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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2017

Burcu Genç and Ayşe Gül Bayraktaroğlu

This study is set out to assess the country of origin effect on Turkish consumption practices in order to provide a richer context for its formation process.

Abstract

Purpose

This study is set out to assess the country of origin effect on Turkish consumption practices in order to provide a richer context for its formation process.

Methodology/approach

The research is exploratory and interpretative in nature. It follows a qualitative design with in-depth analysis of consumption experiences by utilizing semi-structured interviews.

Findings

The research shows that country of origin effect is product specific, and when it exists, it has an essential effect on product evaluations. It reveals that the country of origin effect is intrinsically constituted with the individual perceptions of and attitudes toward brands, countries, and past experiences, and it is extrinsically constituted with socially created perceptions by media, marketplace myths, and popularity.

Originality/value

This research investigated country of origin effect in a specific context of a developing country with a qualitative methodology. Unlike the existing literature, this study analyzes consumers’ actual purchase decisions in different product categories. Country of origin effect is found to be formed by individual and societal factors.

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Peter Magnusson, Stanford A. Westjohn and Srdan Zdravkovic

Extensive research has shown that countryoforigin (COO) information significantly affects product evaluations and buying behavior. Yet recently, a competing perspective…

10571

Abstract

Purpose

Extensive research has shown that countryoforigin (COO) information significantly affects product evaluations and buying behavior. Yet recently, a competing perspective has emerged suggesting that COO effects have been inflated in prior research and even that the COO concept has become irrelevant. The purpose of this paper is to reconcile these two competing perspectives by examining the effects of individual brand origin perceptions.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual framework is grounded in consumers’ learning. Empirically, the authors’ hypotheses are tested using hierarchical linear modeling on a sample of 4,047 brand evaluations by 544 consumers.

Findings

The results provide strong evidence that product country image of the consumer's perceived brand origin strongly affects brand attitudes, and this happens regardless of the perceptions’ objective accuracy. The authors also find evidence that educating consumers about brands’ true COO can contribute to changes in brand attitudes.

Practical implications

It is concluded that suggestions that COO has become an irrelevant construct in international marketing may be premature. The study offers meaningful insights for managers in understanding how brands’ country associations affect brand attitudes.

Originality/value

This study aims to reconcile tensions in the current COO literature and does so by demonstrating that although consumer knowledge of brand origin is often mis‐calibrated, consumers’ perceptions of brand origin still matter.

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2007

George Chryssochoidis, Athanassios Krystallis and Panagiotis Perreas

The present study using the Consumer Ethnocentric Tendencies Scale (CET‐SCALE) aims to evaluate the level of consumer ethnocentrism (CE) and its implications on their…

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Abstract

Purpose

The present study using the Consumer Ethnocentric Tendencies Scale (CET‐SCALE) aims to evaluate the level of consumer ethnocentrism (CE) and its implications on their evaluation of food products. Furthermore, it seeks to examine the level at which country of origin (COO) effect is activated (country, product or attribute) per consumer cluster of different level of CE in a food evaluation context.

Design/methodology/approach

For attaining the above aims, a questionnaire was developed and completed by 274 respondents. The set of countries of origin and products under consideration encompasses Greece, Italy and Holland and yellow cheese, ham and beer.

Findings

The use of the CET‐SCALE pinpointed that the sample can be characterised as marginally ethnocentric. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses justified the uni‐dimensionality of CE. Cluster analysis allocated the sample into two clusters, the ethnocentric and the non‐ethnocentric. The results showed that ethnocentrism affects not only consumer beliefs, but also the way perceived quality of domestic and foreign products are evaluated, culminating in the appearance of COO‐effect. In ethnocentric consumers, the COO effect is activated at the initiatory level of the country a food product originates in (country‐specific), except when the foreign country of origin is given, where the COO effect is activated at the level of the product type (product‐specific). In the non‐ethnocentric cluster, COO does not lead to an overall acceptance or rejection, but instead it affects the evaluation of specific product attributes (attribute‐specific).

Research limitations/implications

The survey suffers the limitation of focusing on the influence of ethnocentric beliefs in food products evaluation and not on their real impact on final purchasing behaviour. Consumer ethnocentrism and COO effect are linked together, but the stimulus that activates their link differs according to the strength of ethnocentric beliefs held by consumers; that given, different marketing strategies should be applied depending on the level of CE of the target‐group selected.

