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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Abel Duarte Alonso, Nikolaos Sakellarios, Nevil Alexander and Seamus O’Brien

The purpose of this paper is to examine key areas related to the craft brewing industry from the perspective of operators of micro and small craft breweries, and propose a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine key areas related to the craft brewing industry from the perspective of operators of micro and small craft breweries, and propose a framework based on the resourced-based theory of the firm and the theory of innovation. The areas investigated include participants’ perceived strengths of their craft brewery, involvement in innovative practices, opportunities for the craft brewing firm, and potential differences related to these areas based on the demographic characteristics of participants and their breweries.

Design/methodology/approach

Given its growing significance and economic contribution, the US craft brewery industry was chosen for this study. An online questionnaire was designed to gather data from craft brewery operators across the nation.

Findings

Product and service quality, knowledge, reputation, and expertise were revealed as key strengths, while creating new recipes and using social media tools were the most considered ways of innovating. Furthermore, opportunities were perceived through craft beer tourism, increased consumption, and quality improvements. Statistically significant differences emerged, particularly based on production levels, staff numbers, and involvement/no involvement in exports. Various associations between the findings and the adopted theoretical frameworks were revealed.

Originality/value

In terms of originality, the proposed refinement based on the adopted theoretical frameworks and findings facilitates understanding of the significance of resources and innovation, particularly for firms operating in a growing industry. Regarding value, the findings have important implications for the industry, for instance, in the marketing of craft brewing, as well as in the development of new craft brewing products.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Harish C. Bahl, Jatinder N.D. Gupta and Kenneth G. Elzinga

This study aims to propose a framework for developing strategies for the supply chain of craft beer that can make the business efficient and profitable, and at the same…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose a framework for developing strategies for the supply chain of craft beer that can make the business efficient and profitable, and at the same time, generate sustainability benefits from reducing waste, conserving natural resources and reducing pollution.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an extensive review of the literature of academic and industry publications, source material from craft brewers primarily situated in the USA and industry experience in craft brewing, the proposed framework describes strategies to establish sustainable craft beer supply chains.

Findings

The framework for craft beer supply chain consists of four categories that contribute to craft beer sustainability: ingredient procurement, recycling efforts, energy usage and distribution systems – some of these mimicking those used by macrobrewers. Each of the categories is further subdivided. Successful practices and examples are highlighted for each of the subcategories.

Research limitations/implications

This proposed framework was built upon current practices and available literature in the USA and focused on the environmental pillar of sustainability. Further, the proposed framework arises from the fact that current best practices in sustainability were available primarily from larger craft brewers, like Sierra Nevada and New Belgium.

Practical implications

By paying attention to operational changes in their supply chains, craft brewers can manage costs and improve their sustainability track record by reducing waste, conserving natural resources and improving upon their pollution footprint. Craft brewers can economize in the use of water, grains, hops and yeast by using practices discussed in this paper.

Originality/value

This is the first time that all aspects of supply chain and sustainability considerations in craft beer production are discussed in a comprehensive manner to propose a framework for analysis and enhancement of productivity and sustainability at the same time. The fact that the proposed framework can be used in future studies to empirically evaluate the utility of various sustainability strategies adds to the originality and value of this research.

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2018

Abel Duarte Alonso, Nikolaos Sakellarios, Nevil Alexander and Seamus O’Brien

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent and significance of involvement of craft brewery operators in their community through the lens of the stakeholder…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent and significance of involvement of craft brewery operators in their community through the lens of the stakeholder theory (ST). In addition, differences between forms of involvement and demographic characteristics of operators and breweries are examined.

Design/methodology/approach

As many as 218 operators of predominantly micro-craft breweries across the USA participated in an online questionnaire designed to gather their perceptions.

Findings

While paying taxes was participants’ main perceived form of contribution, providing an artisan-made product, the significance of the craft brewery as a community “hub”, and that of increasing the number of leisure alternatives also emerged. A further 52.8 per cent of participants indicated contributing US$100,000 or more to the community annually. Statistically significant differences were revealed, for instance, based on craft breweries’ production volume, and the level of financial contribution. Various associations between operators’ perceived contributions and the ST theses were established in regard to cooperative interests (descriptive), stakeholder management (instrumental), and moral principles (normative).

Originality/value

First, by examining corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the craft brewing industry and among predominantly smaller firms, the study addresses two under-researched areas. Second, a refinement of the ST in the context of the craft brewing industry is proposed, highlighting the links between ST-based theses and the findings. Third, the study contributes to three different types of literature: micro and small business, craft brewing entrepreneurship, and CSR.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2018

Sascha Kraus, Patrycja Klimas, Johanna Gast and Tobias Stephan

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the specific types of coopetition between small and medium-sized craft breweries and related businesses, as well as its drivers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the specific types of coopetition between small and medium-sized craft breweries and related businesses, as well as its drivers and outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative research was carried out using in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 18 different small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) combined with site visits and secondary data analysis.

