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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Craig E. Armstrong

Intentions capture the motivational factors that influence a given behavior and indicate how hard a person is willing to try in order to perform the behavior. An…

Abstract

Purpose

Intentions capture the motivational factors that influence a given behavior and indicate how hard a person is willing to try in order to perform the behavior. An individual's entrepreneurial intentions are a function of the perceived feasibility and desirability of engaging in a particular entrepreneurial behavior. Because they are perceptual factors, the processes of assessing feasibility and desirability of entrepreneurial behaviors tends to be limited to the cognitive abilities of the specific individual. The purpose of this paper is to use an experimental manipulation to illustrate to students how the simple act of planning can dramatically influence entrepreneurial intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws from two sections of undergraduate study-abroad students who developed a severe craving for American foods they missed. Both sections assessed the desirability and feasibility of a particular entrepreneurial behavior (organizing an event to get the missed food), but one section was provided with a half-hour of classroom time to plan for the event.

Findings

The group of students who engaged in planning activities was significantly more likely to view the behavior as feasible and, in turn, had significantly higher intentions to engage in the behavior. This experiment provided a simple but powerful demonstration to students of how important a role planning plays in shaping entrepreneurial intentions.

Originality/value

This study offers a pedagogy that uses students both as participants and the primary audience of a manipulation of perceived feasibility and entrepreneurial intentions. Conducting this simple experiment and sharing the results with students provides dramatic evidence of the power of simple planning.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 17 February 2012

Craig E. Armstrong

The past 25 years have witnessed a dramatic rise in the dominance of big‐box retailers in the global retail sector and the decline of small retailers. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The past 25 years have witnessed a dramatic rise in the dominance of big‐box retailers in the global retail sector and the decline of small retailers. The purpose of this paper is to explore how the intensity of competition with big box retailers moderates the relationship of strategy choice to expected growth.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses cross‐sectional survey data from a group of 199 small retailers in the USA. Hypotheses are tested using linear regression of expected growth on the use of three growth‐oriented strategies. These relationships are subjected to tests of the moderating effect of direct competition with big box retailers.

Findings

This study shows that small retailers pursue strategies of offering previously unavailable goods or services, high quality, and better service to pursue future growth. The interaction effect of strategy with directness of competition with big box retailers, however, has a negative and significant effect on expected growth.

Research limitations/implications

The data set is from 2003 and is cross‐sectional. Future research on small retailers' strategic preferences should reflect a more recent competitive landscape and employ longitudinal data sets to establish cause‐and‐effect relationships.

Practical implications

Small retailers need to understand that the strategies they use to pursue growth essentially become strategies for mere survival when competing directly against big box retailers. One small retailer's growth strategy is another small retailer's survival strategy, depending on direct competition with a big box retailer.

Originality/value

This study provides support for the argument that small retailers should pursue growth‐oriented strategies that create value and differentiate them from big box retailers. Under direct competition from big box retailers, however, these growth‐oriented strategies seemingly become mere means for survival. Small retailers need to be aware of blind spots that prevent them from understanding strategy‐performance relationships.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2013

Craig E. Armstrong and Cynthia A. Lengnick‐Hall

The purpose of this paper is to perform empirical tests to explore the influence of social integration mechanisms on organizations’ absorptive capacities theorized by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to perform empirical tests to explore the influence of social integration mechanisms on organizations’ absorptive capacities theorized by Zahra and George.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a cross‐sectional design to test the relationships between potential absorptive capacity, three social integration mechanisms (cross‐functional teams, participation in decision making, and self‐managing teams), and realized absorptive capacity, in a sample of 92 organizations that bid competitively to provide products and services to a US university.

Findings

An organization's use of cross‐functional teams is negatively related to its realized absorptive capacity and negatively moderates the relationship between potential and realized absorptive capacity. Self‐managing teams negatively moderate the relationship between an organization's potential absorptive capacity and its realized absorptive capacity.

Research limitations/implications

The cross‐sectional design allows tests of relatedness but does not support cause‐and‐effect inferences.

Practical implications

Managers who follow the prescriptive implications of using social integration mechanisms to enhance their organization's absorptive capacity may actually hinder it. The type of social integration mechanism is an important consideration for managers of firm strategies.

Originality/value

This study extends and challenges the literature on absorptive capacity through its empirical analysis of the role of social integration mechanisms on an organization's absorptive capacity. Social integration mechanisms can have mixed moderating effects on the absorptive capacity development process, and potential absorptive capacity is not easily transformed into realized absorptive capacity. This study expands the context of absorptive capacity beyond R&D settings and incorporates a task environment that allows a direct linking of inputs and outputs.

