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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Elia Marzal

The object of this research is the reconstruction of the existing legal response by European Union states to the phenomenon of immigration. It seeks to analyse the process…

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Abstract

Purpose

The object of this research is the reconstruction of the existing legal response by European Union states to the phenomenon of immigration. It seeks to analyse the process of conferral of protection.

Design/methodology/approach

One main dimension is selected and discussed: the case law of the national courts. The study focuses on the legal status of immigrants resulting from the intervention of these national courts.

Findings

The research shows that although the courts have conferred an increasing protection on immigrants, this has not challenged the fundamental principle of the sovereignty of the states to decide, according to their discretionary prerogatives, which immigrants are allowed to enter and stay in their territories. Notwithstanding the differences in the general constitutional and legal structures, the research also shows that the courts of the three countries considered – France, Germany and Spain – have progressively moved towards converging solutions in protecting immigrants.

Originality/value

The research contributes to a better understanding of the different legal orders analysed.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 48 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

Maria Raciti, Rebecca O'Hara, Bishnu Sharma, Karin Reinhard and Fiona Davies

The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of price promotions, venue and place of residence on low‐risk, risky and high‐risk alcohol consumption behaviour of

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1127

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of price promotions, venue and place of residence on low‐risk, risky and high‐risk alcohol consumption behaviour of young women between 18 and 24 years of age who attend university in Australia, Wales and Germany.

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative, self‐administered questionnaire collected data from a convenience sample of three universities in three OECD countries with high alcohol consumption being: a regional Australian university (n=305), a city Welsh university (n=354) and a rural German university (n=325).

Findings

First, the multinomial logistic regression results revealed that price promotions and venue influenced alcohol consumption in Wales alone while place of residence influenced alcohol consumption in Australia; however, price promotions, venue and place of residence had no effect on young women attending university in Germany. Second, the binomial logistic regression results for Wales reported a sensitivity to price promotions for all three alcohol consumption risk classifications; however, location was of little consequence to risky drinkers when compared to high risk drinkers. For Australia, the place of residence did not influence alcohol consumption for both risky and high‐risk drinkers.

Originality/value

The value of this study lies in the examination of three levels of alcohol consumption – low‐risk, risky and high‐risk – for the same cohort across three countries using the same test instrument and standard alcohol consumption metrics. As such, this study provides a more meaningful macro view of alcohol consumption; thus has the capacity to contribute to effectual intervention strategies.

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2019

Leonie Cassidy and Anja Pabel

This study aims to investigate tourists’ propensity to use travel review websites (TRWs) during the pre- and post-travel stages from a cultural perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate tourists’ propensity to use travel review websites (TRWs) during the pre- and post-travel stages from a cultural perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This quantitative study is guided by the positivist paradigm. Data were obtained from an online survey, focussing on Australia, Canada, India and Malaysia.

Findings

The results indicate significant relationships between country of residence and the time research begins prior to an international or domestic holiday being undertaken; between country of residence and trust levels for information on TRWs; and country of residence and whether or not respondents post reviews on TRWs. These results are discussed using Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. Long-term orientation shows a moderate cultural influence of respondents’ trust of information on TRWs, while a country’s individualistic or collectivist orientation has a strong influence on respondents’ posting/not posting a review on a TRW.

Research limitations/implications

Care should be taken when generalising the findings beyond the study population, as no randomisation occurred with survey distribution.

Practical implications

The results of this study have implications for managers of tourism businesses wishing to better facilitate information-sharing behaviours of their customers through TRWs.

Social implications

The cross-cultural comparisons used in this study add value to tourism studies, particularly when comparing Eastern and Western societies.

Originality/value

The study adds to the knowledge base on consumer pre- and post-trip online behaviours, considering the effect of country of residence and any influence from Hofstede’s cultural dimensions.

