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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Vivekananda Mukherjee and Aparajita Roy

The paper aims to develop a theoretical model to explain the exact process through which the scale effect works to create a possible wedge between a perception-based…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to develop a theoretical model to explain the exact process through which the scale effect works to create a possible wedge between a perception-based ranking like the “Corruption Perception Index (CPI) ” and the axiomatic “absolute costs of corruption”-based ranking of economies with low enforcement against corruption.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes into account corruption both at the “high” and “low” levels of bureaucracies, where the bribes are paid sequentially at the two levels. The bribes are endogenously determined at the equilibrium using a sequential game approach.

Findings

The paper finds that in the absence of coalition between the two levels of bureaucrats, both the absolute level of corruption and the welfare level of the economies are expected to vary inversely with the perceived corruption frequency. The paper also explores the possibility of a stable coalition between the “high” and “low” level bureaucrats and shows that with the perception of a stable coalition being formed, the negative monotonic relation between the corruption frequency and the absolute size of corruption breaks down.

Originality/value

First, the paper argues that the ranking of the economies with low enforcement against corruption on the basis of perceived corruption frequency may not reflect the ranking of the economies according to their absolute size of corruption; it points out that the perceived higher corruption frequency in an economy as reflected in CPI can be an indicator of both the lower size of “high” level corruption and absolute size of corruption in the economy. Particularly, this happens in economies where coalition between the “high” and “low” level officials does not form. Second, it identifies the exact way in which the scale effect works to create a difference in the CPI ranking and the axiomatic “absolute costs of corruption”-based ranking and explains why similar difference would exist if “absolute costs of corruption”-based ranking is derived from all the sources of hard data on corruption. Third, it explains why a stable coalition between the “high” and “low” level bureaucrats in economies with low enforcement does not usually form.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2019

Lorenzo Pasculli

This study aims to assess the risks of systematisation of corruption in the UK following the Brexit referendum.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess the risks of systematisation of corruption in the UK following the Brexit referendum.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applies theoretical and empirical findings of criminological, social, psychological, economic and legal research on the causes of systemic corruption to the socio-institutional developments following the Leave vote.

Findings

The events surrounding the referendum confirm that the resort to corrupt practices is normalised in certain sectors of the British institutions, business and media and that socio-political processes activated by the Leave vote and inadequate UK policymaking and lawmaking can aggravate the situational and socio-psychological enablers of systemic corruption. Effective solutions must go beyond mere anti-corruption laws and address deeper social issues.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses only on some of the major situational and socio-psychological causes of systemic corruption, including the unintended criminogenic effects of the law. More interdisciplinary research is required to address other causes, such as historical and cultural factors.

Practical implications

The findings of this study can inspire practical solutions by policymakers and future research.

Social implications

The study contributes to raising social awareness and stimulating public discussion on systemic corruption in the UK and on the consequences of the referendum on public and private integrity.

Originality/value

The study offers the first systematic analysis of the effects of Brexit and the referendum on corruption through an integrated interdisciplinary approach to systemic corruption in the UK.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2009

Abdul‐Gafaru Abdulai

In recognition of corruption as a major obstacle to the development processes of poor countries, the search for effective strategies in combating the phenomenon in…

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3428

Abstract

Purpose

In recognition of corruption as a major obstacle to the development processes of poor countries, the search for effective strategies in combating the phenomenon in developing countries has become a major preoccupation of the international donor community, particularly since the early 1990s. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of “political will” in combating corruption in Hong Kong, Singapore and Ghana with the view to drawing significant lessons for all developing and transition countries in their anticorruption crusades.

Design/methodology/approach

The findings in this paper are based on an extensive review of relevant literature and personal experiences in Ghana.

Findings

This paper concludes that controlling corruption in a sustained manner requires a consistent demonstration of genuine commitment on the part of the top political elite towards the eradication of the menace. Where the commitment of the top political leadership to the goal of eradicating corruption in a country is weak, as has been the case in Ghana, governments are only likely to engage in “zero tolerance for corruption” talk but continue to play a “tolerant corruption” game. Anticorruption reforms, in this regard, are bound to fail.

