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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Nicholas Banks

Research suggests that African-Caribbeans are less likely than their white British counterparts to ask for mental health support (Cooper et al., 2013). This is despite…

Abstract

Research suggests that African-Caribbeans are less likely than their white British counterparts to ask for mental health support (Cooper et al., 2013). This is despite research identifying that minority groups as a whole, when compared to the white majority, report higher levels of psychological distress and a marked lack of social support (Erens, Primatesta, & Prior, 2001). Those who do request support are less likely to receive antidepressants (British Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities, 1994; Cooper et al., 2010) even when controlling for mental health symptom severity, with African-Caribbeans less likely to make use of medication for depression even when prescribed (Bhui, Christie, & Bhugra, 1995; Cooper et al., 2013). Studies reporting on reasons for black people being less likely to attend for mental health consultation with their GP suggest a variety of explanations why this may be, focussing both on the suspicion of what services may offer (Karlsen, Mazroo, McKenzie, Bhui, & Weich, 2005) and the concern of black clients that they may experience a racialised service with stigma (Marwaha & Livingstone, 2002). Different understandings and models of mental illness may also exist (Marwaha & Livingstone, 2002). Different perspectives and models of mental health may deter black people from making use of antidepressants even when prescribed. Despite a random control trial showing that African-Caribbean people significantly benefit from targeted therapy services (Afuwape et al., 2010), the government, despite a report by the Department of Health in 2003 admitting there was no national strategy or policy specifically targeting mental health of black people or their care and treatment has not yet built on evidence-based success. One important aspect recognised by the Department of Health (2003), was that of the need to develop a mental health workforce capable of providing efficacious mental health services to a multicultural population. Although there were good strategic objectives little appeared to exist in how to meet this important objective, particularly in the context of research showing that such service provision could show real benefit. The Department of Health Guidelines (2003) focussed on the need to change what it termed as ‘conventional practice’, but was not specific in what this might be, or even how this could improve services to ethnic minorities. There was discussion of cultural competencies without defining what these were or referencing publications where these would be identified. There was a rather vague suggestion that recent work had begun to occur, but no indication that this had been evaluated and shown to have value (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2001). Neither British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy nor British Psychological Society makes mention of the need for cultural competencies in organisational service delivery to ethnic minority clients. This chapter will describe, explore and debate the need for individual and organisational cultural competencies in delivering counselling and psychotherapy services to African-Caribbean people to improve service delivery and efficacious outcomes.

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The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Nicholas Banks

Outlines the organizational and personal issues that white employeecounsellors may face when counselling black employees in the workplace.Discusses training issues and…

Abstract

Outlines the organizational and personal issues that white employee counsellors may face when counselling black employees in the workplace. Discusses training issues and explores counsellor awareness, openness and attitudes.

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Employee Councelling Today, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-8217

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Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2009

William L. Conwill

The severe underrepresentation of African American males in counseling and psychology is significant, especially in light of these fields’ mandates as health professions…

Abstract

The severe underrepresentation of African American males in counseling and psychology is significant, especially in light of these fields’ mandates as health professions. In this chapter, I will use a within-race intersectionality paradigm (gender, class, skin color) to inform my analysis of factors that affect the presence of African Americans males on counseling and psychology faculties. I will briefly elucidate factors that, early on, effectively “weed out” African American males from the pool of aspirants for higher education, and thence, from counseling and psychology programs and faculties. I will apply cooperative inquiry – a radical peer-to-peer research method regarded as a well-developed action research approach – to explore Black males’ experience along a range of narratives.

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Black American Males in Higher Education: Research, Programs and Academe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-643-4

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Adrienne N. Erby and Dominique S. Hammonds

In 2017, racial minorities made up 18.6% of the population in Appalachia compared to 39.3% of the United States population. Of this 18.6%, Black/African Americans…

Abstract

In 2017, racial minorities made up 18.6% of the population in Appalachia compared to 39.3% of the United States population. Of this 18.6%, Black/African Americans represent the largest minority group, at 9.7% (Pollard & Jacobs, 2019). This chapter focuses on the positionality and experiences of Black women educators teaching critical perspectives at the intersection of race, gender, and class in rural Appalachia. Using Black feminist thought (Collins, 1986, 2000), a coautoethnography is used to highlight the authors' teaching experiences as Black women educators from non-Appalachian areas. Themes and recommendations identified across the authors' experiences are presented.