研究目的

本论文从文化角度出发, 旨在研究游客在旅游前和后两阶段对旅游点评网站的使用。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文采用定量分析, 采用实证主义模型, 网络问卷取样来自澳大利亚、加拿大、印度、和马拉西亚等国家。

研究结果

研究结果表明, 在国际或者国内假期之前, 国家和搜索时间有显著关系;国家与网站信息可信度有显著关系;国家和是否游客发布旅游点评有显著关系。研究结果依据Hofstede文化维度理论。长期倾向调节了文化因素对网站点评信息信任度的影响。国家个人主义和集体主义导向对游客发布旅游点评有强烈影响。

研究理论限制

问卷采样未采用随机抽样方式, 因此, 研究结果的概括推广性值得谨慎对待。

研究实践意义

研究结果对旅游业经理有重要启示, 尤其是意图通过旅游点评网站促进游客信息分享行为。

研究社会意义

研究结果对比跨文化区别, 对旅游学研究有重要价值, 尤其是做东西方社会研究对比。

研究原创性/价值

本论文对消费者旅游前和后两阶段的网上行为做了研究, 尤其是在居住国家和Hofstede文化维度方面的影响研究, 对相关文献做出理论贡献。

关键词 旅游点评网站、Hofstede、在线问卷调查、游客行为、旅游前、旅游后

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2011

Yoo‐Kyoung Seock and Chen Lin

The purpose of this paper is to examine the cultural influences on young consumers' loyalty tendency and evaluations of the relative importance of apparel retail store…

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6351

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the cultural influences on young consumers' loyalty tendency and evaluations of the relative importance of apparel retail store attributes in Taiwan and the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire was developed to collect the data. Factor analysis was employed to identify dimensions of apparel retail store image attributes. Pillai's Trace multivariate analysis of variance and hierarchical multiple regression analysis were used to examine the hypotheses.

Findings

Results of the study showed that American consumers have significantly greater collectivistic characteristics than Taiwanese. The paper also found that country of residence is a significant and stronger indicator in predicting loyalty tendency than individualism and collectivism dimensions. The results of the study showed that evaluation of the relative importance of retail store attributes was influenced by culture. Among the five apparel retail store attribute dimensions identified in the study, Taiwanese and US respondents' evaluation of the importance of “convenience”, “product” and “information communication” factors of retail store image attributes differed significantly.

Research limitations/implications

The paper may contribute to international retailers' understanding of the similarities and differences between Taiwanese and US markets and in determining the ideal components for these retailers to create an optimized apparel retail store image in two different countries' markets. The findings from the study could serve as an important benchmark for retailing strategy, helping retailers to effectively redesign their apparel stores to attract consumers in different markets and foster consumers' loyal to the company.

Originality/value

Despite the growing internationalization of fashion retailing, this particular sector has attracted little research attention, and no research has been done to investigate the cultural differences of consumers' evaluations of apparel retail store image attributes.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Book part
Publication date: 15 November 2018

Sonja E. Pippin, Jeffrey A. Wong and Richard M. Mason

This study uses a survey instrument to ask Americans living abroad about the impact of tax rules explicitly designed for these individuals. We analyze how individuals are…

Abstract

This study uses a survey instrument to ask Americans living abroad about the impact of tax rules explicitly designed for these individuals. We analyze how individuals are affected by foreign tax reporting laws and how they perceive and evaluate the rules’ consequences. A common belief is that many of the foreign reporting provisions were enacted in order to eliminate or reduce tax evasion. The current political climate has increased lawmakers’ focus on tax issues related to foreign income and accounts, which lead to several new rules and regulations, such as the provisions in the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), as well as an increased emphasis on the enforcement of existing laws.

Our results indicate that Americans living abroad experience FATCA negatively impacting their lives. Additionally, the respondents’ perceptions are consistent with the sentiment that their government is not concerned about the impact of the FATCA on its citizens living abroad.

