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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Noor Syamilah Zakaria, Neerushah Subarimaniam, Wan Marzuki Wan Jaafar, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Ayub and M. Iqbal Saripan

This paper aims to contribute to the existing conceptualizations of counseling ethics competency and to develop a counseling ethics competency scale. This paper also…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to the existing conceptualizations of counseling ethics competency and to develop a counseling ethics competency scale. This paper also argues that spirituality and self-efficacy influence counseling ethics competency.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of studies were performed to develop hypotheses and a conceptual framework to determine the relationships among spirituality, self-efficacy and counseling ethics competency. To measure registered counselors’ counseling ethics competency, a document analysis of the Counselors Code of Ethics was conducted and pretested on the basis of a pilot test prior to the empirical development of the scale.

Findings

A conceptual framework was developed to operationalize the theory and to present the influence of spirituality and self-efficacy on counseling ethics competency. The counseling ethics competency scale was found reliable and valid to measure the registered counselors’ competency in the eight components of the Counselors Code of Ethics.

Practical implications

The scale and framework can be used as tools to identify competencies where registered counselors are lacking and to pinpoint skills on which counselors need to improve. This research also will provide insights for counselor educators to be innovative in teaching and learning ethics within the scope of counselor education training programs.

Originality/value

There is no specific scale available to measure counseling ethics competency among registered counselors in Malaysia. Thus, this research unveils the importance of measuring counseling ethics competency in molding effective and ethical Malaysian counselors, and subsequently pinpointing factors that can improve counseling ethics competency.

Recommendations

We recommend to assess the scale using EFA, followed by CFA to determine and confirm the factor structure of the scale items. In terms of the field, future scope may not just focus on the traits, characters and skills building but also place more emphasis on ethics comprehension toward best practices of ethics application and internalization on becoming self-sufficient counselors.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Nicholas Banks

Research suggests that African-Caribbeans are less likely than their white British counterparts to ask for mental health support (Cooper et al., 2013). This is despite…

Abstract

Research suggests that African-Caribbeans are less likely than their white British counterparts to ask for mental health support (Cooper et al., 2013). This is despite research identifying that minority groups as a whole, when compared to the white majority, report higher levels of psychological distress and a marked lack of social support (Erens, Primatesta, & Prior, 2001). Those who do request support are less likely to receive antidepressants (British Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities, 1994; Cooper et al., 2010) even when controlling for mental health symptom severity, with African-Caribbeans less likely to make use of medication for depression even when prescribed (Bhui, Christie, & Bhugra, 1995; Cooper et al., 2013). Studies reporting on reasons for black people being less likely to attend for mental health consultation with their GP suggest a variety of explanations why this may be, focussing both on the suspicion of what services may offer (Karlsen, Mazroo, McKenzie, Bhui, & Weich, 2005) and the concern of black clients that they may experience a racialised service with stigma (Marwaha & Livingstone, 2002). Different understandings and models of mental illness may also exist (Marwaha & Livingstone, 2002). Different perspectives and models of mental health may deter black people from making use of antidepressants even when prescribed. Despite a random control trial showing that African-Caribbean people significantly benefit from targeted therapy services (Afuwape et al., 2010), the government, despite a report by the Department of Health in 2003 admitting there was no national strategy or policy specifically targeting mental health of black people or their care and treatment has not yet built on evidence-based success. One important aspect recognised by the Department of Health (2003), was that of the need to develop a mental health workforce capable of providing efficacious mental health services to a multicultural population. Although there were good strategic objectives little appeared to exist in how to meet this important objective, particularly in the context of research showing that such service provision could show real benefit. The Department of Health Guidelines (2003) focussed on the need to change what it termed as ‘conventional practice’, but was not specific in what this might be, or even how this could improve services to ethnic minorities. There was discussion of cultural competencies without defining what these were or referencing publications where these would be identified. There was a rather vague suggestion that recent work had begun to occur, but no indication that this had been evaluated and shown to have value (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2001). Neither British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy nor British Psychological Society makes mention of the need for cultural competencies in organisational service delivery to ethnic minority clients. This chapter will describe, explore and debate the need for individual and organisational cultural competencies in delivering counselling and psychotherapy services to African-Caribbean people to improve service delivery and efficacious outcomes.

