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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 26 November 2021

Keith Leverett Warren, Nathan Doogan, Uwe Wernekinck and Fiona Claire Doherty

While recent years have seen a number of studies of social networks in therapeutic communities (TCs) and other residential settings, these have primarily focused on male…

Abstract

Purpose

While recent years have seen a number of studies of social networks in therapeutic communities (TCs) and other residential settings, these have primarily focused on male residents. This paper aims to conduct a longitudinal social network analysis of interpersonal interactions in a TC for women.

Design/methodology/approach

The data consists of a longitudinal directed social network of instances of feedback between 56 residents of a 16 bed TC for women over a period of 611 days. Mean age of the participants was 33.1 years, mean length of stay was 133.9 days and 91% of the participants were female. Feedback consisted of written affirmations for prosocial behavior and written corrections for contravening TC norms. Data was analyzed using a latent factor longitudinal social network model.

Findings

Residents react to peer intervention in complex ways. Residents reciprocated affirmations (B = 0.14, 95% confidence interval = 0.10, 0.18) and corrections (B = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.25). Controlling for reciprocity, participants who received affirmations were more likely to affirm and correct peers (B = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.06, 0.15; B = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.10, 0.23), suggesting that the encouragement offered by affirmations leads to increased activity. Homophily by admission time occurred in both affirmations and corrections (B = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.10, 0.37; B = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.29, 0.74).

Originality/value

While affirmations and corrections serve as vehicles for behavioral reinforcement and social learning, they also allow residents to interact in ways that strengthen social bonds.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 December 2014

Ashleigh I. Hodge, Keith L. Warren and Jessica V. Linley

– The purpose of this paper is to examine personal and social network characteristics that predict staff ratings of therapeutic community (TC) resident role model status.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine personal and social network characteristics that predict staff ratings of therapeutic community (TC) resident role model status.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 49 incarcerated female residents tracked interactions with peers, including verbal affirmations and corrections, during a 12-hour period. Two weeks later, staff members were surveyed about their view of participants as role models. Poisson regression was used to analyze resident interactions and demographics as predictors of role model status.

Findings

The number of corrections given to peers was positively related to staff ratings of role model status (B=0.234, SE=0.088, p=0.008). The number of affirmations given was negatively related to staff ratings (B=−0.112, SE=0.051, p=0.028). Resident phase was positively related to staff ratings (B=0.256, SE=0.102, p=0.012). These values did not significantly change when controlling for affirmations and corrections received from peers, non-programmatic interactions between residents, or resident demographics.

Research limitations/implications

These results imply that TC staff judge role model status by resident actions in the community rather than demographics or peer reactions. External validity is limited by the single site, case study design, and the fact that only female TC residents were sampled.

Originality/value

This study is the first to track resident peer interactions over the course of a day and to link those interactions to role model status.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2020

Kamil Krasuski and Janusz Ćwiklak

The purpose of this paper is to present the problem of implementation of the differential global navigation satellite system (DGNSS) differential technique for aircraft…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the problem of implementation of the differential global navigation satellite system (DGNSS) differential technique for aircraft accuracy positioning. The paper particularly focuses on identification and an analysis of the accuracy of aircraft positioning for the DGNSS measuring technique.

Design/methodology/approach

The investigation uses the DGNSS method of positioning, which is based on using the model of single code differences for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) observations. In the research experiment, the authors used single-frequency code observations in the global positioning system (GPS)/global navigation satellite system (GLONASS) system from the on-board receiver Topcon HiperPro and the reference station REF1 (reference station for the airport military EPDE in Deblin in south-eastern Poland). The geodetic Topcon HiperPro receiver was installed in Cessna 172 plane in the aviation test. The paper presents the new methodology in the DGNSS solution in air navigation. The aircraft position was estimated using a “weighted mean” scheme for differential global positioning system and differential global navigation satellite system solution, respectively. The final resultant position of aircraft was compared with precise real-time kinematic – on the fly solution.

Findings

In the investigations it was specified that the average accuracy of positioning the aircraft Cessna 172 in the geocentric coordinates XYZ equals approximately: +0.03 ÷ +0.33 m along the x-axis, −0.02 ÷ +0.14 m along the y-axis and approximately +0.02 ÷ −0.15 m along the z-axis. Moreover, the root mean square errors determining the measure of the accuracy of positioning of the Cessna 172 for the DGNSS differential technique in the geocentric coordinates XYZ, are below 1.2 m.

