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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

Levi Alan Russell, Michael R. Langemeier and Brian C. Briggeman

– This paper aims to develop and utilize a conceptual framework to examine the impact of liquidity and solvency on cost efficiency for a sample of Kansas farms.

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2179

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop and utilize a conceptual framework to examine the impact of liquidity and solvency on cost efficiency for a sample of Kansas farms.

Design/methodology/approach

A standard cost-efficiency model is modified to incorporate liquidity and solvency ratios. Tobit regressions are used to determine the impact of farm characteristics on improvements in efficiency.

Findings

Results confirm that liquidity and solvency measures have a significant impact on improving cost efficiency. Farms with larger expenditures on purchased inputs relative to capital were less likely to improve efficiency when liquidity and solvency were considered.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, the paper is the first to add liquidity and solvency ratios to the cost-efficiency model developed by Färe et al. for the analysis of farms.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 73 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Book part
Publication date: 6 December 2007

Ila Semenick Alam and Gerald Granderson

This chapter investigates whether signing more hospital contracts with Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) and Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs), hospital…

Abstract

This chapter investigates whether signing more hospital contracts with Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) and Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs), hospital affiliation in a system, having more system hospital members located in the same area, and increased competition from area hospitals, contributes to improvements in the cost efficiency of U.S. Midwestern hospitals. Hospitals may offer HMOs and PPOs discounts on contracts to provide health care services to firm employees enrolled in HMOs and PPOs (discounts would lead to smaller price mark-ups over costs for hospital services). Enacting policies to enhance cost efficiency may help hospitals maintain a specified level of profits.

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Evaluating Hospital Policy and Performance: Contributions from Hospital Policy and Productivity Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1453-9

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Book part
Publication date: 16 February 2006

Peter Zajc

The processes of liberalisation, globalisation and integration have brought new dynamics into banking markets. In an increasingly competitive environment, banks have been…

Abstract

The processes of liberalisation, globalisation and integration have brought new dynamics into banking markets. In an increasingly competitive environment, banks have been forced to refocus their strategies and examine their performance, because their survival in the 21st century will depend on efficiency (Denizer & Tarimcilar, 2001). In recent years, therefore, bank efficiency has received wide attention, and researchers have developed an extensive array of sophisticated methods and tools to estimate efficiency.

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Emerging European Financial Markets: Independence and Integration Post-Enlargement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-264-1

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2012

Jamal Ali Al‐Khasawneh, Karima Bassedat, Bora Aktan and Priya Darshini Pun Thapa

The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first and the most important is to examine the efficiency of Islamic banks relative to conventional banks operating in North…

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1208

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first and the most important is to examine the efficiency of Islamic banks relative to conventional banks operating in North African Arab countries, in terms of cost and revenue efficiency. The second objective is to assess more evidence regarding the banking system efficiency trend and dynamics in each single country, and to compare such trends among countries included in the study.

Design/methodology/approach

The non‐parametric data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to estimate cost and revenue efficiency scores assuming variable returns to scale (VRS). The sample consists of nine Islamic banks and 11 conventional banks.

Findings

The results indicated that Islamic banks achieved higher average revenue efficiency scores over conventional banks in this region, while the growth rate of revenue efficiency score of Islamic bank was less than conventional banks. In terms of cost efficiency, the results varied from country to another. The results also showed that both groups of banks were close to each other, with an advantage to conventional banks, which suffer less cost efficiency loss over time compared to Islamic banks.

Research limitations/implications

The very limited data sources (banks' web sites) was was the main limitation faced during preparing for this research. Another limitation was the non‐regularity of annual reports.

Practical implications

Islamic banks are highly challenged in finding investment opportunities/avenues that comply with Islamic regulations, unlike conventional banks that can invest in fixed income securities. There is a serious need for some countries to deregulate their banking systems more, in order to enhance the compatibility and the efficiency of their banking, such as the case of Sudan.

Originality/value

Given the previously mentioned difficulties, decent data set were collected. The value of this paper is the use of nonparametric DEA to analyse cost and revenue efficiences in the countries of this region.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 4 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

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Article
Publication date: 31 March 2020

Mohammad Monirul Islam and Farha Fatema

This study examines the innovation-efficiency linkage for Indian and Chinese manufacturing and service firms.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the innovation-efficiency linkage for Indian and Chinese manufacturing and service firms.

Design/methodology/approach

We applied the stochastic production and cost frontier approach to determine the output and cost efficiency of the firms surveyed in World Bank enterprise surveys. We then used both unconditional and conditional propensity score matching (PSM) estimation techniques to examine the effects of innovation as well as R&D on output and cost efficiency of the firms surveyed.

