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Huat Bin (Andy) Ang and Arch G. Woodside

This study applies asymmetric rather than conventional symmetric analysis to advance theory in occupational psychology. The study applies systematic case-based analyses to…

Abstract

This study applies asymmetric rather than conventional symmetric analysis to advance theory in occupational psychology. The study applies systematic case-based analyses to model complex relations among conditions (i.e., configurations of high and low scores for variables) in terms of set memberships of managers. The study uses Boolean algebra to identify configurations (i.e., recipes) reflecting complex conditions sufficient for the occurrence of outcomes of interest (e.g., high versus low financial job stress, job strain, and job satisfaction). The study applies complexity theory tenets to offer a nuanced perspective concerning the occurrence of contrarian cases – for example, in identifying different cases (e.g., managers) with high membership scores in a variable (e.g., core self-evaluation) who have low job satisfaction scores and when different cases with low membership scores in the same variable have high job satisfaction. In a large-scale empirical study of managers (n = 928) in four (contextual) segments of the farm industry in New Zealand, this study tests the fit and predictive validities of set membership configurations for simple and complex antecedent conditions that indicate high/low core self-evaluations, job stress, and high/low job satisfaction. The findings support the conclusion that complexity theory in combination with configural analysis offers useful insights for explaining nuances in the causes and outcomes to high stress as well as low stress among farm managers. Some findings support and some are contrary to symmetric relationship findings (i.e., highly significant correlations that support main effect hypotheses).

Details

Improving the Marriage of Modeling and Theory for Accurate Forecasts of Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-122-7

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Article

J.M. Bewley, Boehlje, A.W. Gray, H. Hogeveen, S.J. Kenyon, S.D. Eicher and M.M. Schutz

Automated body condition scoring (BCS) through extraction of information from digital images has been demonstrated to be feasible; and commercial technologies are being…

Abstract

Purpose

Automated body condition scoring (BCS) through extraction of information from digital images has been demonstrated to be feasible; and commercial technologies are being developed. The primary objective of this research was to identify the factors that influence the potential profitability of investing in an automated BCS system.

Design/methodology/approach

An expert opinion survey was conducted to provide estimates for potential improvements associated with technology adoption. A stochastic simulation model of a dairy system, designed to assist dairy producers with investment decisions for precision dairy farming technologies was utilized to perform a net present value (NPV) analysis. Benefits of technology adoption were estimated through assessment of the impact of BCS on the incidence of ketosis, milk fever, and metritis, conception rate at first service, and energy efficiency.

Findings

Improvements in reproductive performance had the largest influence on revenues followed by energy efficiency and then by disease reduction. The impact of disease reduction was less than anticipated because the ideal BCS indicated by experts resulted in a simulated increase in the proportion of cows with BCS at calving 3.50. The estimates for disease risks and conception rates, obtained from literature, however, suggested that this increase would result in increased disease incidence. Stochastic variables that had the most influence on NPV were: variable cost increases after technology adoption; the odds ratios for ketosis and milk fever incidence and conception rates at first service associated with varying BCS ranges; uncertainty of the impact of ketosis, milk fever, and metritis on days open, unrealized milk, veterinary costs, labor, and discarded milk; and the change in the percentage of cows with BCS at calving 3.25 before and after technology adoption. The deterministic inputs impacting NPV were herd size, management level, and level of milk production. Investment in this technology may be profitable but results were very herd‐specific. A simulation modeling a deterministic 25 percent decrease in the percentage of cows with BCS at calving ≤3.25 demonstrated a positive NPV in 86.6 percent of 1,000 iterations.

Originality/value

This investment decision can be analyzed with input of herd‐specific values using this model.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article

In an interesting article, which recently appeared in The New Statesman, relating to the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis, the writer observes that whenever the question…

