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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Rudi Meijer and Sandjai Bhulai

The purpose of this paper is to study the optimal pricing problem that retailers are challenged with when dealing with seasonal products. The friction between expected…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the optimal pricing problem that retailers are challenged with when dealing with seasonal products. The friction between expected demand and realized demand creates a risk that supply during the season is not cleared, thus forcing the retailer to markdown overstocked supply.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose a framework based on a Cox regression analysis to determine optimal markdown paths. They illustrate this framework by a case study on a large department store.

Findings

The framework allows one to determine when and how much to markdown in order to optimize expected total profit given the available supply. When the law of demand holds at a disaggregated level, i.e. the individual retailer, it is also possible to optimize the markdown path.

Originality/value

This paper provides a framework for the complex dynamic pricing problem in retail using transactional data. The case study shows that significant revenues can be generated when applying this framework.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 October 2021

Ganesaraman Kalyanasundaram, Sitaram Ramachandrula and Bala Subrahmanya Mungila Hillemane

Entrepreneurs nurture their ambitions of founding tech start-ups that facilitate significant innovations despite vulnerability and considerable uncertainty by resolutely…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurs nurture their ambitions of founding tech start-ups that facilitate significant innovations despite vulnerability and considerable uncertainty by resolutely addressing multiple challenges to avert failures. The paper aims to answer how soon do tech start-ups fail, given their lifecycle comprising multiple stages of formation and what attributes hasten failure of tech start-ups over their lifecycle? These questions have not been answered adequately, particularly in the context of India's emerging economy, where an aspiring start-up ecosystem is striving to flourish at an exceptional rate.

Design/methodology/approach

The study addressed two specific objectives: (1) Does life expectancy vary between life-cycle stages? and (2) What attributes impact tech start-ups' failures? Primary data were gathered from 151 cofounders (101 who have experienced failure and 50 who are successful and continuing their operations) from India's 6 leading start-up hubs. The survival analysis techniques were used, including non-parametric Kaplan–Meier estimator, to study the first objective and semi-parametric Cox proportional hazard regression to explore the second objective.

Findings

The survival probability log-rank statistics ascertain that life expectancy is different across the life-cycle stages, namely emergence, stability and growth. The hazard ratios (HRs) throw light on attributes like stage, revenue, conflict with investors, number of current start-ups, cofounder experience, level of confidence (LoC) and educational qualifications as the key attributes that influence start-up life expectancy over its lifecycle.

Practical implications

The empirical study on tech start-ups' life expectancy has practical implications for entrepreneurs and investors besides guiding the ecosystem's policymakers. First, the study helps entrepreneurs plan for resources and be aware of their start-up journey's potential pitfalls. Second, the study helps investors to establish the engagement framework and plan their future funding strategy. Third, the study helps policymakers to design and establish progressive support mechanisms that can prevent a start-up's failure.

Originality/value

First and foremost, start-up life expectancy study by life-cycle stages provide detailed insights on start-ups' failures. The theoretical framework defined is replicable, scalable and distinctly measurable for studying the start-up failure phenomenon. The life expectancy of tech start-ups by life-cycle stage is a critical empirical contribution. Next, the attributes impacting start-up life expectancy are identified in the context of an emerging economy.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Bryanna Fox, Lauren N. Miley and Richard K. Moule Jr

Research indicates that a link exists between resting heart rate (RHR) and various forms of antisocial, violent and criminal behavior among community and criminal samples…

Abstract

Purpose

Research indicates that a link exists between resting heart rate (RHR) and various forms of antisocial, violent and criminal behavior among community and criminal samples. However, the relationship between RHR and engagement in aggressive/violent encounters among law enforcement has not yet been examined. The purpose of this paper is to examine the link between RHR and engagement in violent encounters using prospective longitudinal data on a sample of law enforcement officers in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Negative binomial regression, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox hazard regressions are conducted using a sample of 544 police officers to determine if there a relationship between RHR and engagement in violent encounters by law enforcement, even when controlling for demographics, biological and social covariates.

Findings

Results indicate that higher RHR is associated with an increased risk of officers engaging in a violent altercation, as measured by the number of arrests for suspects resisting arrest with violence, even after controlling for all other relevant factors.