Details

The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Helen M.G. Watt, John Ehrich, Sandra E. Stewart, Tristan Snell, Micaela Bucich, Nicky Jacobs, Brett Furlonger and Derek English

The purpose of this paper is to develop a professional self-efficacy scale for counsellors and psychologists encompassing identified competencies within professional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a professional self-efficacy scale for counsellors and psychologists encompassing identified competencies within professional standards from national and related international frameworks for psychologists and counsellors.

Design/methodology/approach

An initial opportune sample of postgraduate psychology and counselling students (n=199) completed a ten-minute self-report survey. A subsequent independent sample (n=213) was recruited for cross-validation.

Findings

A series of exploratory analyses, consolidated through confirmatory factor analyses and Rasch analysis, identified a well-functioning scale composed of 31 items and five factors (research, ethics, legal matters, assessment and measurement, intervention).

Originality/value

The Psychologist and Counsellor Self-Efficacy Scale (PCES) appears a promising measure, with potential applications for reflective learning and practice, clinical supervision and professional development, and research studies involving psychologists’ and counsellors’ self-perceived competencies. It is unique in being ecologically grounded in national competency frameworks, and extending previous work on self-efficacy for particular competencies to the set of specified attributes outlined in Australian national competency documents. The PCES has potential utility in a variety of applications, including research about training efficacy and clinical supervision, and could be used as one component of a multi-method approach to formative and summative competence assessment for psychologists and counsellors. The scale may be used to assess students’ perceived competencies relative to actual competency growth against national standards, and to identify trainees’ and practitioners’ self-perceived knowledge deficits and target areas for additional training.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Carla Moleiro, Jaclin Freire and Masa Tomsic

The recognition of the importance of addressing cultural issues in psychotherapy and counseling has been increasing. The present paper seeks to contribute to the…

Abstract

Purpose

The recognition of the importance of addressing cultural issues in psychotherapy and counseling has been increasing. The present paper seeks to contribute to the specification of multicultural competencies in the fields of counseling and clinical psychology, based on clients’ perspectives. In particular, its objectives were to explore the experiences of individuals of ethnic minority groups regarding their access to the Portuguese healthcare system and to identify the multicultural competencies of the clinicians (as perceived by the clients) which would be required to improve culturally sensitive treatments.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample included 40 adults from different ethnic minority groups in Portugal – a total of 30 women and ten men – with a mean age of 34. Participants took part in one of eight focus groups, which were conducted using a semi‐structured interview plan.

Findings

Content analysis revealed that, generally, participants had experienced discrimination in the healthcare system, and that mental healthcare was perceived as mixed (both positive and negative). Furthermore, participants identified specific aspects of multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills required of clinicians to provide culturally sensitive treatments, providing support for the tridimensional model of multicultural competencies.

Originality/value

Implications are discussed for ethical guidelines and clinical training of counselors, clinical psychologists, and other social and health professionals in Europe.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Book part
Publication date: 5 December 2014

Noor Syamilah Zakaria and Jane Warren

This chapter highlights the perspectives, examples, and applications on the current trend in teaching and learning counseling ethics education in a more effective way. The…

Abstract

This chapter highlights the perspectives, examples, and applications on the current trend in teaching and learning counseling ethics education in a more effective way. The trend utilizes inquiry-based learning concept and educational activities to foster counselor education training programs fast-forward in meeting the social demands and global challenges. The discussion is based on the theme emerged from an interpretive case study research conducted by the authors, in addition to the insightful literature authored by the profound educators and counseling researchers, globally. Teaching and learning counseling ethics education is an integrative effort and is more than just content acquisition from textbooks. In addition, the inquiry-based teaching and learning approach can be a tool in finding solutions for authentic problems through in-depth investigations while learning counseling ethics education. This chapter hopefully will improve counselor educators’ ability, strengthen counselor education training programs’ capability, and expand counseling students ethical competency; for creating innovations and adaptations in teaching and learning counseling ethics education, utilizing inquiry-based learning toward enhanced professional ethical practice in counseling realm.

Details

Inquiry-Based Learning for the Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences: A Conceptual and Practical Resource for Educators
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-236-4

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Caroline A. Baker, Kayla Gaulke and Kenny Smith

– The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of master ' s students of color in their counselor education graduate programs.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of master ' s students of color in their counselor education graduate programs.

