The Trump administration's effect on Morocco.
In this chapter, we provide a brief historical framework of the events and policy changes that impacted the prosecution of terrorism over the past 50 years with emphasis…
In this chapter, we provide a brief historical framework of the events and policy changes that impacted the prosecution of terrorism over the past 50 years with emphasis placed on the changes that resulted from the 9/11 attacks.
We provide a review of relevant literature and complete the chapter by providing new data (2015) on case outcomes derived from the American Terrorism Study, a database housed in the Terrorism Research Center in Fulbright College, at the University of Arkansas.
Investigative and prosecutorial authority in U.S. terrorism cases has experienced ebbs and flows that correspond with terrorism attacks as well as missteps by the FBI, and each has impacted the success of prosecution efforts. Despite dramatic changes, the number of cases prosecuted after 9/11 is unprecedented, and conviction rates continue to climb.
This chapter provides the reader with a synopsis of the policy changes that have occurred in federal terrorism investigations and trials from the late 1960s upto the present. Based on that context, we provide an explanation of how those policy changes have impacted terrorism prosecutions.
The attacks of September 11th transformed homeland security into a central policy task for governments in the U.S., culminating in the creation of the Department of…
The attacks of September 11th transformed homeland security into a central policy task for governments in the U.S., culminating in the creation of the Department of Homeland Security. Planning and preparation for counter terrorism were no longer secondary priorities. This article seeks to examine some of the salient organizational and management issues that could potentially facilitate or impair DHS’s successful integration of its varied 22 agencies, and its subsequent execution of its critical tasks associated with countering terrorism and bioterrorism. Characterizing this change as a type of punctuated equilibrium, this article closes by suggesting that a differentiated network structure offers a potentially powerful mechanism by which the DHS could proactively and effectively address many of these leadership, management and organizational challenges.
Two fundamental reasons that account for the domestic bias of consumption are distance and borders. Distance proxies for unobservable trading costs, which include, among other things, transport and administrative costs. Distance is a powerful deterrent to international trade. This fact is illustrated by considering the situation of Bahrain and Qatar, Belgium and India, and Indonesia and Guyana, which are, respectively, the closest (55.5mi), the median (4,414.7mi), and the farthest (12,351.1mi) country pairs in a large sample of bilateral trade flows (see Chapter 2). For Bahrain and Qatar, distance is estimated to reduce the estimate of bilateral trade flows by 39%; for Belgium and India, the reduction is 58%; for Indonesia and Guyana, the reduction is 121% (it exceeds the value of bilateral transactions). The success of the gravity model in explaining bilateral trade flows is due, to no small measure, to distance. For example, the standard trade model of complete specialization, without trading costs, makes two strong predictions. The first is that a country will import goods from all other countries in the world and the second that bilateral trade flows are proportional to the income of the two countries. Both predictions are way off the mark. Countries import from a small fraction of the potential pool of exporters and incomes alone over-predict actual trade flows by a large margin.
This paper shows that terrorism reduces bilateral trade flows, in real terms, by raising trading costs and hardening borders. Countries sharing a common land border and…
This paper shows that terrorism reduces bilateral trade flows, in real terms, by raising trading costs and hardening borders. Countries sharing a common land border and suffering from terrorism trade much less than neighboring or distant countries that are free of terrorism. The impact of terrorism on bilateral trade declines as distance between trading partners increases. This result suggests that terrorism redirects some trade from close to more distant countries. Our findings are robust in the presence of a variety of other calamities, such as natural disasters or financial crises.
Scholars often suggest that violent extremism or terrorism – “the threatened or actual use of illegal force and violence to attain a political, economic, religious or…
Scholars often suggest that violent extremism or terrorism – “the threatened or actual use of illegal force and violence to attain a political, economic, religious or social goal through fear, coercion or intimidation” (LaFree, G., & Dugan, L. (2007). Introducing the Global Terrorism Database. Terrorism and Political Violence, 19, 181–204, 184) – is a battle for legitimacy. However, the ambiguous definition of legitimacy often makes its application to counterterrorism measures difficult at best. The purpose of this chapter is to define legitimacy to connect policies designed to counter violent extremism.
The main impediment in the study of the influence of legitimacy on terrorism is the debate over the meaning and measurement of legitimacy. This debate is reviewed, and a recent resolution is presented, grouping the many conceptualizations of legitimacy into three broad categories and identifying empirical indicators for each. These categories are then used to distinguish counterterrorism policies that can be used to boost legitimacy.
This chapter organizes counterterrorism policies into a recently developed framework as a tool for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers.
Counterterrorism policy and Indonesia's new cabinet.
PAKISTAN: Military picks boost counterterrorism policy
The use of remotely piloted aerial vehicles (RPVs) as a counterterrorism strategy is intensely debated on grounds of legitimacy, political feasibility and human rights…
The use of remotely piloted aerial vehicles (RPVs) as a counterterrorism strategy is intensely debated on grounds of legitimacy, political feasibility and human rights. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the link between RPVs’ strikes and terrorism through evidence-based analysis.
Using insights from economic analysis of counterterrorism, the study hypothesized possible channels through which RPVs may increase costs for terrorism. A novel data set is gathered to empirically test the theory-consistent prediction of a negative link between RPVs’ strikes and terrorism in a multivariate econometric framework.
Focusing on RPVs’ strikes in Pakistan over 2008 to 2013, the analysis yields important new insights. The principal finding suggests that RPVs reduce overall terrorism, while, without negating the negative spillover effects of RPVs use, there is no evidence of a positive feedback from civilian casualties to terrorism. These findings are not driven by extreme observations and satisfy a number of conventional diagnostic checks.
A well-constructed comparison and empirical evidence in this study implies that RPVs may yield net benefits in terms of greater security at regional and national levels.
Moreover, as a proactive counterterrorism measure, RPVs can be an effective policing tool in crowded urban areas facing the greater threat of terrorism.
The study is the first to systematically analyze the link between RPV strikes and the magnitude of terrorism. The groundbreaking analysis thus extends the scope of economic inquiry to the role of RPVs as a counterterrorism strategy at national, regional and global levels. The findings of the study cast doubt on the validity of many popular notions about RPVs strikes, as they find little support in the empirical analysis.