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2020

Vilmante Kumpikaite -Valiuniene, Jurga Duobiene, Ashly H. Pinnington and Abdelmounaim Lahrech

The authors investigate empirically emigrants' intentions and motivations to work virtually for their country of origin. The study focuses on a country with substantial…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors investigate empirically emigrants' intentions and motivations to work virtually for their country of origin. The study focuses on a country with substantial, persistent emigration and explores theories of diaspora investment motivation and virtual work characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory questionnaire survey on migrants' intentions and motivations to work virtually for their country of origin was conducted in late 2016 on 3,022 respondents, all emigrants from Lithuania.

Findings

Migrants are more likely to engage in virtual work for their country of origin when they experience negative career satisfaction, perceive the country of origin as their home country, belong to a recent wave of migration and possess occupational skills commonly employed in virtual work.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of this study conducted on emigrants from one country is that it does not permit generalisation of the results to other countries and regions. It is limited, thus, to making general comparisons to what is known in the literature about migrants from other nations. However, the authors have identified some of the main factors which have theoretical and empirical import for future research, and the auhtors have argued that the results of our study possess only a few inherent geographic limitations. This research is a starting point for studies connecting diaspora motivation and their linkage to virtual work as a mean of human capital gain for the country of origin. The findings inform the conceptual model of virtual workplaces of Kumpikaite-Valiuniene et al. (2014) in relation to migrants and support Nielsen and Riddle's (2010) migrant diaspora investment motivation theory.

Practical implications

Understanding how and when organisations will work virtually with migrants from the country of origin as well as knowing more about their needs and expectations for migrants' knowledge, skills and work experience are necessary for future research on the attractiveness and potential of virtual work. As a first step in exploring diaspora motivation for virtual work, the authors recommend conducting qualitative research that would investigate more deeply the various motivations migrants can have for virtual work with their country or origin. This study revealed that females are more motivated to work virtually compared to males. However, gender issues have not been explored in this survey and constitute a future study direction.

Social implications

Moreover, future research should examine what areas of human capital, commercial and cultural knowledge can be productively delivered by migrants working virtually for organisations in the country of origin, which will contribute to greater understanding of knowledge transfer and human capital issues (“brain gain”) in the migration literature. Further, specific forms of virtual work should be studied empirically for the extent that they provide opportunities for self-development and for satisfaction in personal lives and work careers. In addition, the potential business and societal benefits for the country of origin should be studied further through examining diverse dimensions of family, community, work and careers. These studies will expand knowledge of virtual work and related research phenomena and will contribute to this gap in the migration and human resource management (HRM) literature studies.

Originality/value

This research is a starting point for studies connecting diaspora motivation and their linkage to virtual work as a mean of human capital gain for the country of origin. The findings inform the proposed conceptual model of virtual workplaces by Kumpikaite-Valiuniene et al (2014) in relation to migrants and support Nielsen and Riddle (2010) migrant diaspora investment motivation theory. The authors have identified some of the main factors that have theoretical and empirical import for future study. This research topic and new related studies on diaspora have the potential to contribute to the fields of migration, HRM, work and career studies.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2015

Taryn Ann Galloway, Björn Gustafsson, Peder J. Pedersen and Torun Österberg

Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of

Abstract

Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since immigration. Multivariate analysis shows that parents years since immigration and education affect risks of the number of periods in persistent poverty. While a native child is very unlikely to spend nine years in poverty, the corresponding risk for a child to a newly arrived immigrant was found to be far from negligible. Much of the pattern is similar across the three countries but there are also some notable differences.

Details

Measurement of Poverty, Deprivation, and Economic Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-386-0

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Sandra Nieto, Alessia Matano and Raúl Ramos

The purpose of this paper is to analyse and explain the factors contributing to the observed differences in skill mismatches (vertical and horizontal) between natives and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse and explain the factors contributing to the observed differences in skill mismatches (vertical and horizontal) between natives and immigrants in EU countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Using microdata from the 2007 wave of the Adult Education Survey (AES), different probit models are specified and estimated to analyse differences in the probability of each type of skill mismatch between natives and immigrants. Yun’s decomposition method is used to identify the relative contribution of characteristics and returns to explain the differences between the two groups.

