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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2022

Vivek Radheshyam Darwai, Sachin Arvind Mandavgane and Prakash Lohia

One of the objectives of smart village is the efficient use of regional resources by local people to improve economic, social and environment conditions. Small-scale dairy…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the objectives of smart village is the efficient use of regional resources by local people to improve economic, social and environment conditions. Small-scale dairy farm (SDFs) exist in every village of India, contributing significantly to local economy and welfare of few families. The purpose of this work is to develop a mechanism to make SDF not only efficient but effective in operations.

Design/methodology/approach

A systems thinking approach is used to identify the variables influencing a SDF and develop a general framework – RAMHI (resources, alternate revenue, manpower, herd and infrastructure) comprising endogenous and exogenous variables. A representative SDF as a case study was chosen to implement RAMHI and assess its implementation feasibility and economic benefits.

Findings

Implementation of RAMHI gradually improves the economic benefits of a SDF. The key performing indicators like average milk produced/day; milk revenue/fodder cost; number of successful artificial insemination (AI) of herd/number of AI of herd; milking cow/dry cow; and milking cow/total cow, increased substantially in two successive years.

Originality/value

The literature reported and discussed individual variables influencing functioning of SDF while there are few conceptual frameworks proposed, comprising not more than three variables. This paper not only presents a comprehensive generalized framework – RAMHI, which comprises five variables like resources, alternate revenue, manpower, herd and infrastructure but also explains the implementation strategy and its benefits using a case study.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1917

At a meeting of the Council of the Royal Borough of Kensington on June 5th Councillor A. J. RICE‐OXLEY, M.D., Chairman of the Public Health Committee, brought up a report…

22

Abstract

At a meeting of the Council of the Royal Borough of Kensington on June 5th Councillor A. J. RICE‐OXLEY, M.D., Chairman of the Public Health Committee, brought up a report as follows:—

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 3 March 2020

Modestus Okechukwu Okwu, Olusegun D. Samuel, Omonigho B. Otanocha, Promise P. Balogun, Ogugu J. Tega and Ebenezer Ojo

A novel cost-effective bio-digester was explored to convert biological waste into useful clean energy. The bioreactor was aimed to anaerobically digest locally sourced cow

Abstract

Purpose

A novel cost-effective bio-digester was explored to convert biological waste into useful clean energy. The bioreactor was aimed to anaerobically digest locally sourced cow dung and chicken droppings.

Design/methodology/approach

The design consideration is a batch horizontal 267 L digester made from cast iron with centrally positioned four-impeller shaft to enhance mixing. The system operated with a retention time of 63 days and a substrate (cow dung and poultry waste) ratio of 1:2 and water substrate ratio of 1:0.5 in the gasholder system. The purification, compression and performance evaluation of the generated biogas were also conducted.

Findings

The total volume of gas produced for each substrate compositions designed over 14 days ranges between 49.34 and 52.91 mL/day. The optimal value of 52.45 ml using cow dung and poultry waste (w/w) 20:80 was obtained. The average ambient temperatures during the study were within the mesophilic range of 20-40°C. The pH values were stable and always in the optimal range of 6.5-8.0. The reductions in moisture content, ash content, total solids and volatile solids were from 80.50-0.20 per cent, 39.60-14 per cent, 18.50-5.90 per cent and 11.60-4.90 per cent, respectively.

Originality/value

The developed digester is cost-effective and would help minimize solid waste disposal. The estimated methane contents of the gas from cow dung and chicken waste after scrubbing were found to be 71.95 per cent and could be harnessed in solving the energy crisis in the developing nations.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1917

Town Clerk's Office, Town Hall, Bethnal Green, E. 18th November, 1916. To the Chairman and Members of the Public Health Committee. Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen, At a recent…

Abstract

Town Clerk's Office, Town Hall, Bethnal Green, E. 18th November, 1916. To the Chairman and Members of the Public Health Committee. Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen, At a recent meeting of the Public Health Committee, the Chief Sanitary Inspector reported upon legal proceedings which had been unsuccessful owing to the case of “Hunt v. Richardson” decided by a King's Bench Divisional Court of five Judges on the 2nd June, 1916, and I then reported upon the legal aspect of the case.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 22 February 2013