Originality/value

This study was the first to examine police officers RHR levels and its associated with violent altercations during arrest using a rigorous statistical methodology.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Suzaida Bakar and Bany Ariffin Amin Noordin

Dynamic predictions of financial distress of the firms have received less attention in finance literature rather than static prediction, specifically in Malaysia. This…

Abstract

Dynamic predictions of financial distress of the firms have received less attention in finance literature rather than static prediction, specifically in Malaysia. This study, therefore, investigates dynamic symptoms of the financial distress event a few years before it happened to the firms by using neural network method. Cox Proportional Hazard regression models are used to estimate the survival probabilities of Malaysian PN17 and GN3 listed firms. Forecast accuracy is evaluated using receiver operating characteristics curve. From the findings, it shown that the independent directors’ ownership has negative association with the financial distress likelihood. In addition, this study modeled a mix of corporate financial distress predictors for Malaysian firms. The combination of financial and non-financial ratios which pressure-sensitive institutional ownership, independent director ownership, and Earnings Before Interest and Taxes to Total Asset shown a negative relationship with financial distress likelihood specifically one year before the firms being listed in PN 17 and GN 3 status. However, Retained Earnings to Total Asset, Interest Coverage, and Market Value of Debt have positive relationship with firm financial distress likelihood. These research findings also contribute to the policy implications to the Securities Commission and specifically to Bursa Malaysia. Furthermore, one of the initial goals in introducing the PN17 and GN3 status is to alleviate the information asymmetry between distressed firms, the regulators, and investors. Therefore, the regulator would be able to monitor effectively distressed firms, and investors can protect from imprudent investment.

Details

Recent Developments in Asian Economics International Symposia in Economic Theory and Econometrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-359-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2017

Sheera Joy Olasky and David F. Greenberg

We identify methodological weaknesses in a paper by Skocpol, Abend-Wein, Howard, and Lehmann (1993) on the origins of mothers’ pensions in the American states in the early…

Abstract

We identify methodological weaknesses in a paper by Skocpol, Abend-Wein, Howard, and Lehmann (1993) on the origins of mothers’ pensions in the American states in the early twentieth century. These include a sub-optimal and potentially biased strategy for assessing the impact of state characteristics on the time to adoption of pensions, as well as the use of a backward stepwise regression procedure for selecting independent variables. To determine whether Skocpol et al.’s conclusions remain valid, we recreated most of their dataset and used methods that are more appropriate for the analysis of duration data, including the Cox and complementary cloglog event history procedures. While we find support for several of their claims, our findings allow for a more straightforward interpretation of the role of explanatory variables, and the temporal dependence of the adoption process.

Details

On the Cross Road of Polity, Political Elites and Mobilization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-480-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Rafa Madariaga, Ramon Oller and Joan Carles Martori

The purpose of this paper is to assess the capacity of two methodological approaches – discrete choice and survival analysis models – to investigate the relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the capacity of two methodological approaches – discrete choice and survival analysis models – to investigate the relationship between socio-economic characteristics and turnover in a retailing company. A comparison of the estimation results under each model and their interpretation is carried out. The study provides a guide to determine, assess and interpret the effects of different driving factors behind turnover.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a data set containing information about 1,199 workers followed up between January 2007 and December 2009. First, not distinguishing voluntary and involuntary resignation, a binary logistic regression model and a Cox proportional hazards (PH) model for univariate survival data are set up and estimated. Second, distinguishing voluntary and involuntary resignation, a multinomial logistic regression model and a Cox PH model for competing risk data are set up and estimated.

Findings

When no distinction is made, the results point that wage and age exert a negative effect on turnover. Risk of resignation is higher for male, single, not married and Spanish nationals. When the distinction is made, previous results hold for voluntary turnover: wage, age, gender, marital status and nationality are significant. However, when explaining involuntary turnover, all variables except wage lose explaining power. The survival analysis approach is better suited as it measures risk of resignation in a longitudinal way. Discrete choice models only study the risk at a particular cut-off point (24 months in case of this study).

Originality/value

This paper is a systematic application, evaluation and comparison of four different statistical models for analysing employee turnover in a single firm. This work is original because no systematic comparison has been done in the context of turnover.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Lubna Naz and Kamalesh Kumar Patel

The aim of this paper is to examine biological, maternal and socioeconomic determinants of infant mortality in Sierra Leone.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine biological, maternal and socioeconomic determinants of infant mortality in Sierra Leone.