Findings

The results reveal that craft breweries are engaging in coopetition in several different ways. Mutual benefit, trust, commitment, and sympathy are the crucial drivers for coopetition; whereas innovation development, market reach and marketing, as well as firm growth represent the key shared outcomes of coopetition.

Research limitations/implications

This study suffers from two main limitations, including the focus on coopetition of craft breweries operating in German-speaking countries only and the risk of subjectivity in analysis and interpretation due to the qualitative, explorative nature of the research.

Originality/value

The findings reveal insights into the uniqueness of SMEs – specifically craft brewers – regarding coopetition, which is currently of strong cooperative nature. This study completes prior coopetition knowledge by revealing the importance of coopetition for small, micro and resource-constrained firms operating in dynamic and innovative but traditional (here craft) industries; presenting the cooperation-based type of coopetition as a good competition strategy under fierce competition from large, more established and global business rivals; and identifying sympathy as an important coopetition driver.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2012

Douglas W. Murray and Martin A. O'Neill

The purpose of this paper is to examine the underexplored niche market potential of craft beer, especially as it may relate to independent food and beverage operations, as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the underexplored niche market potential of craft beer, especially as it may relate to independent food and beverage operations, as a means of gaining competitive advantage.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through the distribution of a survey instrument to craft beer and home brewers, designed to assess the demographic profile, purchasing/restaurant selection, and decision behavior of this group and assess the likelihood of their future behavioral intentions toward continued participation in the craft beer segment.

Findings

The paper reveals that craft beer and micro brew pub success has been driven by the home brew movement and continues to gain market share at the expense of broad line food service and macro beer producers. The demographic profile of this group shows age range, income, and educational levels sufficient to drive continued growth. The high satisfaction and likelihood to recommend scores support this assessment.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is limited to members of the Brewers Association, the American Home Brewers Association, and craft beer enthusiasts known to members of the organization. Additionally, the survey was administered electronically limiting participation to people comfortable with this medium.

Practical implications

F&B operators who demonstrate commitment to craft beer through server education, beverage list commitment, and supporting events can achieve market differentiation and dominance within the niche; leading ultimately to competitive advantage.

Originality/value

This research sheds light on underexplored areas of craft beer and the opportunity for independent F&B operators to identify and penetrate an increasingly important niche market, which to date has been viewed primarily from the perspective of microbrew pubs.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2020

Eric Beckman, Fang Shu and Tianyu Pan

The purpose of this research paper is to examine whether enduring involvement theory plays a role in predicting craft beer and food festival visitors' experience of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research paper is to examine whether enduring involvement theory plays a role in predicting craft beer and food festival visitors' experience of the festivalscape. Though craft beer and brewing is a growing area of research, there has been limited studies and theory application in this area. Around the world, craft breweries are increasing in number and producing more unique styles of beer as the demand for craft beer increases. Craft beer consumers visit many of these breweries and are attracted to craft beer festivals in which they can sample multiple local, regional, national and international craft beers.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative methodology was used based on data collected at the site of the festival. Researchers collected 204 useable surveys from visitors attending the North Miami Brewfest in North Miami, Florida, USA. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine the relationships among enduring involvement, festivalscape, satisfaction, revisit intention and word-of-mouth.

Findings

The results revealed that enduring involvement is significant in predicting all four factors of festivalscape (food/beverage quality, convenience, facility and festival staff). The festivalscape factors facility, food quality and festival staff predicted festival attendee satisfaction which in turn predicted both revisit intention and word-of-mouth. However, the festivalscape factor convenience did not influence satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

The authors surveyed only one festival in one region in South Florida. Further studies can survey multiple festivals in multiple regions to increase the generalizability of the research model. Enduring involvement theory could be applied to other niche areas in hospitality and tourism in the future (in addition to craft beer tourism).

Practical implications

Craft beer festival organizers should appeal to craft beer clubs, breweries and publications to attract those with a commitment to the craft beer industry to their event. People with an enduring, lasting commitment to craft beer are more likely to have a positive experience of the festivalscape at the event. Lastly, festival organizers should focus on the festivalscape factors facility, festival staff and food and beverage quality to influence satisfaction at the event.

Originality/value

This project applies enduring involvement theory in a festival setting. The research is further unique by adding enduring involvement as a predictor of festivalscape experience.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2020

Cristina Calvo-Porral, Sergio Rivaroli and Javier Orosa-Gonzalez

Much of the innovation in the beer sector has focussed on flavour, resulting in a proliferation of flavoured beers. In this paper, the understanding of consumers’ flavour…

Abstract

Purpose

Much of the innovation in the beer sector has focussed on flavour, resulting in a proliferation of flavoured beers. In this paper, the understanding of consumers’ flavour preferences is a relevant question for the beer industry; however, little is known whether consumer involvement influences beer flavour preferences, and the purpose of the present study is directed to shed light on this area yet under-investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was conducted in Spain, where a total amount of 565 beer consumers were classified based on their level of involvement with beer. Data were analysed by analysis of variance, Tukey test, principal component analysis and multidimensional scaling (MDS) to examine consumers’ preferences for different beer flavours using a consumer hedonic approach based on like and dislike evaluation.