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African American Rural Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-870-3

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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Kish Cumi, Ahmad Washington and Arash Daneshzadeh

The proliferation of zero-tolerance behavioral policies and the presence of school resource officers (SROs) are receiving justifiable scrutiny for the deleterious effects…

Abstract

The proliferation of zero-tolerance behavioral policies and the presence of school resource officers (SROs) are receiving justifiable scrutiny for the deleterious effects they have on students’ functioning. While many have argued the convergence of these policies thwart the development of Black and Latino boys, critiques examining the experiences of Black girls are scant. Disaggregated disciplinary data from across the country reveal “… black girls are suspended at higher rates (12%) than girls of any other race or ethnicity and most boys …” (U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights, 2014, p. 1) suggesting that when it comes to schooling, Black girls are, indeed, “pushed out, overpoliced and underprotected” (Crenshaw, Ocen, & Nanda, 2015, p. 1). The authors of this chapter argue that youth advocates can use hip-hop culture, a tradition rich with resistant prose, to develop critical consciousness and engage Black girls in discussion about socially contrived binaries that reinforce the STPP. The authors demonstrate how the anti-oppressive lyrics of women emcees (e.g., Rapsody, Sa-Roc) can foster therapeutic alliances and dialogues with young Black girls, and how these lyrics might serve to inspire Black girls in composing their own counterhegemonic autobiographical narratives to resist the school-to-prison pipeline.

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The Power of Resistance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-462-6

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Karen Carberry and Belinda Brooks-Gordon

Border crossing between systemic and racial identity theories can contribute to systemic research on Black therapists work with White families.Questionnaires were used to…

Abstract

Border crossing between systemic and racial identity theories can contribute to systemic research on Black therapists work with White families.

Questionnaires were used to gather data from 29 Black, Asian and Mixed Heritage therapists in order to test the significance of variables associated with transgenerational advice, socialisation experience, professional training and therapists’ perception of successful outcomes (n=29). The study concluded that White clients were associated with the contact and disintegration statuses at the beginning of therapy, and that Black therapists were associated with being at least two racial identity statuses in advance of their White clients. In addition, results showed that there was a significant association with eye contact and White clients across all racial identity statuses in therapy, and that the therapist’s age was significantly associated with therapeutic experiences, length of therapeutic practice and the belief in working with unintentional racism in therapy. The outcome of this study will have policy implications in terms of clinical practice and supervision.

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The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Raven K. Cokley and Loni Crumb

The underrepresentation of Black girls in gifted programs has received attention in both education and counseling literature. Nevertheless, scholars have given less…

Abstract

The underrepresentation of Black girls in gifted programs has received attention in both education and counseling literature. Nevertheless, scholars have given less emphasis to the intersections of intellectual ability, race, gender, social class, and place, particularly the idiosyncratic experiences of gifted Black girls from rural, economically disadvantaged backgrounds. The authors of this chapter discuss this unique positionality, with a focus on historical segregation and exclusionary practices within the American educational system. The authors discuss the tenets of critical race feminism and identify factors that may foster educational resilience for Black girls from rural, low-income communities. Recommendations are provided to address pertinent issues related to structural educational reform and inclusive gifted education. The chapter concludes with a call for education and counseling professionals to fundamentally change the systems and processes that perpetuate systematic inequity for this underserved population.

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African American Rural Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-870-3

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Abstract

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The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Simone Martin-Howard

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore perceptions of the impact of program participation on parenting styles and behavioral changes using observations…

Abstract

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore perceptions of the impact of program participation on parenting styles and behavioral changes using observations and in-depth semi-structured interviews with Black and Coloured staff and mothers at a community-based organization (CBO) in the Western Cape Province (WCP) in South Africa (SA). Purposive sampling was utilized in this research via the CBO and narratives from a total of twenty-three (twelve mothers and eleven staff) interviews form the basis of this manuscript. Data was collected between January – February 2017 and was analyzed through the phenomenological and inductive thematic analysis approach. The staff interviews revealed that child abandonment and neglect and the abuse of women are the two main environmental contextual factors that impact program participation. According to staff, improved self-esteem and positive life changes were identified as successful outcomes of participant involvement. The parent interviews provided examples of emotional issues such as domestic abuse and personal issues with alcohol and drugs as individual factors that impact their program participation. Changes in parenting styles was identified as successful outcomes among parent participants. The goal of this study was to provide much-needed insight into this community by presenting a variety of voices, specifically Black and Coloured men and women, that are underreported in the literature. Findings from this research adds to the knowledge of community-based parenting programs (CBPPs) for low-income and underserved populations in SA and internationally.

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Transitions into Parenthood: Examining the Complexities of Childrearing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-222-0

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2011

Beverley Costa

This paper seeks to provide an overview of Mothertongue, a multi‐ethnic counselling service which offers volunteering opportunities for people from a range of black and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to provide an overview of Mothertongue, a multi‐ethnic counselling service which offers volunteering opportunities for people from a range of black and minority ethnic (BME) backgrounds. The paper aims to explore the roles that volunteers occupy, the ways these have changed over the life of the organisation, and the ways in which they provide opportunities for social inclusion.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a descriptive account of the project with discussion of the challenges the organisation has faced during its development.

Findings

Mothertongue provides a safe community space for individuals in distress to try out a range of activities and roles through its volunteering opportunities; and to move between dependency, independence, and the ability to offer support to others. The volunteering opportunities promote social inclusion for both clients and volunteers – offering possibilities to meet with people from a wide range of cultures.

Originality/value

There are limited expositions of the ways in which a BME counselling service can develop a non‐clinical volunteering arm which develops people's often undervalued skills of bilingualism.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

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