Research limitations/implications

In research, the data from GNSS onboard receiver and also GNSS reference receiver are needed. In addition, the pseudo-range corrections from the base stations were applied in the observation model of the DGNSS solution.

Practical implications

The presented research method can be used in a ground based augmentation system (GBAS) augmentation system, whereas the GBAS system is still not applied in Polish aviation.

Social implications

The paper is destined for people who work in the area of aviation and air transport.

Originality/value

The study presents the DGNSS differential technique as a precise method for recovery of aircraft position in civil aviation and this method can be also used in the positioning of aircraft based on GPS and GLONASS code observations.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2003

William Lyons

Community policing has been around for at least two decades now and it is safe to say that it has become, in large part, more about managing disruptive subjects and…

Abstract

Community policing has been around for at least two decades now and it is safe to say that it has become, in large part, more about managing disruptive subjects and virtuous citizens than preventing crime or disorder (Crank, 1994; DeLeon-Granados, 1999; Yngvesson, 1993). While the rhetoric of community may be succeeding where the policing policy is failing, the experience has certainly contributed to the growth of homologous efforts that include community prosecution and community correction. We see a criminal justice system pro-actively seeking to blur the boundaries between its institutions and the communities they work within and, all too often, without. In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in justice approaches that turn their attention toward the community. There are literally hundreds of examples of this trend, from offender-victim reconciliation projects in Vermont and Minneapolis to ‘beat probation’ in Madison, Wisconsin; from neighborhood-based prosecution centers in Portland, Oregon, and New York City, to community probation in Massachusetts. Of course, the most well-known version of community justice is community policing, but localized projects involving all components of the justice system have been widely promoted (Clear & Karp, 1998, p. 3).Like community policing and community prosecution, community correction programs generally focus on partnering with service providers and community groups in order to more finely calibrate their service delivery. For community corrections the recent focus has been on delivering re-entry programs and expanding the availability of intermediate sanctioning options. The sheriff (above) focuses on re-entry, to link jails and communities in two ways: extending the correctional continuum into power-poor communities and increasing political support for expanding the criminal justice system in more affluent communities. Even as fiscal stress translates into budget cuts in education, housing, drug treatment, and other services, the reach of the criminal justice system expands outside the fences as new community-based partnerships and inside the fences as an increasingly program-rich environment. These partnerships are, not surprisingly as we shall see, dominated by criminal justice professionals and dependent on coercive control techniques. Further, their budgets are growing with funds in previous eras earmarked for providing many of the same services in a social welfare, rather, than social control, service delivery context. While these budgetary trends map a macro political trend from an old democratic New Deal toward a new republican new deal network of patronage relationships (see Lyons, forthcoming 2004), this paper examines the micro politics of community corrections developing within an increasingly punitive American political-culture.

Details

Punishment, Politics and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-072-2

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Rose Ricciardelli and Krystle Martin

The growing prison population and challenges related to recruiting and retaining suitable correctional officers (COs) in Canada provided the impetus for the current study…

Abstract

Purpose

The growing prison population and challenges related to recruiting and retaining suitable correctional officers (COs) in Canada provided the impetus for the current study. Recruitment efforts in provinces and territories often rely on a variety of diverse testing, ranging from physical fitness to in-person interviews. However, despite such efforts, turn-over rates remain high and insight into what motivates people to seek a career in correctional work continues to require elucidation. By investigating the career development of COs, the purpose of this paper is to understand why certain men seek employment in this field.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are derived from in-depth semi-structured interviews with male officers (n=41) who have employment experience in provincial correctional facilities.

Findings

Respondents discussed their initial motivations for entering the field and their career ambitions. Some entered corrections because they lacked alternative options for employment, others as a stepping stone for a different justice-oriented occupation such as policing or parole. Many were motivated by the income and benefits or had a specific vocational self-identity toward correctional work. However, nearly all respondents indicated that, over time, they no longer felt their rate of pay justly reflected the demands of the occupation, thus factors motivating field entry fail to materialize in ways that sustain long-term employee retention.