Abstract

In an interesting article, which recently appeared in The New Statesman, relating to the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis, the writer observes that whenever the question of tubercle in milk is raised, reassuring statements are promptly forthcoming from official sources, but apparently they are not always based upon sound knowledge. For example, the Minister of Agriculture stated in the House of Commons some months ago that the working of the Tuberculosis Order of 1925 showed that only about two per cent. of the cattle in England are affected. This statement is in all probability not only wrong, but wrong to an extent that would surprise any save those who are in touch with actual conditions. Reliable statistics tend to suggest that more than 30 per cent. of the cows in the British Islands are affected by the disease, the only exceptions to this proportion being in those herds which have been submitted regularly to the tuberculin test and from which reactors have been eliminated. The whole question is so important that no apology is needed for dealing with it here and setting out facts rather than theories. In 1924 a herd of 84 cows and 2 bulls belonging to a leading agriculturist was submitted to the tuberculin test; both bulls and 54 cows reacted. A year later, when the herd consisted of 87 cows and 2 bulls, 12 cows and 1 bull were tested for the first time. The bull and 11 cows reacted; of the remaining 75 cows and 1 bull only 7 cows reacted. In 1926 the herd consisted of 108 cows and 3 bulls; 11 cows were tested for the first time and 4 reacted. Of the remainder of the herd, consisting of 97 cows and 3 bulls, there were only 5 reactors, all cows. Many of the reactors in 1924–25–26 were slaughtered and tuberculosis was found to be present in every beast examined. There are at least four methods of testing: intradermal, ophthalmic, palpebral and subcutaneous, the subcutaneous being reliable under laboratory conditions for the first time only, because the maximum period of nonreaction to this test is not yet ascertained. It is well to remember that a tuberculous cow does not necessarily give tuberculous milk; in fact, little more than one per cent. of the cows that are afflicted with the disease have affected milk, and this is usually found where there is udder trouble. The tuberculin test is optional and at present owners are left to report suspected cases in their herds to the police. It follows in a great majority of cases that the cows they report are wasters, only fit for the knacker, who will pay 10s. to 15s. a piece for them. It is likely that a high percentage of cows in herds of standing, where the tuberculin test is not given regularly, would react to it. Under the Milk and Dairies Order of 1926, which came into operation in October of that year, sanitary authorities are required to keep registers of all persons carrying on the trade of dairykeeper or cowkeeper in their district, and all farms and other premises which are used as dairies; no man may carry on the trade of dairykeeper or cowkeeper unless he and his premises are registered. County Councils and County Borough Councils may order inspections, and a cowkeeper may not permit any cow to be removed from his premises after he has received notice that the Inspector is about to make a call. Further provisions for light, air and water made under the Order have been postponed for the benefit of the trade, but they will come into working not later than 1929. The powers of the Medical Officer of Health are considerable; if he is of opinion that anybody is suffering from an infectious disease caused by the consumption of milk supplied within the district from any registered premises, he may stop that supply until he is satisfied that there is no longer any trouble. There are in the Order many other clauses of interest to the consumer and the cowkeeper is obliged to take a large number of precautionary measures which will tend to increase rather than to diminish. Unfortunately the Milk and Dairies Act of the Ministry of Health and the Tuberculosis Order of the Ministry of Agriculture are not administered with uniformity. The local authorities up and down the country appear to vary the procedure as they think best. In these days when so great an effort is being made to promote increased consumption of milk, and when the food value of the pure article is admitted on nearly every hand, herds should be inspected regularly by a qualified veterinary surgeon, once a year at least, and certain of the present methods should be very carefully revised. To show the danger of the present procedure the following authenticated instances are interesting. Not long ago the London County Council, in accordance with the Milk and Dairies Act, took samples of milk from four distributors and caused it to be examined biologically. This examination took six weeks and in every case the milk was found to be tuberculous. The Medical Officer of the County from which the milk came was notified and he caused the herds in question to be examined and samples taken once more for biological examination. Tubercle being found, the case was handed over to the police to deal with under the Tuberculosis Order, and the Veterinary Inspector under the Contagious Diseases of Animals Act repeated the examination. In one of these four cases the London County Council notified the County Medical Officer in October, 1926, and the alleged offender among the herd was discovered by a process of elimination over a long period in April, 1927! On discovery the Veterinary Inspector condemned the beast and arrangements were being made for its slaughter when the owner produced a certificate to show that this particular cow was free from tuberculosis; it had been submitted to the tuberculin test and failed to react. A further sample was taken and the cow was pronounced healthy. In none of the four cases referred to was any cow giving tuberculous milk traced. It is not difficult to understand why this should be so. In these days, when many leading dairymen record their milk, some of them sell cows as soon as they are going out of profit and buy down‐calvers in order to keep the herd in full profit It follows that by the time the milk has been submitted to two or three biological examinations and three or four months have passed, the cow that has caused trouble may be infecting another herd. When we come to remember how closely the cows stand together in most cow houses, and how quickly, in the heated atmosphere of most of them, germs would spread, particularly in the winter, it is very easy to realise that the healthy may be infected by the sick and that many a cow may be tuberculous long before the owner has any idea that there is trouble. Something should be done to shorten procedure without rendering it ineffective, and the testing should be compulsory. At present an animal reported under the Tuberculosis Order and condemned is valued by agreement between the Local Authority and the owner of the animal, and if they fail to agree by a valuer appointed by the local authority and the owner, and the market value is assumed to be the price which might reasonably have been obtained from a purchaser in the open market who had no knowledge of any trouble other than he might have been supposed to have learned from inspection. If an animal, after being slaughtered, is found to be free from tubercle, the local authority must pay the market value plus 20s. If the animal was suffering from tuberculosis that was not in an advanced stage the local authority must pay a sum equal to three‐quarters of the market value, or 45s., whichever is the greater. If the animal was suffering from advanced tuberculosis, the compensation is one‐fourth of the market value, or 45s., whichever is the greater. This system of compensation is not found satisfactory. The owner may be honestly unaware of his cow's condition, he may even be disposed to do his best in the public interest, but when a man has any doubt as to whether he will get a fair price or not for his beast, he is extremely unlikely to submit to these examinations; he would prefer, unless the symptoms are obvious, to take the chance of selling in the open market. One of the difficulties of the position is to find the most suitable method of dealing with reactors, because the tuberculin test does not tell to what extent any animal is affected. But undoubtedly the present practice would be much improved if the control of diseases in cows were looked after by a department of the Ministry of Health, with a chief veterinary officer at its head who would be directly responsible to the Minister. All orders under the Contagious Diseases of Animals Act should be administered in the same fashion in all counties, i.e., by a veterinary officer and not by the police. Under the Dairies Acts veterinary inspection of all milk‐giving cows should be obligatory and not optional, and the full market value should be paid to owners whose cows are slaughtered under the Tuberculosis Order. The excessive delay and the duplication of procedure that is now so common should be avoided in some fashion that may be found practical by those who are best qualified to handle an extremely difficult situation. It is important that we should not deal too optimistically with the question of tuberculosis in cows. There is a big movement to increase the consumption of milk, yet there is ample evidence to lead us to believe that, outside the tested herds at least, one cow in three or four is tuberculous.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Frances Robinson