Originality/value

Internationally, the issue of COO‐effect is comprehensively examined, yet the literature has focused almost explicitly on hi‐tech or fashion products and services. This fact attaches particular importance to the present study, which is concerned exclusively with food products.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 41 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

Alexander Josiassen and A. Assaf

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the three‐way interaction among product‐country image, product‐origin congruency and product involvement on consumers'…

4416

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the three‐way interaction among product‐country image, product‐origin congruency and product involvement on consumers' product‐related evaluations and purchase intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered from 388 consumers in Australia across four different product classes. Data analysis was conducted using hierarchical regression analysis with three‐way interactions and a novel post hoc slope analysis is introduced to the marketing area.

Findings

Overall, the study findings suggest that the importance that consumers place on countryoforigin (COO) image when they evaluate products is contingent on the product context. Specifically, the study findings show that product‐country image, product‐origin congruency and product involvement interact on product evaluations and intentions such that product‐origin congruency plays a differentiating role for consumers in a low involvement situation, but a neutral role for consumers in a high involvement situation. Therefore, when a company deals with less‐involved customers, the COO image and the congruency of the product origins are particularly important issues. Conversely, when a company deals with more product‐involved customers, product‐origin congruency has no differential influence on their product evaluations and behavioural intentions to purchase.

Originality/value

An important extension to past research in the area is to provide analyses of the joint effects which may be different from their roles when investigated separately. The present paper represents the first empirical investigation of the three‐way interaction of product‐origin image, product‐origin congruency and product involvement on consumers' product‐related evaluations and behavioural intentions. Furthermore, the paper presents the first application in marketing research of a novel method for analysing three‐way interaction slopes.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Arooj Rashid, Liz Barnes and Gary Warnaby

The purpose of this paper is to provide a new perspective by conceptualising country of origin (COO) from a management perspective, identifying the impact different COO

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a new perspective by conceptualising country of origin (COO) from a management perspective, identifying the impact different COO constructs have in the context of fashion retailer and manufacturer businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study comprises a series of in-depth interviews with key informants from large-scale fashion retailers and manufacturers in the UK.

Findings

The major findings of this research demonstrate that COO is considered a strategic business imperative but manifests in a variety of ways depending on brand positioning, long-term strategic plans, expertise, and brand values, etc.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to the body of knowledge about the importance of COO. The findings of this research will have practical implications for manufacturers and retailers, informing the debate on the value of the “Made in […]” epithet. Findings are limited to the UK fashion clothing industry.

Originality/value

This research presents a new perspective on the COO construct, addressing it from a management rather than consumer perspective. It argues that COO can be considered as a strategic dimension, which is manifested in a variety of ways. COO has been extensively researched from a consumer point of view but this research takes a new approach by presenting findings from a managerial point of view, with fashion manufacturing and retail branding as the context.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Tommaso Pucci, Elena Casprini, Samuel Rabino and Lorenzo Zanni

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the product-specific region-of-origin (ROO) and product-specific country-of-origin (COO) on the willingness to pay a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the product-specific region-of-origin (ROO) and product-specific country-of-origin (COO) on the willingness to pay a premium price for a wine label designated as a superbrand by the Italian Government: the Chianti Classico.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper introduces the concept of “ROO-COO distance”, defined as the importance attributed to a product-specific ROO as compared to its COO. In order to better understand whether the construct “ROO-COO distance” influences the willingness to pay a premium price, the paper considers consumers’ cross-national differences and their knowledge, distinguishing among three types of knowledge: consumers’ subjective general product knowledge, consumers’ subjective country product knowledge and consumers’ regional product experience (PE). Four hypotheses were tested focussing on Chianti Classico – a premium wine – as related to its ROO and COO (Tuscany, Italy). The authors employed a sample of 4,254 consumers originating from New World countries (Australia, USA and Canada) and Old World countries (Germany, UK, Sweden and Belgium).

Findings

The findings confirm that a place-of-origin influence on price-related product evaluations is country specific. Furthermore, the moderating role of consumers’ subjective product knowledge and consumers’ region-related PEs differ across countries. The ROO-COO distance was found to positively affect only Old World consumers. It was established that respondents’ subjective country/product knowledge and consumers’ regional knowledge or PEs positively moderate this relationship.

Originality/value

The paper links the COO and ROO effects in a single framework and analyses it at the cross-national level, while also considering the moderating effect of consumer’s knowledge.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

John Thøgersen, Susanne Pedersen, Maria Paternoga, Eva Schwendel and Jessica Aschemann-Witzel

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the country-of-origin (COO) effect in the context of organic food and develop suggestions for further research in…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the country-of-origin (COO) effect in the context of organic food and develop suggestions for further research in this area. Research has investigated COO effects and consumer responses to organic food, but there is little research on the combination of the two.

Design/methodology/approach

A narrative review of two research streams and their intersection, forming the basis for the development of a research agenda.