Practical implications

CO recruitment should target individuals with interest in the field of justice more broadly. Occupational demands of the CO occupation need to be addressed to reduce turnover. Recruitment should focus not only on new graduates but also be directed toward more mature individuals. The impact of resource intensive interview processes for candidates on turnover rates needs to be evaluated.

Originality/value

The authors’ focus on COs with employment experience in provincial and territorial correctional facilities, rather than federal, is justified by the lack of research on and the high rate of CO turnover in such facilities. After exploring the qualitative responses of officers, clear themes emerged that align well with natural socio-ecological systems: the self, family and community, and wider society.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2019

Mohammadamin Erfanmanesh and Marzieh Morovati

This paper aims to investigate the characterization of corrections to the papers published in Library and Information Science (LIS) journals during 2006-2015. It studies…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the characterization of corrections to the papers published in Library and Information Science (LIS) journals during 2006-2015. It studies the frequency and location of the published errors, time interval between the publication of the original papers and their corrections, as well as associations between journals’ impact factors (IF) and their correction rates.

Design/methodology/approach

The population of the study comprised of 369 errata published in 50 LIS journals. The data were obtained from Clarivate Analytics’ Web of Science (WoS) and Journal Citation Reports.

Findings

The results of the study revealed a correction rate of 0.37 per cent for LIS journals, which is substantially lower than that of 124 subject categories with at-least one erratum in the WoS. Among the countries with the highest number of errata in LIS journals, the USA ranked first, followed by China and England. However, the greatest share of errata to overall LIS publications of the country was seen in Kazakhstan, Russia and Botswana. Results showed that no statistically significant relationships existed between the journals’ IF and their correction rates. The highest proportion of errors published in LIS literature was occurred in authors’ information, references, tables and figures. Moreover, the average time from publication of the original articles to their corresponding errata was found to be 8.7 months.

Social implications

Correcting the unintentional mistakes in scholarly articles is an ethical responsibility of researchers and journal editors.

Originality/value

The current research tries to investigate the characteristics of errata in the LIS field.

Details

Collection and Curation, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9326

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2015

Michael P. Krezmien, Jason Travers, Marjorie Valdivia, Candace Mulcahy, Mark Zablocki, Hanife E. Ugurlu and Lyndsey Nunes

Youth in juvenile corrections settings have significant academic, behavioral, and mental health needs. Additionally, a disproportionate percentage of them are identified…

Abstract

Youth in juvenile corrections settings have significant academic, behavioral, and mental health needs. Additionally, a disproportionate percentage of them are identified with a diagnosed disability, with Emotional Disturbance (ED) as the most common diagnosis. Despite these facts, appropriate education and intensive mental health care is often lacking in these settings. Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that some facilities use methods such as disciplinary confinement as a response to behavioral infractions; a practice that is not only counterproductive to rehabilitation, but violates federal education law and established legal standards. This study examined the use of disciplinary confinement in a juvenile justice system and investigated factors associated with frequency of this practice and time spent in disciplinary confinement. Participants were 2,353 youth with and without identified disabilities at state-run juvenile corrections facilities. Results indicated that students with disabilities spent considerably more time in disciplinary confinement than students without disabilities. Students with ED spent considerably more time than students in other disability categories and students without disabilities. Additionally, Black students, Black students with ED, and Hispanic students with ED spent considerably more time in disciplinary seclusion than other groups. The authors discuss results with respect to disproportionate use of disciplinary confinement and provide subsequent recommendations including the reexamination of disciplinary confinement practices by leaders in juvenile corrections.

Details

Transition of Youth and Young Adults
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-933-2

Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2014

Rose Ricciardelli, Hayley Crichton and Lisa Adams

In this chapter, we explicate the evolution of Canadian corrections, the political, social and judicial realities that have shaped punishment and imprisonment over…

Abstract

Purpose

In this chapter, we explicate the evolution of Canadian corrections, the political, social and judicial realities that have shaped punishment and imprisonment over history. We reveal how such factors continue to leave their mark on the current Canadian federal criminal justice system and its structures of incarceration.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive review of accessible literatures detailing the nation’s development of punishment and incarceration is presented. The history of imprisonment is traced up to the current year and the role of penal populism as theorized by Garland (2001) and, later, Pratt (2007) is presented to discern the motivations for the current punitive correctional rhetoric, as well as its impact on conditions of confinement and program implementation in penitentiaries.

