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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Shige Makino

The world consists of diverse and distinctive economic systems. Due to the unique historical, cultural and location-specific contexts embedded in each economy, a…

Abstract

The world consists of diverse and distinctive economic systems. Due to the unique historical, cultural and location-specific contexts embedded in each economy, a comparison of strategic behaviors across economies is unlikely to provide a causal estimate of the influence of these contextual factors on strategy–performance relationships. In this paper, I outline three approaches to researching multinational firms that address this dilemma. They include the multilevel, historical and variance-centered perspectives, all of which can help international-business (IB) researchers develop stronger theoretical foundations from which to explain why country-specific contexts matter in designing IB action and research.

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Multidisciplinary Insights from New AIB Fellows
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-038-4

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New Directions in the Future of Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-298-0

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Book part
Publication date: 3 February 2022

Can Öztürk

This chapter deals with the patterns of International Financial Reporting Standards’ accounting policy choices that have been analyzed by several authors in a…

Abstract

This chapter deals with the patterns of International Financial Reporting Standards’ accounting policy choices that have been analyzed by several authors in a country-specific context. Instead of a country-specific context, this chapter adopts a sector-specific approach in terms of the airline industry in a regional and global context in order to observe the patterns of cosmetic and non-cosmetic policy options. Cosmetic policy options are related to the presentation of financial information which is not expected to impact the comparability of financial information versus non-cosmetic policy options are considered to be policy options that are related to measurement and, therefore, if there is more than one allowable accounting treatment, the comparability of financial information weakens. In the context of the airline industry, this chapter considers the patterns of policy choices related to IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements, IAS 2 Inventory, IAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows, IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment, IAS 38 Intangible Assets, and IAS 40 Investment Property, within the framework of frequently observed policy options as well as taking depreciation methods and expected useful life into consideration in terms of industry-specific policy options in order to observe whether there is uniformity rather than diversity in the airline industry for presentation and measurement.

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Perspectives on International Financial Reporting and Auditing in the Airline Industry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-760-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2020

Hayfaa Tlaiss

Despite the proliferation of studies on talent management (TM), few studies focus on the perspectives of human resource management (HRM) representatives. Furthermore…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the proliferation of studies on talent management (TM), few studies focus on the perspectives of human resource management (HRM) representatives. Furthermore, there is a dearth of studies that explore talent philosophies and TM in practice in private organizations in emerging economies, such as those of the Arab Middle East (AME) region. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to explore talent philosophies and TM in practice in the country-specific context of Lebanon.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was exploratory in nature and followed a qualitative interpretive methodology. It capitalized on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with HRM representatives.

Findings

The findings of this study indicated relative consensus in talent philosophies across organizations in four industries; talent was largely perceived as exclusive, despite disagreements on whether it was stable or developable. Differences were identified in terms of how TM was understood in organizations and also how it was executed in practice in terms of talent identification and recruitment, training and development, performance assessment and talent retention.

Originality/value

This study is the first to empirically explore talent philosophies and TM in practice in the context of Lebanon. It is also among the few studies to extend the use of institutional theory (IT) to talent philosophies and TM practices. The originality of this study is also derived from its focus on the practices of HRM departments through using feedback from HRM representatives.

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Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2019

Marina Latukha and Konstantin Malko

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the peculiarities of human resource management (HRM) practices in Kazakh firms and identify the factors that influence them…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the peculiarities of human resource management (HRM) practices in Kazakh firms and identify the factors that influence them. Attention is paid to analysis of the country-specific environment, which shapes the peculiarities of HRM and provides discussion on the respective Westernization or localization perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper argues that HRM practices are influenced by a number of factors, some of which are rather specific to Kazakhstan and some are common in a Commonwealth of Independent States’ context. The study uses exploratory research which includes the conduction of a survey, consisting of blocks of questions, for data collection.

Findings

The results show that despite dynamic economic growth of Kazakhstan’s economy, HRM practices are still in transition from those of Soviet heritage to ones that exist in Western multinational corporations. They cannot fully match the country’s needs for HRM development. Several recommendations for the future development of HRM in Kazakhstan are made.

Originality/value

The study examines the adaptation of HRM practices to the business environment in Kazakhstan.

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International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Petra Böhnke and Isabel Valdés Cifuentes

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between labour market integration and family satisfaction in a cross-country comparison perspective and takes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between labour market integration and family satisfaction in a cross-country comparison perspective and takes important intervening factors into consideration such as the social policy and flexibility strategy as well as the cultural context of 27 European countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors rely on data from the European Quality of Life Survey 2012 and conduct multi-level analyses using both the one-step random intercept Model with cross-level interactions as well as a two-step hierarchical model. The country-specific framework is addressed with indicators for the level of social security, for external flexibility labour market characteristics, and for the predominant family solidarity norm of a country.

Findings

The paper provides empirical support for the thesis of social disruption according to insecure labour market attachment. This link is weakened in countries where flexible labour market conditions are accompanied by strong efforts on state-provided social security. High family support norms can only partially compensate a lack of social protection covered by the state.