Sumit Kumar Gautam, R. Suresh, Ved Prakash Sharma and Meena Sehgal

The purpose of this paper is to assess the exposure of cooks in rural India (55 households) to the indoor air pollution levels emitted from burning of different fuels…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the exposure of cooks in rural India (55 households) to the indoor air pollution levels emitted from burning of different fuels, i.e. cow dung, wood, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and propane natural gas(PNG) kerosene for cooking purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

Indoor air quality was monitored during cooking hours in 55 rural households to estimate the emissions of PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, VOCs and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While, PM10 and PM2.5 were monitored using personal dust samplers on quartz filter paper, CO and VOCs were monitored using on line monitors. The PM10 and PM2.5 mass collected on filter papers was processed to analyse the presence of PAHs using GC.

Findings

Results revealed that cow dung is the most polluting fuel with maximum emissions of PM10, PM 2.5, VOCs, CO, NO2 and Benzene followed by wood and kerosene. Interestingly kerosene combustion emits the highest amount of PAHs. Emissions for all the fuels show the presence of carcinogenic PAHs which could be a serious health concern. The composition of LPG/PNG leads to reductions of pollutants because of better combustion process. LPG which is largely propane and butane, and PNG which is 90 per cent methane prove to be healthier fuels. Based on the results, the authors suggest that technological intervention is required to replace the traditional stoves with improved fuel efficient stoves.

Practical implications

The prevailing weather condition and design of the kitchen in these rural houses severely affect the concentration of pollutants in the kitchen as winter season combined with inadequate ventilation leads to reduced dispersion and accumulation of air pollutants in small kitchens.

Originality/value

The present study provides a detailed analysis of impact of widely‐used cooking practices in India. Even today, countries such as India rely on biomass for cooking practices exposing the cooks to high level of carcinogenic pollutants. Further, women and girls are the most threatened group as they are the primary cooks in these rural Indian settings. Based on the results, the authors suggest that technological as well as policy intervention is required to replace the traditional stoves with improved fuel efficient stoves.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1913

The question of the best commercial method of retailing milk requires to be dealt with from the various standpoints of the different classes of milk vendors.

Abstract

The question of the best commercial method of retailing milk requires to be dealt with from the various standpoints of the different classes of milk vendors.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1926

In a recent article upon the improper handling of meat, the Daily Mail observed that if the public realised the condition of much of the meat delivered to them there would…

Abstract

In a recent article upon the improper handling of meat, the Daily Mail observed that if the public realised the condition of much of the meat delivered to them there would be such an outcry that the Ministry of Health would be compelled to issue definite regulations governing the transport and sale of meat. London butchers are not the worst offenders. Many of them conform voluntarily to standards of hygiene that are far better than in many provincial towns where the public health authorities are lax; but even in London it is possible, in every district, to see revolting methods of dealing with meat. The great Central Meat Market at Smithfield is under the control of the Corporation of the City of London. There are definite orders that meat porters must wear white overalls and caps in addition to various sanitary regulations as to the transport of meat. Many men disobey them with impunity. Among incidents seen there by a representative of the Daily Mail were :—Porters with filthy tweed caps and still filthier sacking carrying carcases on their shoulders; carcases of mutton lying unprotected on a muddy pavement; a scavenger sweeping up dust and manure just beneath an open cart loaded with mutton; a boy with muddy boots and grimy clothes sitting on a heap of meat in another open‐end cart. If the orders of the Ministry cannot be enforced at Smithfield it is not surprising that they are utterly ignored in other places. More than half the butchers' shops seen in a long tour of London neglected the most elementary precautions against the contamination of meat from dust and dirt. The following are some typical examples:—Meat exposed in trays on the pavement, with a marble shop wall behind absolutely black with dirt and mud splashes ; a road‐sweeping machine spraying dirt on to joints exposed without any covering on a stall in the gutter outside a butcher's shop; refuse from a dust‐cart blowing on to meat in another open‐fronted shop; cooked meats exposed in an open window in one of the busiest streets in London. The Ministry of Health, in an explanatory memorandum, expressly excluded cooked meat from the operation of any regulations. Yet, as Medical Officers of Health point out, cooked meat, since it is eaten as bought, is a more dangerous carrier of infection than raw meat. The Ministry, it is understood, “ hope to be able to issue regulations dealing with the sale of cooked meat some time,” but cannot say when or promise an early date. The whole fault, for which the public have to pay the toll of disease due to dirty meat, is in the vagueness of the regulations made by the Ministry a year ago.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1916