Goats milk has been said to be a suitable alternative to cows milk for people with lactose intolerance and cows milk protein intolerance, but most of the evidence is…

Abstract

Goats milk has been said to be a suitable alternative to cows milk for people with lactose intolerance and cows milk protein intolerance, but most of the evidence is anecdotal. This review discusses some of the marginal differences which distinguish goats milk from cows milk, leading to suggestions that in certain cases goats milk may be tolerated differently from cows milk. Most of the current evidence, however, appears to refute this claim, with little support for the anecdotal reports. Where any food intolerance is suspected, professional advice should always be obtained to ensure that the diet (especially for children) is well balanced. More research and controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify some of the issues raised.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 103 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Gregory A. Ibendahl, John D. Anderson and Leslie H. Anderson

A cow that fails to conceive must either be kept for a year without revenue or replaced by a bred heifer. This choice is a unique case of comparing investments with…

Abstract

A cow that fails to conceive must either be kept for a year without revenue or replaced by a bred heifer. This choice is a unique case of comparing investments with different economic lives because the potential replacement asset is just a newer version of the old asset. In this study, a net present value model is developed that eliminates the problem of finding a common timeframe. Results indicate there are often times producers should keep the open cow. Whenever feed costs are low, the price differential between cull cows and replacement heifers is high, or the calf crop value is low, retaining open cows becomes more desirable.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 64 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article

Colin G. Brown, Scott A. Waldron and John Francis Wilkins

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact on household and farming systems of government efforts to modernise production, build scale and develop…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact on household and farming systems of government efforts to modernise production, build scale and develop specialisation in the Tibet dairy industry.

Design/methodology/approach

An overview of policy strategies and industry developments is used to frame detailed micro-level analysis of household and farming systems where impacts on households are explored from both a comparative static and dynamic perspective.

Findings

Specialisation and intensification improve household returns but elicit major changes in the farming and household systems and engagement with external markets. For instance, scaling up from three to ten improved cows increases returns from farm activities by one-half but shifts households from a state of food self-sufficiency to one where they need to sell two-thirds of their dairy products and buy three-fifths of their livestock feed.

Research limitations/implications

The diversity among Tibetan farm households and the dynamic changes occurring in farm productivity, product markets and agrarian systems means that the empirical results are used as illustrative rather than definitive.