Design/methodology/approach

It uses an analytical framework and Cox proportional hazards regression to break down the effects of factors determining infant mortality. Factors utilized in the empirical investigation include sex of the child, birth size, birth spacing, mother's working status, age of mother, antenatal care, postnatal care, mother's anemia level, religion, mother's education and wealth status.

Findings

Results suggest that birth spacing of three years and above associated with a reduced risk of infant mortality contrasted with short birth intervals. Children born to nonanemic mothers have a lower hazard (22%) of infant mortality compared to those born to anemic mothers (HR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64–0.96). At least one antenatal care visit by mothers lowers infant mortality rate by 41% compared to no antenatal visits at all ( HR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.36–0.96). Similarly, infants whose mothers have received postnatal care are at lower risk (31%) of dying than those whose mothers have not received (HR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.93). Infant mortality is likely to decrease with the increase in the birth order.

Practical implications

The family health and planning programs should aim at educating men and women about the usefulness of birth spacing methods.

Originality/value

This paper might be the first attempt to analyze the determinants of infant mortality by utilizing a methodological framework and Cox regression.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-08-2019-0478.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Susan Parker, Gary F. Peters and Howard F. Turetsky

When making going concern assessments, Statement on Auditing Standards No. 59 (Auditing Standards Board 1988) directs auditors to consider the nature of management's plans…

Abstract

When making going concern assessments, Statement on Auditing Standards No. 59 (Auditing Standards Board 1988) directs auditors to consider the nature of management's plans and ability to mitigate periods of financial distress successfully. Corporate governance factors reflect attributes of control, oversight, and/or support of management's plans and actions intended to overcome financial distress. Correspondingly, this study investigates the impact of certain corporate governance factors on the likelihood of a going concern modification. Using survival analysis techniques, we examine a sample of 161 financially distressed firms for the time period 1988–1996. We find that auditors are twice as likely to issue a going concern modification when the CEO is replaced. We also find that going concern modifications are inversely associated with blockholder ownership. We also confirm Carcello and Neal's (2000) findings with respect to the association between an independent audit committee and an increased likelihood of modification. In a repeated events setting, we find that insider ownership and board independence are inversely associated with repeated going concern modifications. Our study concludes by proposing implications for the current financial reporting environment (including the Sarbanes‐Oxley Act of 2002) and future research avenues.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Susan Parker, Gary F. Peters and Howard F. Turetsky

This study investigates the association of various corporate governance attributes and financial characteristics with the survival likelihood of distressed firms. To…

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Abstract

This study investigates the association of various corporate governance attributes and financial characteristics with the survival likelihood of distressed firms. To address the manner in which firms evolve over time, we employ survival analysis techniques by incorporating Cox Proportional Hazards regressions. We longitudinally track an ex ante sample of 176 financially distressed firms. The results suggest that firms that replaced their CEO with an outsider, were more than twice as likely to experience bankruptcy. Furthermore, larger levels of blockholder and insider ownership over the sample period are positively associated with the likelihood of firm survival.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2013

Shrikant Kuntla, Srinivas Goli, T.V. Sekher and Riddhi Doshi

The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between the marriage among blood relatives and resulting adverse pregnancy outcomes.

471

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between the marriage among blood relatives and resulting adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses data from India Human Development Survey in 2005. The methods of analyses include bivariate, trivariate estimates and Cox proportional hazard regression model.

Findings

The results reveal that the occurrence of consanguineous marriages is more predominant in southern India and among socioeconomically disadvantageous groups. Moreover, women in consanguineous unions are more likely to have adverse pregnancy outcomes including stillbirths (RR=1.59, p‐value<0.01), abortions (RR=3.03, p‐value<0.01), miscarriages (RR=1.94, p‐value<0.01) and spontaneous miscarriages (RR=1.70, p‐value<0.01). Consanguineous marriages continue to be a critical predictor of adverse pregnancy outcomes in India.

Practical implications

In order to avoid loss of pregnancy and related reproductive health problems in India, it is imperative to create awareness regarding the adverse effects of consanguineous marriages, focusing on the regions with high prevalence.

Originality/value

This unique study comprehensively examines the occurrence of consanguineous marriages and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes by using advanced statistical analyses and nationally representative data.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 33 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

1 – 10 of 734