Findings

Canada’s correctional history is largely shaped by how punishment is defined and how such definitions are influenced by members of society; including victims, perpetrators, politicians and media personalities. The realities of current conditions of confinement have been impacted by social and political pressures that encourage increasingly punitive policies oriented towards ‘tough on crime’ initiatives. Current corrections are characterized by overcrowding, concerns about rehabilitative programming and resource allocation and mental health care.

Originality/value

Recent legislative amendments have solidified a ‘tough on crime’ agenda in Canada, however the process underlying the movement towards the acceptance, even public demand, for such legislative changes remain in need of dissemination; particularly in light of the decades of decreasing crime rates in the country.

Details

Punishment and Incarceration: A Global Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-907-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2022

Daniela Jauk, Brenda Gill, Christie Caruana and Sharon Everhardt

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the impact of COVID-19 on the invisible incarcerated women population who are convicted of a crime and serving a sentence in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the impact of COVID-19 on the invisible incarcerated women population who are convicted of a crime and serving a sentence in a residential correctional facility in the United States (US). Even though correctional populations have been declining in the past years, the extent of mass incarceration has been a significant public health concern even before the pandemic. Moreover, the global spread of COVID-19 continues to have devastating effects in all the world's societies, and it has exacerbated existing social inequalities within the US carceral complex.

Methodology/Approach

We base our findings on data collection from two comparative clinical sociological garden interventions in a large Southeastern women's prison and a Midwestern residential community correctional facility for women. Both are residential correctional facilities for residents convicted of a crime. In contrast, in prison, women are serving longer-term sentences, and in the community corrections facility, women typically are housed for six months. We have developed and carried out educational garden programming and related research on both sites over the past two years and observe more closely the impact of COVID-19 on incarcerated women and their communities, which has aggravated the invisibility and marginalization of incarcerated women who suffered a lack of programming and insufficient research attention already before the pandemic.

Findings

We argue that prison gardens' educational programming has provided some respite from the hardships of the pandemic and is a promising avenue of correctional rehabilitation and programming that fosters sustainability, healthier nutrition, and mental health among participants.

Originality of Chapter

Residential correctional facilities are distinctively sited to advance health equity and community health within a framework of sustainability, especially during a pandemic. We focus on two residential settings for convicted women serving a sentence in a prison or a residential community corrections facility that offers rehabilitation and educational programming. Women are an underserved population within the US carceral system, and it is thus essential to develop more programming and research for their benefit.

Details

Systemic Inequality, Sustainability and COVID-19
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-733-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 December 2021

Amanuel Kidane Hagos, Adrienne Withall, Natasha Ann Ginnivan, Phillip Snoyman and Tony Butler

When properly designed and implemented, prison-to-community transition programs targeting older prisoners could potentially save resources, reduce reoffending rates and…

Abstract

Purpose

When properly designed and implemented, prison-to-community transition programs targeting older prisoners could potentially save resources, reduce reoffending rates and contribute to improved public protection and safety. However, older prisoners transitioning to community are often neglected and overlooked, and thus, interventions targeted to address their needs are limited. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and enablers to health and social services for older prisoners transitioning to community.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study was conducted using focus group discussions with corrections officers, community corrections officers and parole officers (n = 32) in four correctional centres, two community corrections offices (CCOs) and one parole unit in New South Wales (NSW) in 2019. The authors used thematic analysis to analyse the findings.

Findings

The study identified three main themes relating to barriers and enablers: organisational, social and economic and individual and family and seven sub-themes: planning the transition, communication, assisting prisoners, transition programs, officers’ knowledge and scope of work, social and economic issues and offenders’ conditions

Research limitations/implications

The processes required to ensure effective prison-to-community transition of older prisoners are not well-developed suggesting the need for more systemic and organised mechanisms. Implications of the barriers and enablers for policy, research and practice are discussed.

Originality/value

This study identified a composite of barriers and enablers to health and social services for older prisoners in NSW prisons and CCOs.

1 – 10 of over 22000