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Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2021

Colleen Alena O'Brien

This study examines the cost-effectiveness of reintegrating ex-combatants from armed groups in Colombia. After an ethnographic exploration of the challenges of…

Abstract

This study examines the cost-effectiveness of reintegrating ex-combatants from armed groups in Colombia. After an ethnographic exploration of the challenges of reintegration that ex-combatants face, I evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the reintegration program operated by the Agency for Reincorporation and Normalization (Agencia para la Reincorporación y la Normalización, ARN), the government agency that handles the reintegration of ex-combatants from all armed groups in Colombia. I analyze the agency's approaches (past, current, and proposed) toward reintegrating ex-combatants from various armed groups, comparing the financial costs against outcomes. The ARN has been successful at achieving two of its primary goals: minimizing recidivism and maximizing employment of ex-combatants. Only 10% of ARN program participants rejoin criminal groups and 93% find employment across both the formal and informal sectors (informal employment is widespread in Colombia and Latin America). The ARN has been unsuccessful at providing adequate security for ex-combatants. Approximately 6% of ex-combatants enrolled in the ARN program have been murdered since 2001: approximately 3,000 program participants have been assassinated. Next, I evaluate the cost-effectiveness of both the ARN's overall program and its outcome across different regions and demographics of the participant population. Finally, I suggest ways that other countries facing the challenge of reintegrating populations of ex-combatants can learn from the Colombian experience, as well as ways that Colombia can improve its own reintegration cost-effectiveness.

Details

Infrastructure, Morality, Food and Clothing, and New Developments in Latin America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-434-3

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Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2018

Jeffrey S. Hoch and Pierre Chaussé

This chapter considers the analysis of a cost-effectiveness dataset from an econometrics perspective. We link cost-effectiveness analysis to the net benefit regression…

Abstract

This chapter considers the analysis of a cost-effectiveness dataset from an econometrics perspective. We link cost-effectiveness analysis to the net benefit regression framework and explore insights and opportunities from econometrics and their practical implications. As an empirical illustration, we compare various econometric techniques using a cost-effectiveness dataset from a published study. The chapter concludes with a discussion about implications for applied practitioners and future research directions.

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1991

M. Mulder, W.E. Spitholt and A.M.C. Barents

The findings of a study on the cost‐effectiveness of usingcomputer‐based training (CBT) in the Post branch of the Dutch PTT arereported. A cost‐effectiveness model is…

Abstract

The findings of a study on the cost‐effectiveness of using computer‐based training (CBT) in the Post branch of the Dutch PTT are reported. A cost‐effectiveness model is drawn from the literature and used in the study. The results indicate that CBT can be successfully integrated within a course of study.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 15 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Mohsen pakdaman, Raheleh akbari, Hamid reza Dehghan, Asra Asgharzadeh and Mahdieh Namayandeh

For years, traditional techniques have been used for diabetes treatment. There are two major types of insulin: insulin analogs and regular insulin. Insulin analogs are…

Abstract

Purpose

For years, traditional techniques have been used for diabetes treatment. There are two major types of insulin: insulin analogs and regular insulin. Insulin analogs are similar to regular insulin and lead to changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The purpose of the present research was to determine the cost-effectiveness of insulin analogs versus regular insulin for diabetes control in Yazd Diabetes Center in 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

In this descriptive–analytical research, the cost-effectiveness index was used to compare insulin analogs and regular insulin (pen/vial) for treatment of diabetes. Data were analyzed in the TreeAge Software and a decision tree was constructed. A 10% discount rate was used for ICER sensitivity analysis. Cost-effectiveness was examined from a provider's perspective.

Findings

QALY was calculated to be 0.2 for diabetic patients using insulin analogs and 0.05 for those using regular insulin. The average cost was $3.228 for analog users and $1.826 for regular insulin users. An ICER of $0.093506/QALY was obtained. The present findings suggest that insulin analogs are more cost-effective than regular insulin.

Originality/value

This study was conducted using a cost-effectiveness analysis to evaluate insulin analogs versus regular insulin in controlling diabetes. The results of study are helpful to the government to allocate more resources to apply the cost-effective method of the treatment and to protect patients with diabetes from the high cost of treatment.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 33 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1991

Benjamin S. Blanchard

A major objective in the development of new systems is to fulfilcustomer requirements in a cost‐effective manner. Cost‐effectivenessrelates to the measure of a system in…

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Abstract

A major objective in the development of new systems is to fulfil customer requirements in a cost‐effective manner. Cost‐effectiveness relates to the measure of a system in terms of mission fulfilment (the degree to which it performs its intended function) and total life‐cycle cost. Experience has indicated that these factors are significantly influenced by logistics. Implementation of the concept of Integrated Logistic Support (ILS) is essential in order to ensure a cost‐effective product output. The relationships between ILS and cost‐effectiveness are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Rhiannon Tudor Edwards, Carys Jones, Vashti Berry, Joanna Charles, Pat Linck, Tracey Bywater and Judy Hutchings

There is growing interest in the economic evaluation of public health prevention initiatives and increasing government awareness of the societal costs of conduct disorder…

Abstract

Purpose

There is growing interest in the economic evaluation of public health prevention initiatives and increasing government awareness of the societal costs of conduct disorder in early childhood. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the cost-effectiveness of the Incredible Years (IY) BASIC parenting programme compared with a six-month waiting list control.