At a meeting of the Council of the Royal Borough of Kensington on the 9th May, Councillor R. DUDLEY BAXTER, Chairman of the Law and General Purposes Committee of the…

Abstract

At a meeting of the Council of the Royal Borough of Kensington on the 9th May, Councillor R. DUDLEY BAXTER, Chairman of the Law and General Purposes Committee of the Council, brought up a Report as follows:—

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 23 December 2015

Kiran Sethia, Alka Kaushik, S. K. Jadhav and Afaque Quraishi

A new approach in the field of renewable energy is- the microbial fuel cells (MFCs). It is a technique to produce bioelectricity from available organic waste. It is…

Abstract

A new approach in the field of renewable energy is- the microbial fuel cells (MFCs). It is a technique to produce bioelectricity from available organic waste. It is helpful to fulfill the lighting requirements of rural areas. The aim of our research work is to construct twocompartment system and to study various parameters like performance of the different combination of electrodes, optimization of pH and temperature. In this study, using bacteria as biocatalyst, the naturally found cow dung was used to generate an open circuit voltage of 0.84 ± 0.010 V and a current of 3.51 ± 0.620 mA. Optimization of various parameters shows that among different temperature range, 37°C temperature gives the highest voltage production of 0.84 ± 0.091 V and current of 3.08 ± 0.512 mA. In case of pH there are not any significant changes were found when pH range is changed. Although, pH 4.0 is found to be more efficient as it produces voltage of 0.90 ± 0.045 V and current of 4.85 ± 0.587 mA. Furthermore, three electrogenic bacterial strains were isolated and studied for their electrogenic properties individually and among them CDB-3 was found best in their performance.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Chunzeng Fan and Taoyuan Wei

Constructing a low-carbon agriculture (LCA) park is considered an effective means to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developing countries. This study aims to…

1916

Abstract

Purpose

Constructing a low-carbon agriculture (LCA) park is considered an effective means to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developing countries. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of integrated low-carbon agricultural technologies based on evidence from a pilot LCA experiment in Shanghai, China, from 2008 to 2011.

Design/methodology/approach

Integrated low-carbon technologies in an agricultural park were adopted to reduce GHG emissions. Reduced emissions and net economic benefits were calculated by comparing emissions before and after the implementation of the experiment.

Findings

Results show that the low-carbon agricultural park experiment markedly reduced GHG emissions. This outcome can be attributed to the integrated technologies adopted in the experiment, including the reuse and recycle of resources, control of environmental pollution and GHG emissions and improvement of economic efficiency and social benefit. All the technologies adopted are already available and mature, thus indicating the great potential of LCA to reduce GHG emissions despite the lack of advanced technologies. However, supporting policies may be necessary to motivate private interests in LCA because of the considerable starting investments.

Originality/value

Previous macro-level and policy studies on LCA are based on knowledge from experimental studies, which typically specify environmental conditions to explore solely the effects of one low-carbon technology. Practically, integrating several low-carbon technologies in one experiment may be more effective, particularly for extensive agriculture, in developing countries. The effectiveness of integrated technologies is insufficiently discussed in the literature. Therefore, this study explores how effective integrated feasible LCA technologies can be in terms of both emission reduction and economic benefits based on the data obtained from an experiment in Shanghai, China.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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