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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2011

David Levi‐Faur and Ziva Rozen Bachar

The wave of regulatory reforms in European telecoms and electricity industries has had an important impact on the structure of the state as well as of corporations. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The wave of regulatory reforms in European telecoms and electricity industries has had an important impact on the structure of the state as well as of corporations. The purpose of this paper is to explore the establishment of these regulatory organizations at the state and corporate levels within a unified theoretical framework, that is grounded in the politics of regulation.

Design/methodology/approach

The case selection includes governance structures at the state and corporate levels in 16 European countries in both telecoms and electricity.

Findings

The data reveal that regulatory agencies exist in both telecoms and electricity sectors in all 16 countries under study, with the notable exception of Switzerland's electricity sector. At the same time, business corporate reforms were also evident, mainly via the creation of corporate regulatory offices at the headquarters of the firms. These departments, which redefine the patterns of responsibility within the corporation and have played the leading role in the negotiations with the external regulatory environment.

Originality/value

This paper strives to overcome the tendency in the scholarly literature to look only at one or the other aspect of the growth of regulatory development and therefore also to offer a narrow understanding of the growth of regulation. It asserts that the commonalities in the expansion of autonomous regulatory agencies and corporate regulatory departments suggest that the growth in the regulatory professionalization of the state and of business corporations reflects the changing nature of capitalist economy and society and the rise of a new global order of “regulatory capitalism”.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Baah Aye Kusi, Elikplimi Komla Agbloyor, Asongu Anutechia Simplice and Joshua Abor

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of foreign bank assets (FBA) and (FBP) presence is examined on banking stability in the economies with strong and weak…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of foreign bank assets (FBA) and (FBP) presence is examined on banking stability in the economies with strong and weak country-level corporate governance (CLCG) in Africa between 2006 and 2015.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a Prais–Winsten panel data model of 86 banks in about 30 African economies, findings on how FBA and presence influence banking stability in strong and weak corporate governance economies under different regulatory regimes are reported for the first in Africa.

Findings

The findings show that foreign bank presence (FBP) and assets promote banking stability. However, the positive effect of FBA and presence is enhanced in economies with strong CLCG, whereas the positive effect of FBA and presence is weakened in economies with weak CLCG. After introducing different regulatory regimes, it is observed that the enhancing effect of FBP and assets on banking stability in the full sample and economies with strong and weak CLCG systems is deepened or improved under the loan loss provision regulation regime. However, under the private and public sector-led financial transparency regulations, the reducing effect of FBP and assets on banking stability in economies with weak corporate governance systems is further dampened.

Practical implications

These findings show that the relationship between FBP and assets is deeply shaped by corporate governance systems and regulatory regimes in Africa. Hence, policymakers must build strong corporate governance and sound regulatory regimes to enhance how foreign bank operations promote banking stability.

Originality/value

This study presents first-time evidence on how FBA and presence influence banking stability under strong and weak governance systems while considering different regulatory regimes.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2019

Reza Hesarzadeh and Ameneh Bazrafshan

Chief executive officer (CEO) ability may have an effect on various corporate reporting decisions, and consequently, the CEO ability is subject to scrutiny by regulatory

Abstract

Purpose

Chief executive officer (CEO) ability may have an effect on various corporate reporting decisions, and consequently, the CEO ability is subject to scrutiny by regulatory reviewers. However, theoretical literature provides mixed evidence on how the CEO ability affects the regulatory review risk. Thus, this study aims to empirically examine the effect of CEO ability on regulatory review risk.

Design/methodology/approach

To measure CEO ability, this study uses the CEO ability-score developed by Demerjian et al. (2012). Further, to measure regulatory review risk, the study uses the probability of receiving a comment letter from the Securities and Exchange Organization of Iran.

Findings

This study finds that the relationship between CEO ability and regulatory review risk is generally negative and statistically significant but not economically significant, i.e. the relationship is very small. In this regard, the study shows that the relationship is negative and also statistically and economically significant for firms with low levels of agency conflicts and high levels of corporate governance quality; and is positive and also statistically and economically significant for firms with high levels of agency conflicts and low levels of corporate governance quality. In addition, while the study finds no evidence that the regulatory reviewers’ workload compression influences the general relationship between CEO ability and regulatory review risk, it documents that low (high) regulatory reviewers’ workload compression weakens (strengthens) both the relationships stated above.