Design/methodology/approach

Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a group-parenting programme. The primary outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a measure of child behaviour.

Findings

The IY programme was found to have a high probability of being cost-effective, shifting an additional 23 per cent of children from above the clinical concern to below the cut-off on the SDQ compared to the control group, at a cost ranging from £1612-£2418 per child, depending on the number of children in the group.

Originality/value

The positive findings of this study have led to ongoing implementation of the IY programme and is therefore an example of commitment to evidence-based service provision and investment in prevention initiatives.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

R. Lynn Rittenoure and Joseph E. Pluta

Social scientists writing in the development field often simply assume that public education expenditure in developing countries has been largely ineffective. Reasons…

Abstract

Social scientists writing in the development field often simply assume that public education expenditure in developing countries has been largely ineffective. Reasons offered in support of this assumption include uncertain goals and unsystematic implementation of programmes, lack of training of administrators, poor quality teachers and facilities, educators bound by tradition, systems modelled upon those of industrialised nations, and in some cases even graft and corruption. Although the above may reflect reality in many nations, full acceptance of these conditions as universal may severely restrict both necessary and useful analysis of the delivery of educational services in the developing world.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1975

S.E. ROBERTSON and SANDY HENSMAN

The traditional Bradford approach to bibliographic scatter involves ranking journals in order of productivity. It is suggested that this approach should be modified, with…

Abstract

The traditional Bradford approach to bibliographic scatter involves ranking journals in order of productivity. It is suggested that this approach should be modified, with a view to answering more directly questions concerning the cost‐effectiveness or cost‐benefit of journal acquisition. Several alternative ranking methods are suggested, and their properties and relationships explored. A test of some of these ideas is described. A collection of journals contributing to a specific subject area were ranked in the various orders, and the relative value of decisions taken on the basis of these rankings was assessed. From a cost‐effectiveness point of view, the Bradford ranking performed substantially worse than the other rankings; but the results appear to be very dependent on the particular journals that contribute to a field.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2012

Abigail L. Bristow and Alberto M. Zanni

Purpose – To examine the cost-effectiveness of UK government policy with respect to the mitigation of carbon emissions from the transport sector.Methodology/approach …

Abstract

Purpose – To examine the cost-effectiveness of UK government policy with respect to the mitigation of carbon emissions from the transport sector.

Methodology/approach – Existing policy as set out by the Department for Transport in Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future is examined. This document elaborates a Low Carbon Transport Strategy intended to achieve annual emissions savings of 17.7 MtCO2 by 2020. A wide range of policy areas where further action could be taken to reduce carbon emissions are examined and their cost-effectiveness considered.

Findings – Measures that influence behaviour including smarter choices, eco-driving across modes, freight best practice and modest price increases are highly cost-effective. More cost-effective routes to saving 17.7 MtCO2 are identified, as are further cost-effective savings.

Originality/value – It appears that government targets could be delivered and indeed exceeded at lower cost than the Low Carbon Transport Strategy. However, policy development is influenced by a wide range of factors which help to explain why cost-effective measures are not always fully exploited.

Details

Transport and Climate Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-440-5

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 22 February 2021

Beatriz González López-Valcárcel and Laura Vallejo-Torres

This paper aims to provide an estimation of the costs of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic with a special focus on Spain. Costs include macroeconomic costs of foregone…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an estimation of the costs of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic with a special focus on Spain. Costs include macroeconomic costs of foregone gross domestic product (GDP) attributable to the pandemic and the direct and indirect costs of prevention, treatment and lost productivity. This study also analyzes the cost-effectiveness of the test-tracking-quarantine (TTQ) strategy in Spain.

Design/methodology/approach

The macroeconomic costs of foregone GDP attributable to the pandemic are estimated for different countries and areas by comparing the present GDP forecasts for 2020 and 2021 with counterfactuals estimated before the COVID-19 crisis aftermath. The total cost of the COVID-19 for Spain in 2020 was obtained using the cost of illness approach with a bottom-up process. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the TTQ strategy in Spain is based on the estimation of the total costs of TTQ and the health gains and avoided health-care costs associated with the TTQ strategy. A sensitivity analysis explores the consequences of uncertainty in key parameters.

Findings

The GDP cost of the COVID-19 is by far larger than all the other components of the cost. The global cost of the Covid-19 crisis in 2020–2021 is estimated at 14% of 2019 GDP (around 12,206 mm$). In the specific case of Spain, it amounts to 24% of the 2019 GDP; which is 397.3 m €. Spain is and will be by far the European country most economically affected by the pandemic. In Spain 2020, the GDP cost accounts for 94.7% of the total cost of the COVID-19 and health-care direct costs are only 2.14%. TTQ is a dominant strategy in Spain. For each euro spent on it, 7 euros will be recovered only in terms of saved health-care resources.

Research limitations/implications

Given the large degree of uncertainty and the fast-evolving nature of the epidemic, a number of assumptions are required to arrive at the estimates provided in this study. The results were found to be robust to the assumptions applied.

Practical implications

TTQ is a key strategy for the contention of the epidemy and it is justified from the economic perspective.

Originality/value

This is the first estimation of the cost of the COVID-19 and the cost-effectiveness of the TTQ strategy for Spain.

Details

Applied Economic Analysis, vol. 29 no. 85
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2632-7627

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