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2013

Craig E. Armstrong

Research in strategic management has provided a wealth of contributions to the study of competition between firms, yet most strategic management theories were developed…

Abstract

Purpose

Research in strategic management has provided a wealth of contributions to the study of competition between firms, yet most strategic management theories were developed and refined for large firm contexts. This suggests the assumed theoretical relationships between strategy preference and performance may break down in the small business setting.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a data set from the National Federation of Independent Businesses to test hypotheses relating the strategy preferences of 754 small firms with the performance outcomes of survival and expected growth.

Findings

Small businesses can focus on both survival and growth when they pursue competency-based strategies, but they risk their very survival when pursuing flexibility-based strategies. Virtually all small firms pursue strategies to compete, but some of the strategies they follow to pursue growth endanger their survival.

Research limitations/implications

Because of life-cycle and resource endowment factors, researchers should carefully parse differences between large and small firms when studying the relationship between strategy preferences and organizational performance.

Practical implications

Small business owners should be aware that their choices of strategies to pursue growth may lead to unintended consequences, such as the demise of their firms.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates to researchers and practitioners how strategic preferences that presumably allow larger firms both to survive and grow do not have the same effects for smaller firms. The paper establishes boundary conditions for the effectiveness of flexibility strategies on performance in terms of firm size.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 February 2014

Abstract

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Reviews the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoints practical implications from cutting‐edge research and case studies.

Abstract

Purpose

Reviews the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoints practical implications from cutting‐edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

The language of modern life, especially in the political arena, is full of euphemisms. Sometimes they are meant to soften a blow or to obscure darker truths. They exist in business, too, as anyone who has been told “We will have to let you go” will testify. But the corporate world can also be very blunt in its appraisal of a situation or practice. In the early 1990s, the USA witnessed an unprecedented growth in chains of retailers such as Best Buy, Home Depot and Toys R Us. Similar processes have been at work in the UK and in some cases, such as Toys R Us, the enterprises are the same. The Americans gave such stores the bleak and to‐the‐point name “category killers” because they offered almost every conceivable product related to their category under one roof. In other words, the goal of these retailers was to dominate the category and “kill” the competition.

Practical implications

Provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world's leading organizations.

Social implications

Provides strategic insights and practical thinking that can have a broader social impact.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy‐to‐digest format.

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2018

Vanessa A.S. Laureys and Marleen Easton

The purpose of this paper is to explore the empirical literature on the resilience of public police officers and private security guards in stressful situations involving…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the empirical literature on the resilience of public police officers and private security guards in stressful situations involving threats, violence, accidents or death. This paper studies the definitions of resilience used in these professions, identifies trends in applied research methods and examines the main topics addressed in previous research.

Design/methodology/approach

A scoping review was carried out, with searches in Web of Science and Google Scholar, as well as a secondary manual screening in Dutch academic journals. Based on this review, 33 empirical studies were included in the current paper.

Findings

First, it was revealed that a clear-cut definition of resilience applied to public police and private security guards is currently lacking. Second, predominantly quantitative designs were found to be used in the selected studies. Third, the 33 empirical studies provided insights on four main topics: demographic factors, personal characteristics, interpersonal aspects and resilience training programs. Remarkably, this scoping review did not find any empirical research on the resilience of private security guards.

Originality/value

This study systematically integrates the findings of empirical research on the resilience of security providers to stressful situations. The documentation of research activity, gaps and inconsistencies in the literature offer direction for future research in this relatively new field of study.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1988

Nicolas Papadopoulos and Jean‐Emile Denis

This article assesses the state‐of‐the‐art on the subject of international market selection based on a comprehensive review and synthesis of the literature. It provides an…

Abstract

This article assesses the state‐of‐the‐art on the subject of international market selection based on a comprehensive review and synthesis of the literature. It provides an inventory, taxonomy and brief review of the normative quantitative models that have been proposed in the literature, and compares them to current business practices in selecting foreign markets. This comparison reveals a theory‐practice gap that is discussed in the context of the methodological and conceptual weaknesses of the models. Suggestions for future research are made.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Abstract

Details

Marketing Management in Turkey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-558-0

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Book part
Publication date: 5 February 2016

Mikaila Mariel Lemonik Arthur

This research paper aims to better understand the network structure of higher education in North America. It draws on a relationally networked dataset of 1,292…

Abstract

This research paper aims to better understand the network structure of higher education in North America. It draws on a relationally networked dataset of 1,292 degree-granting colleges and universities in North America to develop a modularity class approach to categorizing colleges and universities based on their own self-defined peer networks and assesses the utility of the modularity class approach as well as several measures of network centrality for predicting offerings of new curricular fields. Results show that not all measures of network centrality equally predict organizational change outcomes, with hub/authority position being most important. Additionally, results show that an empirically derived modularity class approach to categorizing organizations has important strengths in relation to more typical approaches based on prestige or perceived organizational characteristics. The approaches detailed in this paper will be useful for future analysts seeking to explain the spread of innovations and behavior across the higher education institutional field, as well as those seeking to understand clustering and organizational divergence.

Details

The University Under Pressure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-831-5

Keywords

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