Practical implications

The paper highlights a number of lessons from the successful anticorruption crusades of Singapore and Hong Kong that are significant for Ghana and other developing countries in their fight against corruption. These include the need for anticorruption reform initiatives to be participatory and inclusive of all stakeholders including public and private sectors as well as civil society; the need to provide adequate budgets and staff for specialized anticorruption agencies and grant them independence in the execution of their mandates; and the need to establish effective mechanisms for: providing positive incentives for those who comply with anticorruption laws; and exposing and sanctioning compromised individuals and institutions.

Originality/value

Whilst studies on the role of political will in combating corruption in developing countries abound, most of these have either not provided in‐depth country experiences or relied on single country cases. One major departure of this paper from extant literature is its cross‐country comparative nature.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Jiahong He

With the analysis of the causes of corruption, this study aims to investigate specific anti-corruption measures that can be implemented to reform the political system and…

Abstract

Purpose

With the analysis of the causes of corruption, this study aims to investigate specific anti-corruption measures that can be implemented to reform the political system and the social climate of China.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines 97 severe corruption cases of high-ranking officials in China, which occurred between 2012 and 2015. As this insinuates that both institutional and social corruption are major problems in China, the analysis delves into multiple facts of corruption, including different types, four primary underlying causes, and suggestions regarding the implementation of three significant governmental shifts that focus on investigation, prevention tactics and legal regulations.

Findings

China’s corruption is not only individual-based but also it has developed into institutional corruption and social corruption. Besides human nature and instinct, the causes of corruption can be organised into four categories, namely, social customs, social transitions, institutional designs and institutional operations. For the removed high-ranking officials, the formation of interest chains was an important underlying cause behind their corruption.

Originality/value

This study makes a significant contribution to the literature because this study provides a well-rounded approach to a complex issue by highlighting the significance of democracy and the rule of law as ways to regulate human behaviour to combat future corruption.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2008

David Chaikin

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between commercial corruption and money laundering. The challenge of corruption in the private sector and its…

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3798

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between commercial corruption and money laundering. The challenge of corruption in the private sector and its relationship with money laundering are neglected subjects. Corruption and money laundering often occur together with the presence of one reinforcing the other. Corruption generates billions of dollars of funds that will need to be concealed through the money laundering process. At the same time, corruption contributes to money laundering activity through payment of bribes to persons who are responsible for the operation of anti‐money laundering (AML) systems.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary legal documentation, such as the United Nations Convention Against Corruption, the Financial Action Task Force's Recommendations on Money Laundering, and National Legislation, as well as Unpublished Government Commissioned Reports, are analysed in order to assess the links between corruption and money laundering.

Findings

Commercial corruption poses a threat to the integrity of the AML system, especially at the placement stage of the money laundering cycle. Private sector reporting entities may be bribed to actively collude in money laundering, refrain from lodging suspicious transaction reports, or tip off clients that they may be subject to a government investigation. The recursive links between corruption and money laundering suggest that policies which are addressed to fighting both corruption and money laundering may have a mutually reinforcing effect.

Research limitations/implications

There is a lack of empirical data concerning private corruption that suggests significant underreporting of this type of crime.

Practical implications

This paper is addressed to policy makers who are concerned with corporate governance and the impact of corruption on AML systems. Future research would deal with the enforcement aspects of anti‐corruption laws.

Originality/value

The paper analyses commercial corruption for the purpose of understanding the corruption/money laundering nexus.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Book part
Publication date: 8 March 2021

Jon S. T. Quah

Singapore and Hong Kong are the least corrupt Asian countries according to their rankings and scores on Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index in 2018…

Abstract

Singapore and Hong Kong are the least corrupt Asian countries according to their rankings and scores on Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index in 2018 and other indicators. This chapter explains why these two city-states have succeeded in minimizing corruption and identifies the four best practices which might serve as lessons for policy-makers in other countries.

Details

Corruption in the Public Sector: An International Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-643-3

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

Alan Doig

International business is under increasing legal pressure to ensure compliance with legal and other standards on corruption, and thus needs to undertake due diligence on…

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1965

Abstract

Purpose

International business is under increasing legal pressure to ensure compliance with legal and other standards on corruption, and thus needs to undertake due diligence on corruption. This paper aims to emphasise that existing sources of information on corruption in specific countries are often limited for interpretative purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a number of country studies that look at the causes and legal and institutional responses, as well as other data sources from international agencies, the paper suggests that no one indicator can substantively alert business to the levels and types of corruption in a specific country.