Research limitations/implications

The paper reveals the increasing social vulnerability of people who are not or not completely integrated into the labour market. These risks cannot be convincingly weakened by social security measures. To know more about these mechanisms, the link between labour market integration and the quality of family life should be studied in more detail in a cross-country comparative perspective to develop ideas and give advice on reducing the potential insecurity of flexible employment.

Originality/value

The paper complements previous research by providing empirical findings about the link between insecure labour market attachment and the integration into family networks in a cross-country comparison perspective.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 38 no. 5-6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

Alan Doig

International business is under increasing legal pressure to ensure compliance with legal and other standards on corruption, and thus needs to undertake due diligence on…

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Abstract

Purpose

International business is under increasing legal pressure to ensure compliance with legal and other standards on corruption, and thus needs to undertake due diligence on corruption. This paper aims to emphasise that existing sources of information on corruption in specific countries are often limited for interpretative purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a number of country studies that look at the causes and legal and institutional responses, as well as other data sources from international agencies, the paper suggests that no one indicator can substantively alert business to the levels and types of corruption in a specific country.

Findings

As a preliminary conclusion, the paper proposes that business must undertake more substantive work to understand corruption in a particular country. It also indicates that qualitative sources may be more productive than quantitative sources in providing information that is of use to business in undertaking such work.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the need to stress the need to study corruption in a country context.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2021

Hayfaa A. Tlaiss and Maura McAdam

The aim of this paper is to explore how Arab Muslim women entrepreneurs construe success, their identity as successful and the influence of Islam on these construals in…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to explore how Arab Muslim women entrepreneurs construe success, their identity as successful and the influence of Islam on these construals in the country-specific context of Lebanon.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve our aim, a qualitative interpretative methodology, drawing upon 25 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with Muslim women entrepreneurs was adopted.

Findings

Equipped with Islamic feminism, Arab women entrepreneurs experienced Islam as a malleable resource. Islam allowed them to construe success and their identity as successful at the juncture of their lived experiences as business owners, Muslims of good character and standing and Arab females. Ultimately, Islam unfolded as a dynamic religion that supports women's agency in a landscape dominated by deeply entrenched patriarchal societal and cultural norms and gender-based restrictions.

Originality/value

First, we contribute to research on the effect of Islam on entrepreneurship by demonstrating the influence of Islam on women's identity construction as successful and their construals of success. Second, we contribute to research on how entrepreneurs construe success beyond situating their construals of success in opposing camps of either objective or subjective success. Third, we contribute to research on identity construction and identity work by demonstrating how Muslim women entrepreneurs' identity as successful is construed at the intersection of their personal and social identities.

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International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Candace A. Martinez and Morris Kalliny

The purpose of this literature review is to provide a systematic overview and analysis of the trends and methodological issues of empirical scholarship in the Latin…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this literature review is to provide a systematic overview and analysis of the trends and methodological issues of empirical scholarship in the Latin American context.

Design/methodology/approach

The publications of a 21‐year period (1990‐2010) were reviewed in 45 business journals; 108 empirical studies were found that utilized a Latin American context.

Findings

Country‐specific and research design patterns were identified. This paper discusses how three methodological challenges – language, data collection, and response rates – have evolved in the context of Latin America over a period of two decades.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to presenting Latin America as a more tractable empirical context for future qualitative and quantitative scholarship and highlights the feasibility of including this understudied region to test scholars' hypotheses in the developing world.

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Multinational Business Review, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Omer Caliskan and Karri Holley

The growing demand for doctoral education and the role of the doctoral degree to advance nations socially, economically, and culturally forces countries and individual…

Abstract

Purpose

The growing demand for doctoral education and the role of the doctoral degree to advance nations socially, economically, and culturally forces countries and individual institutions to respond to concerns stemming from the doctoral process. Numerous initiatives to support doctoral students have been adopted with varying features across countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine doctoral student support programs in two countries: the USA and Turkey. These countries offer higher education systems at different stages of maturity and stability.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this study came from a comparative case study analysis of doctoral student experiences in support programs at two research universities, one in the USA and one in Turkey. Ten American doctoral students and eight Turkish doctoral students were interviewed, for a total of 18 interviews. The study utilized the conceptual framework specified by the PhD Completion Project initiated by the US Council of Graduate Schools.

Findings

The two national systems featured in this study are at different points of their development. These developmental starting points influence the rationale and construction of a student support program, particularly one focused on advanced degrees, research activity, and knowledge production. The Turkish higher education system faces the challenge of building its infrastructure to be responsive to national needs in future decades, including producing qualified faculty as teachers and researchers. The American model of doctoral student support concentrates on increasing diversity within the academy. By focusing on first-generation students, students of color, and women in STEM disciplines, efforts are directed toward not just improving the quantity of graduates, but also the diversity of those graduates.

Originality/value

While doctoral student support programs are increasingly common in multiple national contexts, analyses of these programs are rare, and comparative analyses even more so. The emergence of new academic disciplines, the trend toward interdisciplinary research, and the prevalence of neo-liberal policies has made the doctoral experience increasingly complex. The data presented here reveal that while doctoral education is influenced by country-specific contexts, doctoral students from multiple countries share many of the same experiences.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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