Findings

The study results suggest that innovation-efficiency linkage varies between countries and sectors. Innovations significantly raise output and cost efficiency of Indian manufacturing firms, whereas innovations in Chinese manufacturing firms are cost-oriented and negatively affect output efficiency. For the service firms of both countries, innovations are significantly positively linked with output and cost efficiency. The study also suggests that R&D acts as a crucial moderator for innovation-efficiency linkage for Chinese manufacturing firms but not for Indian firms, and the interaction effects of innovations are not substantially higher in magnitude than their individual effects. Finally, conditional PSM results suggest knowledge spillover for effective innovations of Indian firms, whereas R&D is a must for substantial innovation-efficiency linkage in Chinese firms.

Originality/value

This study offers quite a few crucial policy decisions concerning the relationship between innovation and efficiency as well as the moderation effect of R&D on innovation-efficiency linkage. It concludes that the effects of innovation on firms' efficiency and the role of R&D as a moderator of the innovation-efficiency relationship differ between India and China across the manufacturing and service sectors.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2020

David Adeabah and Charles Andoh

The study examines the relationship between the consequential social cost of market power (i.e. welfare performance of banks) and cost efficiency using data covering the…

Abstract

Purpose

The study examines the relationship between the consequential social cost of market power (i.e. welfare performance of banks) and cost efficiency using data covering the period 2009 to 2017 from the Ghanaian banking industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts the ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed effect (FE) panel regression and the quantile regression (QR) approaches to control for heterogeneity and provide increased room for policy relevance. The two-stage least squares instrumental variables (2SLS-IV) regression is used to ensure the robustness of the findings against the problem of possible reverse causality.

Findings

The results indicate a positive relationship between banks' welfare performance and cost efficiency, which suggests that greater cost efficiency hedges welfare losses. In other words, welfare gains and cost-efficient banks are not mutually exclusive. Also, the results show evidence that the sensitivity of welfare gain to cost efficiency depends on the knowledge of local market dynamics. Further, the findings from the QR estimation suggest that, but for welfare loss at low (Q.25) to the median (Q.50) quantiles, cost efficiency is a necessary and sufficient condition to hedge the welfare losses.

Practical implications

The results demonstrate that financial consumer protection cannot be achieved without cost efficiency in the presence of both foreign banks and high market knowledge. Therefore, our paper suggests an integrated cost efficiency policy approach that has the complementary effect of a robust information sharing mechanism and incentives to hedge against welfare losses in the banking sector of emerging economies. Moreover, if welfare gain is synonymous with cost-efficient banks, then the presence of a quiet life is typical of financial consumer protection.

Originality/value

This study provides insight into the importance of cost efficiency to the public policy of financial consumer protection in an era of foreign banks' dominance. From the review of prior literature, this paper is the first to apply the QR estimation technique to examine the effect of cost efficiency throughout the conditional distribution of bank welfare performance rather than just the conditional mean effect of cost efficiency.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Farkhanda Shamim, Nobuyoshi Yamori and Shahid Anjum

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the direct and indirect effects of automated teller machines (ATMs) on the performance and scope economies of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the direct and indirect effects of automated teller machines (ATMs) on the performance and scope economies of the Japanese financial institutions.

Design/methodology/approach

Stochastic frontier approach is adopted to estimate banks’ cost and profit efficiency indices and to examine the relationship between inefficiency scores and the number of ATMs.

Findings

The study concludes that the banks not only minimize costs and save money by using ATMs, but also spend the saved funds on hiring highly skilled staff to introduce a better product mix which allows the banks to observe scope economies.

Originality/value

The findings suggest that although branches would remain a crucial interaction point for relationship banking, but given their high fixed cost, shifting routine banking transactions from the branch to low-cost electronic channels can significantly reduce costs and enhance efficiency of the financial institutions.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2019

Hui Shan Lee, Fan Fah Cheng, Wai Mun Har, Annuar Md Nassir and Nazrul Hisyam Ab Razak

Malaysia is recognised as an emerging country with a large Muslim population, making the Malaysian Takaful industry the largest Takaful market in the Southeast Asia region…

Abstract

Purpose

Malaysia is recognised as an emerging country with a large Muslim population, making the Malaysian Takaful industry the largest Takaful market in the Southeast Asia region and, notably, one of the fastest growing markets globally. Malaysia is also the first country globally to implement a risk-based capital framework for Takaful. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that influence the efficiency level (cost efficiency and technical efficiency) of the Takaful industry and to examine the effects of Takaful insurance firms’ specific factors and corporate governance factors that influence the efficiency of Takaful insurance in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the efficiency level of the Malaysian Takaful industry was examined between 2011 and 2015. The sample consisted of 11 family Takaful and 8 general Takaful operators. Two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used by first, conducting non-parametric frontier data envelopment analysis to obtain a DEA score for each operator. This was followed by panel regression with the DEA scores as the dependent variable and the insurance firms’ specific factors and corporate governance factors as the independent variables.