Findings

The findings support the existence of a homogeneous pattern in beer-flavour preferences, regardless of consumer involvement, showing a greater liking for conventional flavours. Further, highly involved consumers show a higher preference for unconventional or flamboyant beer flavours, than low or medium involved consumers.

Originality/value

Derived from the findings it can be stated that consumers do not accept all kinds of flavours and that their level of product involvement affects their flavour preferences.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Abel Duarte Alonso, Alessandro Bressan and Nikolaos Sakellarios

The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine the perceived resources, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats from the perspective of micro and small…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine the perceived resources, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats from the perspective of micro and small brewery owners, managers and brewing masters operating in three countries. To this end, the study adopts the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm, complemented by a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The research provides a mixed-methods approach. Data were collected from craft breweries in Italy, Spain and the UK. In all, 165 valid responses were obtained from an online questionnaire, and an additional 24 face-to-face and telephone interviews with craft brewing operators in these three countries were conducted to further enrich the data. Independent samples t-test and Scheffé post hoc were used to analyse part of the quantitative data, while content analysis and word association were used for the qualitative component.

Findings

Product quality and uniqueness of product emerged as important perceived resources and strengths, suggesting an alignment with some of the resource-related attributes postulated by the RBV, such as valuable, rare and (un)substitutable. Other elements, such as natural and sustainable resources, including water quality and the current and future involvement in growing or sourcing raw products locally emerged as key resources, and are suggested as additional attributes. These strategic and tangible resources are however challenged by perceived weaknesses, particularly lack of financial, infrastructure and commercialisation resources, as well as threats from competition.

Originality/value

The exploratory study focuses on craft brewing from the perspective of micro/small operators. This industry has received very limited attention from the literature. The use of the RBV, with the potential to increase understanding of an emerging industry, and develop the theory further in this domain, adds to the originality and value of this research.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Abel Duarte Alonso and Nevil Alexander

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of feedback in developing and operationalising knowledge from the perspective of craft brewing operators. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of feedback in developing and operationalising knowledge from the perspective of craft brewing operators. The study contributes to various literature streams, including marketing and craft brewing entrepreneurship. An additional contribution is made through the adoption of the knowledge-based theory of the firm, and the SECI process to facilitate understanding of the significance of knowledge in the craft brewing industry.

Design/methodology/approach

An online questionnaire was designed to gather data from mainly micro and small craft brewery operators. Of the 110 craft breweries identified across Australia, 57 (51.8 per cent) participated. The predominantly qualitative data were analysed using content analysis and word association.

Findings

The importance of knowledge acquisition for craft brewery firms was revealed in various ways. For example, respondents most favoured new knowledge to learn about quality issues and perceptions of quality among buyers/consumers. Further, acquired knowledge through feedback was a determinant factor in participants’ decision to produce particular styles of beers. Several alignments with the adopted theoretical frameworks were revealed, including the role of socialisation (SECI process) illustrated through the transformation of explicit into tacit knowledge.

Originality/value

The study examines the dimension of knowledge in the craft brewing industry, which, although considerably developing, continues to be underresearched. Furthermore, the study’s findings underline various important implications for the craft brewing industry, suppliers, and for end consumers. The study also proposes a refinement of both the RBTF and the SECI process based on the findings.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Abel Duarte Alonso, Alessandro Bressan and Nikolaos Sakellarios

The purpose of this study is to examine how micro and small craft brewery operators perceive and operationalise innovation. Moreover, in adopting the theory of innovation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how micro and small craft brewery operators perceive and operationalise innovation. Moreover, in adopting the theory of innovation, the study addresses two under-researched areas, namely, innovation among micro and small firms and innovation in the context of the emerging craft brewing industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The perspectives of 163 craft brewery operators located in Italy, Spain, and the UK were gathered through online questionnaires. In total, 24 face-to-face and telephone interviews with operators from the three nations complemented the data collection process. Thus, in total, 187 operators participated.

Findings

Development of new craft beer styles, new recipes, exploring with various ingredients, improving quality, or involvement in social media and culinary tourism were predominant forms participants perceived innovation. Various differences regarding innovation adoption were noticed, particularly based on participants’ country and on their role at the brewery. Furthermore, associations between the findings and the dimensions of the theory of innovation were confirmed.

Originality/value

This study is original, in that it represents a first effort in comparing perceptions of craft brewery operators across various countries. This comparison identifies ways in which craft brewery operators could maximise the potential of their firms. For example, the manifested interest in innovating through new craft beer recipes, or blending gastronomy and craft beer underlines alternative forms of adding value to craft brewing production. Importantly, some of these innovating practices differ based on participants’ country; such differences could also be considered by craft brewery operators.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

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