Findings

Immigrants are more likely to be skill mismatched than natives. The difference is much larger for vertical mismatch, wherein the difference is higher for immigrants coming from non-EU countries than for those coming from other EU countries. The authors find that immigrants from non-EU countries are less valued in EU labour markets than natives with similar characteristics – a result that is not observed for immigrants from EU countries. These results could be related to the limited transferability of human capital acquired in non-EU countries.

Social implications

The findings suggest that specific programmes to adapt immigrants’ human capital acquired in the home country are required to reduce differences in the incidence of skill mismatch and better integration into EU labour markets.

Originality/value

This research is original, because it distinguishes between horizontal and vertical mismatch – an issue that has not been considered in the literature on differences between native and immigrant workers and due to the wide geographical scope of the analysis, which considers EU and non-EU countries.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2020

Antonia Mercedes García-Cabrera, Ana Maria Lucía-Casademunt and Laura Padilla-Angulo

This paper examines how the institutional distance between immigrants' country of residence and country of origin, as well as the regulative and normative aspects of

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines how the institutional distance between immigrants' country of residence and country of origin, as well as the regulative and normative aspects of institutions in immigrants' country of residence, social context variables and individual psycho-behavioural factors, condition immigrants' entrepreneurial motivation (i.e. mainly by necessity, by a combination of necessity and opportunity, or mainly by opportunity), which is in contrast to the previous literature on immigrant entrepreneurship that mainly focuses on micro-level factors.

Design/methodology/approach

By using hierarchical linear regression models to test our hypotheses, the authors analyse 468 first-generation immigrant entrepreneurs settled in 31 European countries using data from the European Working Conditions Survey (6th EWCS; Eurofound, 2015 database) combined with other datasets to derive the macro-level variables (i.e. the Doing Business Project; Hofstede et al., 2010).

Findings

The authors find that distance in the normative aspects of institutions harms entrepreneurial opportunity motivation. At the same time, however, opportunity motivation is likely to benefit from both the normative aspects of institutions that reduce locals' opportunity motivation and the distance in the regulative aspects of institutions.

Originality/value

This article analyses immigrant entrepreneurship in Europe, which has been under-examined in the extant literature, and takes into account the micro-, meso- and macro-level factors affecting the entrepreneurial motivation of immigrants in Europe. This analysis responds to the need already highlighted by previous research to include not only micro-level factors but also meso- and macro-level factors in the analysis of immigrant entrepreneurship (Aliaga-Isla and Rialp, 2013).

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2020

Jan Brzozowski and Marco Cucculelli

The purpose of this study is to analyze the determinants of transnational business ties (i.e. ties with the country of origin) and to investigate their impact on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the determinants of transnational business ties (i.e. ties with the country of origin) and to investigate their impact on the economic performance of immigrant firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the representative survey conducted among 259 foreign-born immigrant entrepreneurs in Marche region (Central Italy), the study investigates the determinants of having transnational ties with countries of origin. Then it compares the effect of transnational ties and the effect of alternative domestic ethnic business ties on the performance of immigrant firms.

Findings

This study demonstrates that having transnational ties is more likely for individuals with former entrepreneurial experience in the home countries and with higher education acquired in Italy. The performance of immigrant firms in the 2014–2016 period (measured by the level of revenues) is positively related to transnational ties – this effect is very strong and significant. On the other hand, reliance on the domestic ethnic ties (i.e. ties with co-ethnic population in Italy) is one of the key factors that inhibits further growth of immigrant enterprises.

Originality/value

This study advances the understanding of how immigrant entrepreneurs create transnational business ties with their home countries. Additionally, this research contributes to the existing literature on immigrant entrepreneurship, by explaining the role of heterogeneous business ties: transnational connections, domestic ties with co-ethnic partners and ties with individuals from native population (in this case: Italy) for the entrepreneurial performance. Consequently, it offers recommendations for policy-makers willing to encourage entrepreneurial activities of immigrants in host countries and to their counterparts in home countries, who are planning to use the advantage diaspora entrepreneurial potential for the benefit of their economies.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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