Findings

As a preliminary conclusion, the paper proposes that business must undertake more substantive work to understand corruption in a particular country. It also indicates that qualitative sources may be more productive than quantitative sources in providing information that is of use to business in undertaking such work.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the need to stress the need to study corruption in a country context.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2013

Gerald E. Caiden

In nature, the adaptable survive best. In human affairs, elites do better than others, much better when they take advantage of both fair and foul means to exercise public…

Abstract

In nature, the adaptable survive best. In human affairs, elites do better than others, much better when they take advantage of both fair and foul means to exercise public authority and influence. Where absolutism prevails, the disadvantaged cannot make much headway unless their betters make concessions to share communal treasures, govern responsibly and accountably, and refrain from abusing social norms. The evolution of the welfare democracy has brought about the greatest success in making communal benefits more accessible and attainable to all, recognizing the universal dignity and rights of every individual, and, above all, curbing corrupt institutions and practices wherever revealed. Although the ideals of the welfare democracy have been confined to relatively few countries, they illustrate what is achievable. They also have been active in convincing the international community to recognize two landmark United Nations conventions concerning both private and public sectors to strive for greater global success in combating corruption, despite unpromising circumstances and the many obstacles that still favor the corrupt and corrupted at everyone’s cost. Context is the most important variable. Success in curbing corruption requires the adaptation of reforms to the specific context. It cannot be imposed without thorough knowledge of the circumstances and devoted agents on the ground.

Details

Different Paths to Curbing Corruption
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-731-3

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2020

Nurisyal Muhamad and Norhaninah A. Gani

In December 2013, the World Bank had declared that, in the developing world, corruption is the No.1 public enemy. True, Malaysia has been swayed by the endless corruption

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1206

Abstract

Purpose

In December 2013, the World Bank had declared that, in the developing world, corruption is the No.1 public enemy. True, Malaysia has been swayed by the endless corruption scandals from the upper classes to the subordinates, in public as well as private sectors. As a country that is moving towards being a developed country in 2025, the Malaysian Government has been working hard to overcome corruption through various plans and initiatives. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to highlight on Malaysia’s current initiatives and factors that had been found to be of significant importance by previous studies for combating corruption in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employed structured review process as well as critically examined the contents to ensure that the data are filtered from high-quality peer-reviewed journals. Twenty-five quality papers were selected from top journals of various areas to produce the list.

Findings

This paper contributes to the existing literature by providing a comprehensive list of factors in Malaysia in the fight against corruption.

Originality/value

This study will be beneficial to academics, policymakers and anti-corruption professionals interested in Malaysia’s anti-corruption experiences.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2019

Alexis Papathanassis

This paper aims to explore and model tourists’ perceptions of corruption-related holiday incidents and their impact on travel preferences and behavior.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore and model tourists’ perceptions of corruption-related holiday incidents and their impact on travel preferences and behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

This research methodology reflects an exploratory-sequential, mixed-method design, comprising a content analysis of 205 online reviews, followed by a survey of 268 respondents.

Findings

According to the data collected and analyzed, exposure to corruption appears to be more than an exception for holidaymakers. Moreover, tourists often associate corruption with a wide spectrum of incident types; those ranging from personal integrity threats to service delivery failures and heritage/attraction mismanagement. The impact of such incidents on travel preferences and behavior of tourists is highly dependent on the perceived competence, effectiveness and professionalism of local (destination) public services and authorities.

Practical implications

Recommendations for destination stakeholders include the need to enable and take ownership of tourists’ complaints and the importance of recognizing the role of heritage attractions as corruption-related symbols and destination image carriers.

Originality/value

This paper attempts to establish the connection between corruption and tourism externalities within the context of the recent “over-tourism” debate. In exploring tourism-corruption, the authors adopt a “micro-behavioral” perspective, which represents a novelty in the related macro/systemic-level approach, characterizing the predominant research in this area. Moreover, in terms of research methodology, both qualitative and quantitative methods are combined. This is an ambitious and challenging research design, demonstrating the synergies between the two paradigms and contributing to the completeness of the paper.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 74 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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