender creates obligations for neither party. Under the “tendering contract”, the owner becomes obliged to treat all tenderers equally and fairly. This paper is primarily based on the literature review. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problems with the competitive tendering process in relation to contractor‐led innovation and explore ways in which owners can develop procurement procedures that will allow and encourage innovation from contractors.

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Cheryl J. Craig

This chapter focuses on issues that arise when certain professors invoke the age-old hierarchy of position their terminal degrees bestow on them and interact in elevated…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on issues that arise when certain professors invoke the age-old hierarchy of position their terminal degrees bestow on them and interact in elevated ways with graduate students and sometimes with faculty members as well. Lack of relationship with peers/students, absence of appreciation for others' contributions and resistance to change, coupled with academic positions that allow them to aggrandize themselves (and get away with it) sit at the core of some male behaviors I have experienced. In this work, Lugones' notions of “arrogant perception” and “loving acceptance” are used as the central conceptual lens through which three in situ, betwixt-and-between career experiences are presented, unpacked and traced to their roots. While position, gender and power play out excessively in the three featured scenarios in this work, this does not mean that all males claim and act on the dominant plotline that history has bestowed on them. Neither does it mean that all females reject that plot as well. The shifting positioning of both males and females are sample topics for potential follow-up research.

Details

Understanding Excessive Teacher and Faculty Entitlement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-940-5

Keywords

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