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The purpose of this study is to capture the variation in entrepreneurs' understandings and experiences through which they contextualise cultural factors within a national…
The purpose of this study is to capture the variation in entrepreneurs' understandings and experiences through which they contextualise cultural factors within a national setting to articulate how they use their knowledge and social capabilities to advance their activity.
This study adopts an interpretivist approach through which culture is investigated at the individual level. Phenomenography is used as a methodology to capture the variation in the entrepreneurs own understanding and experiences of the cultural factors.
The findings introduce four different understandings and eight experiences to explore how entrepreneurs contextualise culture in their environment. The findings present a change in the role of culture in influencing entrepreneurial social capabilities and confidence; and a change in the local culture from collectivism to individualism. Furthermore, the findings show how entrepreneurs use their knowledge, experience and understanding to achieve socially driven acts to pursue economic value, integration and acceptance.
We encourage further research in the Middle-East region to examine the model and identify other factors that affect entrepreneurial behaviour, including the important developments with regard to women entrepreneurs. While Jordan has embarked on introducing policy level changes to support entrepreneurship, the findings report that the culture of collectivism is changing. This requires a longitudinal research to capture the change and its implication on entrepreneurial activity in Jordan and its impact on unemployment and economic value.
In terms of practical contribution, the study introduces a policy level contribution by answering the question presented by the GEM report (2014) pointing out the high entrepreneurial opportunity identification in Jordan, yet the country has the lowest entrepreneurial activity in the region. Although the report pointed out issues in policy and institutional support the role of culture was not addressed. The study recommendation is to celebrate and entrepreneurial activity and introduce entrepreneurial studies at schools to influence a positive change.
We addressed some of the several calls to further investigate and understand the role of culture, how entrepreneurs contextualise it (Foss and Klein, 2012; Garud et al., 2016; Zahra et al., 2014; Welter et al., 2019). Our research provides a fertile ground for further enquiries that pose questions such as “What other factors do entrepreneurs contextualise in their environment?” and “how these factors are contextualised?” The use of phenomenography as an interpretive methodology might therefore assist in revealing further shared understandings of the variation in entrepreneurs' behaviours. Further research on capturing “understanding” presents the complex forms of interactions and mechanism in the cognitive world of the entrepreneurs (Barandiaran et al., 2009; Brannback and Carsrud, 2016).
In this study, phenomenography has enabled new insights into the multiplicity and idiosyncratic role of culture within a national setting and introduces a model of social capability and integration which capture the contextualisation of cultural factors. The study contributes to entrepreneurship literature as follows: first, the implicit assumption in this research is that culture is an active construct that entrepreneurs understand, experience and also influence; second, the variation in entrepreneurs' outcomes is based on their subjective and personal understandings which form the ways of contextualisation. Third, the variation in understanding and experiences captures the different ways entrepreneurs use their social capabilities to achieve integration and economic value.
The chapter examines the storied experiences of a preservice teacher in India who transitioned to become a beginning year teacher over the course of this study. Multiple…
The chapter examines the storied experiences of a preservice teacher in India who transitioned to become a beginning year teacher over the course of this study. Multiple threads unraveled the complex interweaving of her personal and professional selves in her scholarship of teaching, further suggesting that teachers teach who they are. Through the course of this research, I explored the following questions about my participant: What was the source of her energy and passion for working with her students? What did her story reveal about the development of her personal practical knowledge? What were those experiences in the teacher education program which enabled her to intervene and connect with her students at a deeper level? As the inquiry travels back and forth on the temporal dimension, including various social spaces and interactions, my participant demonstrated an evolving understanding of her self-as-a-thinking being with an agency and social justice perspective.
This study aims to provide reliable and valid constructs of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and a measurement instrument in the context of Iranian organizations…
This study aims to provide reliable and valid constructs of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and a measurement instrument in the context of Iranian organizations based on the seven core subjects of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 26000 standard. It also examines the effects of these seven CSR criteria, namely, organizational governance, human rights, labor practices, the environment, fair operating practices, consumer issues and community involvement, and development on the organizational performance of Iranian organizations.
Through an extensive study of literature review, the related items of these core subjects were identified. Data for the study were collected from 207 Iranian manufacturing and service firms. The research model was tested using structural equation modeling.
Statistical analysis revealed that a number of significant relationships between CSR practices and organizational performance of Iranian organizations. The result found that community involvement and development plays an important role in enhancing organizational performance of organizations.
First, the time sequence of the association between the variables could not be concluded, given that cross-sectional data were used. A future study is suggested to conduct a longitudinal research design to present the evidence of causation which cannot be achieved through cross-sectional designs. Second, this study was limited to Iran. Hence, the findings and conclusions drawn from this research are representative of the Iranian context only. Hence, final results should be considered with caution.
This study offers a number of implications for Iranian managers and policy-makers. First, this study identified that there is a relationship between CSR practices based on the seven core subjects of ISO 26000 and firm performance in the context of Iran. Second, the instrument developed, in this research, will be very useful to policy-makers in various industries of Iran as a tool for evaluating the effectiveness of their current CSR practices and initiatives. Third, decision-makers can also prioritize the CSR practices on which their firms should focus to improve their organizational performance.
The novelty of this research is to determine the related items of the core subjects of ISO 26000 as the main factors and offer an instrument to measure the effects of various CSR practices on organizational performance of Iranian firms in the context of Iran.
Engagement, motivation, and persistence are usually associated with positive outcomes. However, too much of it can overtax our psychophysiological system and put it at…
Engagement, motivation, and persistence are usually associated with positive outcomes. However, too much of it can overtax our psychophysiological system and put it at risk. On the basis of a neuro-dynamic personality and self-regulation model, we explain the neurobehavioral mechanisms presumably underlying engagement and how engagement, when overtaxing the individual, becomes automatically inhibited for reasons of protection. We explain how different intensities and patterns of engagement may relate to personality traits such as Self-directedness, Conscientiousness, Drive for Reward, and Absorption, which we conceive of as functions or strategies of adaptive neurobehavioral systems. We describe how protective inhibitions and personality traits contribute to phenomena such as disengagement and increased effort-sense in chronic fatigue conditions, which often affect professions involving high socio-emotional interactions. By doing so we adduce evidence on hemispheric asymmetry of motivation, neuromodulation by dopamine, self-determination, task engagement, and physiological disengagement. Not least, we discuss educational implications of our model.
THE Georgia Institute of Technology, the Northwestern University, and the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have received a grant from the Engineering Division of the…
THE Georgia Institute of Technology, the Northwestern University, and the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have received a grant from the Engineering Division of the National Science Foundation (USA) for a two‐year research effort entitled “Collaborative Research in Tribology”. Principal investigators at the three institutions are, respectively, Prof. Ward O. Winer, Prof. Herbert S. Cheng, and Prof. Frederick F. Ling.