Findings

The results of DEA indicate that Takaful operators in general have allocative inefficiency but family Takaful is more cost efficient than general Takaful. Results of panel data analysis reveal that corporate governance factors do influence the cost efficiency but find no evidence on the firm-specific factors towards the cost efficiency and technical efficiency on Takaful operators. Board size and the proportion of non-executive directors impose a negative and significant relationship with cost efficiency, while proportion of Muslim directors in the board is not significant.

Research limitations/implications

This paper focused solely on Malaysia which uses strict regulations governing the Takaful insurance market. Due diligence was also performed to minimise any limitation in the paper. It is proposed that future studies should examine this issue in greater detail by incorporating more data from other Muslim countries.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper have significant implications for policymakers to understand the efficiency condition in the Takaful market. Takaful operators should maintain a small board size with a higher proportion of executive directors, given they could improve the level of effective decision-making to enhance the cost efficiency. As corporate governance factors are significant, Takaful operators in Malaysia should also undertake transparent disclosure practice and reporting such as providing adequate and relevant information related to Shariah compliance and principles to provide a robust foundation as the Takaful market leader regarding Takaful regulations globally.

Social implications

The consumer is able to make a better decision when choosing Takaful insurance company to protect their interests.

Originality/value

No similar paper has been undertaken to the best of the researcher’s knowledge using similar research design and scope to investigate the efficiency of Takaful insurance as in this paper. Takaful insurance is a rapidly growing industry in Malaysia, setting a prime example to other countries globally. Malaysia was selected for this study, as it is the only nation that has implemented the most extreme regulation in the Takaful insurance market.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Gregory J McKee and Albert Kagan

The purpose of this paper is to assess product and service arrays of community banks within competitive markets that are impacted by varying sized financial institutions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess product and service arrays of community banks within competitive markets that are impacted by varying sized financial institutions. A cost efficiency model is used to understand the relationship of product offerings and business cycle response upon bank performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A cost efficiency model is used to understand the relationship of product offerings and business cycle response upon bank performance. Markets comprised of alternate size and type of financial institutions are compared.

Findings

Greater values of X_EFF i when institutions compete are observed in this analysis. Cost efficiency is lowest when community banks are the only institution in the market, and second lowest when credit unions are the only competing institutions. Call report data are analyzed from 1994 to 2013. The number of big banks increases community bank efficiency and efficiency of large banks. Also, the number of community banks does affect big bank cost efficiency. The magnitude of the effect pertaining to the number of community banks upon big bank efficiency is much smaller than that of the number of big banks on community bank efficiency.

Originality/value

This study considers cost efficiency and profitability as measures of institution on the performance of a competing institutional type. The modeling approach uses cost efficiency as a method of observing the performance of financial institutions and an explanation of how firms persist, grow, and respond to changes in technology or regulation. The effects of the presence of each type of financial institution on the performance of another type are compared. Situations in which any number of one or more institutional types is present in a market are considered for analysis purposes.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2019

Harishankar Vidyarthi and Ranjit Tiwari

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the economic (namely cost, revenue and profit) efficiency and its association with intellectual capital of 37 BSE-listed Indian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the economic (namely cost, revenue and profit) efficiency and its association with intellectual capital of 37 BSE-listed Indian banks over the period 2005–2018.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs truncated Tobit regression to compute the relationship between intellectual capital and estimated cost, revenue and profit efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for the 37 BSE-listed Indian banks within the panel data framework.

Findings

Estimates suggest that banks’ overall annual average cost, revenue and profit efficiency are 0.4466–0.7519, 0.4825–0.8773 and 0.4905–0.8803, respectively, during the sample period. Further, Tobit regression results indicate that the aggregate intellectual capital (value-added intellectual coefficient or Modified Value-added Intellectual Capital) has a positive but minimal impact on these efficiency parameters at 1 percent significance level for the overall sample as well as public sector banks. Among all the sub-components of intellectual capital, human capital, structural capital and relational capital have a positive and moderate impact on these efficiency measures for the overall sample. Control variables, particularly bank size, are significant drivers of the estimated efficiency of banks.

Research limitations/implications

Findings suggest that banks should invest adequately to enhance their overall intellectual capital to further augment these economic efficiency measures in the long run.

Originality/value

This study computes cost, revenue and profit efficiency of 37 BSE-listed banks based on DEA followed by intellectual capital using the Pulic approach (1998 and 2000) and the Bontis (1998) approach in the first stage. Later, it examines the dynamics between the computed efficiency parameters and intellectual capital using Tobit regression within the panel data framework.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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