Originality/value

Relative to the large attention on the Chinese dairy industry with regard to food safety and industry development, the impacts of dairy specialisation on smallholders especially in western China have been overlooked. The case highlights several issues relevant to agrarian transition and development including changing labour use, risk exposure and engagement with external markets.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article

Chien-Hsing Chen and Ming-Chih Chen

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel position estimation method to accurately locate an object. An accelerometer-based error correction method is also developed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel position estimation method to accurately locate an object. An accelerometer-based error correction method is also developed to correct the positioning error caused by signal drift of a wireless network. Finally, the method is also utilized to locate cows in a farm for monitoring the action of standing heat.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed method adopts the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) of a wireless sensor network (WSN) to compute the position of an object. The RSSI signal can be submitted from an endpoint device. A complex environment destabilizes the RSSI value, making the position estimation inaccurate. Therefore, a three-axial accelerometer is adopted to correct the position estimation accuracy. Timer and acceleration are two major factors in computing the error correction value to adjust the position estimate.

Findings

The proposed method is tested on a farm management system for positioning dairy cows accurately. Devices with WSN module and three-axial accelerometer are mounted on the cows to monitor their positions and actions.

Research limitations/implications

If cows in a crowded farm are close to each other, then the position estimation method is unable to position each cow correctly because too many close objects cause interference in the wireless network.

Practical implications

Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method improves the position accuracy, and monitor the heat action of the cows effectively.

Originality/value

No position estimation method has been utilized to locate cows in a farm, especially for monitoring their actions via WSN and accelerometer. The proposed method adopts an accelerometer to efficiently improve the position error caused from the signal drift of WSN.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article

In a recent article dealing with the crimes against humanity committed by Germany, The Daily Telegraph remarks that thousands of innocent men, women, and little children…

Abstract

In a recent article dealing with the crimes against humanity committed by Germany, The Daily Telegraph remarks that thousands of innocent men, women, and little children murdered in cold blood by airship and submarine appeal for vengeance. The acts of Germany from the early days of the war onwards have filled decent‐minded people with feelings of loathing, and it is well that the last bonds uniting the two nations should be severed. This is no ordinary war. It has cut a deep chasm between the British and German peoples. By every means in our power we must remove, root and branch, those enemy influences in our midst which, by a process of “peaceful penetration,” were undermining our social, financial, and industrial power.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 18 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

J.M. Bewley, Boehlje, A.W. Gray, H. Hogeveen, S.J. Kenyon, S.D. Eicher and M.M. Schutz

The purpose of this paper is to develop a dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with technology investments. The model was constructed to embody the biological and economical complexities of a dairy farm system within a partial budgeting framework. A primary objective was to establish a flexible, user‐friendly, farm‐specific, decision‐making tool for dairy producers or their advisers and technology manufacturers.

Design/methodology/approach

The basic deterministic model was created in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft, Seattle, Washington). The @Risk add‐in (Palisade Corporation, Ithaca, New York) for Excel was employed to account for the stochastic nature of key variables within a Monte Carlo simulation. Net present value was the primary metric used to assess the economic profitability of investments. The model was composed of a series of modules, which synergistically provide the necessary inputs for profitability analysis. Estimates of biological relationships within the model were obtained from the literature in an attempt to represent an average or typical US dairy. Technology benefits were appraised from the resulting impact on disease incidence, disease impact, and reproductive performance. In this paper, the model structure and methodology were described in detail.

Findings

Examples of the utility of examining the influence of stochastic input and output prices on the costs of culling, days open, and disease were examined. Each of these parameters was highly sensitive to stochastic prices and deterministic inputs.

Originality/value

Decision support tools, such as this one, that are designed to investigate dairy business decisions may benefit dairy producers.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article

Christopher N. Boyer, Andrew P. Griffith and Karen L. DeLong

The objective of this research was to determine the optimal age and pregnancy status for buying and selling replacement of beef females for risk-neutral and risk-averse producers.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this research was to determine the optimal age and pregnancy status for buying and selling replacement of beef females for risk-neutral and risk-averse producers.

Design/methodology/approach

A hedonic pricing model was estimated to measure how age, pregnancy status, breed and cull cow prices impact the sale price of these cattle. Data came from an annual heifer and cow sale in Tennessee between 2009 and 2018. A financial simulation model was developed to generate distributions of net present value (NPV) for buying replacement females at various ages and pregnancy status and then selling that female at various ages and pregnancy status.

Findings

The hedonic pricing model indicates sale prices were highest for five-year-old cows that were between four to five months pregnant. NPV was higher for buying heifers versus buying cows and for buying an open female versus a pregnant female. Regardless of age and pregnancy status when purchased, NPV was higher when the female was sold as pregnant prior to the end of her productive life. The risk analysis showed that risk aversion, buying older open cows and selling them as pregnant earlier in their productive life was preferred

Originality/value

This research offers unique insight into how pregnancy status and age at sale impacts the animal's NPV while considering risk. These results have implications for educating producers on purchasing and selling decisions of heifers and cows as well as for lenders who finance these purchases.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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