Design/methodology/approach

Experience narratives, obtained from semi-structured phone interviews, provided transcript data for open- and axial-coding for emergent themes.

Findings

The reports of nine participants revealed themes of student cultural awareness, representation, support, standards, advocacy and tokenism.

Research limitations/implications

Qualitative studies are context-bound and lack validity and reliability in the same sense that quantitative studies do, so the findings from this study are only transferable as far as each reader applies them to personal experiences. Further, due to the diversity of the research team, participants made choices about what and how much to share about their counseling program experiences.

Practical implications

Practical implications involve recruitment and retention of students of color in master’s counseling programs.

Social implications

Social implications involve the changing demographics of the counseling profession.

Originality/value

This study is one of few that specifically looks at the cultural climate of counselor education programs for underrepresented students. It aims to reveal areas for growth in cultural competence in graduate training programs in the counseling field.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

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Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2014

Sandra Burkhardt

Globally, diversity awareness is a vital aspect of schools. International perspectives on special education invite consideration of views of diversity and disability…

Abstract

Globally, diversity awareness is a vital aspect of schools. International perspectives on special education invite consideration of views of diversity and disability. Increased diversity in schools and communities has become commonplace and a 21st century norm. This chapter begins with an overview of diversity and multiculturalism. Disability as a category of diversity is explored. Special education and interventions designed to support the educational opportunities for students with disabilities are discussed. A framework for international perspectives on disability and intervention is described.

Details

Special Education International Perspectives: Biopsychosocial, Cultural, and Disability Aspects
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-045-2

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Marcela Georgina Gómez-Zermeño

The purpose of this study is to identify intercultural competencies in community instructors who serve in CONAFE in Chiapas, México.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify intercultural competencies in community instructors who serve in CONAFE in Chiapas, México.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applied a mixed methods method, based on an ethnographic design with a naturalistic approach. The quantitative instrument was applied to 119 community instructors; from these participants, four interviews were conducted with a sample of case-type participants, and four cases are presented.

Findings

The results show differences between community instructors who demonstrate intercultural skills and those who require developing them. It is concluded that teachers should receive training that strengthens their intercultural competences to enable indigenous children to take advantage of the knowledge they acquire in their community and the pedagogical advantage offered by the use of their mother tongue in the teaching–learning process.

Originality/value

This educational research about intercultural competences in the field of indigenous education, community education and intercultural education provides significant learning that advances the understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

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Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2020

Kimberly A. Nelson and Joshua C. Nelson

Understanding culture and the restorative needs of individuals can help students learn cultural competence and provide students a unique look at cultures. The chapter will…

Abstract

Understanding culture and the restorative needs of individuals can help students learn cultural competence and provide students a unique look at cultures. The chapter will focus on a pedagogical and historical understanding of restorative justice, how it relates to cultural competence, and structuring curriculum with the use of a variety of activities to help students learn cultural competence.

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Chi Hung Leung

In the current study, the author tests a conceptual model in which teachers' knowledge and skills of multiculturalism and teaching relationship (cultural harmony) are…

Abstract

Purpose

In the current study, the author tests a conceptual model in which teachers' knowledge and skills of multiculturalism and teaching relationship (cultural harmony) are associated with developmentally appropriate practices (DAPs), developmentally appropriate (DABs), developmentally inappropriate beliefs and developmentally inappropriate practices (DIPs) in the classroom.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were 347 preschool teachers from 12 preschools including 342 women ( 98.6%) and five men (1.4%) aged 24–45 years located across all five districts of Hong Kong. The hypothesized model of multicultural teaching competency as a predictor of DABs and DAPs is confirmed in the present study.

Findings

Multicultural teaching knowledge can enhance developmentally appropriate teaching beliefs and practices and reduce DIPs. It is highly recommended that multicultural education can be embedded in early childhood education (ECE) programs for both in-service and preservice teachers.

Originality/value

A new conceptual model of teachers' knowledge and skills of multiculturalism and teaching relationship (cultural harmony) associated with DABs, developmentally inappropriate beliefs and DAPs in the classroom was firstly examined.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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