Findings

There are few studies analysing the possible interaction between the effects of organic and COO on consumers’ food preferences and choices. In general, COO seems to lose impact when other quality cues are salient. This suggests a lower impact of COO for organic than for conventional food products. However, there is still no research on the possible impact of organic labelling in categories where products from a foreign country are able to demand a premium, and little is known about consumer preferences for different import countries regarding organic food. Six potential future research directions are suggested.

Research limitations/implications

There is a need for research that more systematically investigates the possible interactions between COO and organic labelling on consumers’ food product preferences and choices. A research agenda is suggested as a starting point.

Originality/value

This literature review highlights the lack of research on the interaction between COO effects and consumer responses to organic food. The literature review creates a basis for future research and a possible research agenda is suggested.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

Srdan Zdravkovic

This study aims to examine how members of American Generation Y cohort feel about the USA and the USA's major trading partners. In addition, the study's purpose is to find…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how members of American Generation Y cohort feel about the USA and the USA's major trading partners. In addition, the study's purpose is to find out whether product's countryoforigin (COO) plays a role when members of Generation Y evaluate products.

Design/methodology/approach

Undergraduate university students are used as sample in this study. Experiment with 18 conditions is utilized to collect that data. Linear regression is used to test the hypothesis.

Findings

Results show that animosity toward the country negatively influences COO image and that person's level of cosmopolitanism and ethnocentrism contribute to person's perception of (in)equality when evaluating COO images. Findings also indicate COO significantly influences product judgment and this relationship is moderated by quality of information about the product (positive, negative, or lack of information) and involvement with the product (involved or not involved).

Originality/value

Results from this study show that, in the context of Generation Y, country image still matters and should be considered when developing a product or promotion strategy. Although country image matters, its effect on product judgment has to be examined in conjunction with factors like quality of information about the product and involvement with the product. As such, examining COO effect on its own might be misleading and not paint a completely accurate picture of antecedents to product judgment.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2008

Jodie L. Ferguson, Kofi Q. Dadzie and Wesley J. Johnston

The purpose of this paper is to explore countryoforigin (COO) effects on service evaluation in an emerging market.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore countryoforigin (COO) effects on service evaluation in an emerging market.

Design/methodology/approach

To gain insight, 24 in‐depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders in five West African countries. A conjoint analysis was also conducted to further explore COO effects.

Findings

Propositions were developed based on findings from the qualitative study and conjoint analysis. Situational personal characteristics, such as motivation and ability to process information, may influence use of COO attributes in evaluating a service. Individual characteristics, such as ethnocentrism and culture orientation, may influence COO preference in service evaluation.

Practical implications

Propositions and findings will assist firms considering entering a market in terms of service offerings and positioning strategies.

Originality/value

While COO and consumer products have been widely studied in the literature, mostly within the contexts of industrialized nations, the paper examines COO effects with a service within the context of an emerging market.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2019

Fatma Abdellah-Kilani and Rihab Zorai

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize and test a new concept named “Brand Origin RECall Accuracy” (BORECA) that assesses consumers’ ability to recall accurately…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize and test a new concept named “Brand Origin RECall Accuracy” (BORECA) that assesses consumers’ ability to recall accurately the origins of brands they are aware of. It measures consumers’ brand awareness and brand origin (BO) awareness for a given product category.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the accessibility–diagnosticity model and the limitations of the brand origin recognition accuracy concept, the authors propose and test the BORECA concept focusing on one product category (apparel) in an emerging country context, i.e. Tunisia (Mena). A sample of 374 respondents were surveyed on country-of-origin (COO)-category awareness, brand awareness, BO awareness and foreign vs local brand quality evaluation. Descriptive statistics, correlation indices, MANOVA and linear regression analysis were used in data analysis.

Findings

Results show a substantial BORECA score, i.e. highly accurate awareness of the origins of the recalled brands, affected by respondents’ age, gender and education level. The average BORECA score for local brands is higher than for foreign brands. The local BORECA score seems to positively correlate to respondents’ evaluation of local brand quality and negatively to foreign (dominant COO category) brands.

Research limitations/implications

Based on an aided recall task rather than simple recognition, BORECA provides a deeper assessment of brand awareness and BO awareness. The pressure induced by the task (knowledge test + retrieval effort) may cause anxiety bias that inhibits the recall of other brands and BOs.

Practical implications

Nationalistic and ethnocentric tendencies emerging in the findings point to some branding strategies for both local and foreign companies.

Originality/value

The paper provides a good indication of BO salience in an emerging economy. It seeks to explain the impact of the BORECA score for local brands on the perceived quality of both local and foreign brands.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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