Originality/value

Collectively, the results suggest that the agency conflicts/corporate governance quality and regulatory reviewers’ workload compression are important factors in the analysis of the relationship between the CEO ability and regulatory review risk. The results offer insights into the opposing theoretical viewpoints about the relationship between CEO ability and regulatory review risk. Thus, the results will be of interest to boards of directors and other stakeholders involved in the regulatory review process.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

N. Rowbottom and M.A.S. Schroeder

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the controversial repeal of legislation requiring UK companies to disclose an Operating and Financial Review (OFR). After a lengthy…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the controversial repeal of legislation requiring UK companies to disclose an Operating and Financial Review (OFR). After a lengthy period of consultation and the preparation of a reporting standard, legislation was passed in March 2005 requiring UK listed companies to disclose a separate statement of management commentary, an OFR. In November 2005 the Chancellor unexpectedly and controversially announced the repeal of the OFR during a speech to the largest business lobbying group in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis draws upon internal, private governmental documents prepared by the Treasury ministry to brief the Chancellor, publicly disclosed as a result of a legal challenge against the repeal decision.

Findings

The paper describes how Treasury officials were motivated to seek deregulatory opportunities in order to gain political support for their head, Prime Minister-in-waiting, Gordon Brown. The analysis reveals how the repeal of the OFR was identified as an example of corporate deregulation, and how this perception proved to be misplaced following the reaction to the repeal decision which led to the government reinstating many OFR requirements in an enhanced Business Review in 2006.

Originality/value

The paper draws on the conception of “3-D” power to analyse how a political ideology prevalent in the pre-financial crisis environment came to influence accounting technology with unexpected consequences. Using data rarely disclosed in the public domain, it illuminates the “black boxed” processes underlying regulatory decision making. The paper details how the Treasury were politically motivated to influence corporate reporting policy in the absence of concerted political lobbying, and why this episode of government intervention led to an unanticipated regulatory outcome.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Mark Anthony Camilleri

The aim of this case study is to outline relevant regulatory guidelines on environmental, social and governance issues in the USA. This contribution includes a thorough…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this case study is to outline relevant regulatory guidelines on environmental, social and governance issues in the USA. This contribution includes a thorough analysis of several institutional frameworks and guiding principles that have been purposely developed to foster corporate citizenship behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study methodology involved a broad analysis of US regulatory policies, voluntary instruments and soft laws that have stimulated organisations to implement and report their responsible behaviours.

Findings

This contribution ties the corporate citizenship behaviours with the institutional and stakeholder theories. The case study evaluated the US’s federal government, bureaus and its agencies’ policies on human rights, health and social welfare, responsible supply chain and procurement of resources, anticorruption, bribery and fraudulent behaviours, energy and water conservation practices as well as environmental protection, among other issues.

Research limitations/implications

Past research may have not sufficiently linked corporate citizenship with the corporate social responsibility (CSR) paradigm. This research reports how different US regulatory institutions and non-governmental organisations are pushing forward the social responsibility, environmental sustainability as well as the responsible corporate governance agenda.

Originality/value

This research critically analyses US policy and regulatory instruments including relevant legislation and executive orders that are primarily intended to unlock corporate citizenship practices from business and industry. It has also provided a conceptual framework for the corporate citizenship notion. In conclusion, it implies that there are business and political cases for corporate citizenship.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Xin Li and Jens Gammelgaard

This paper aims to critically review the ownership, location and internalization (OLI) model and the Uppsala internationalization process (UIP) framework. We suggest that…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to critically review the ownership, location and internalization (OLI) model and the Uppsala internationalization process (UIP) framework. We suggest that the inclusion of concepts such as corporate entrepreneurship, host country institutions and regulatory focus in an integrated framework helps to explain firm internationalization.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a review of the literature on the OLI and UIP models. In addition, it presents a conceptual model that encompasses corporate entrepreneurship, regulatory focus and institutions.

Findings

The OLI and the UIP models fail to include corporate entrepreneurship and managerial psychology in their analyses. We suggest that regulatory focus theory unifies the managerial strategic choice between position logic and opportunity logic. In addition, host country institutions affect this managerial choice with regard to internationalization.

Practical implications

Regulatory focus theory originates from managerial psychology. The model is, therefore, relevant for managers, and it shows how the outcomes and processes of corporate entrepreneurial activity should manifest themselves in managerial decision-making related to further internationalization. The strength of host country institutions also affects such decision-making.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to present the concept of regulatory focus in relation to firm internationalization. In addition, it shows that most entrepreneurship-related models of internationalization focus on international entrepreneurship and start-up firms. In contrast, this paper focuses on corporate entrepreneurship and the internationalization of established firms.

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2018

Konstantinos Vasilakopoulos, Christos Tzovas and Apostolos Ballas

This paper aims to investigate the impact that governance mechanisms have on European Union ‘banks income smoothing behavior.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impact that governance mechanisms have on European Union ‘banks income smoothing behavior.

Design methodology/approach

The authors examine the impact that corporate governance mechanisms included in European Commissions’ proposals regarding the improvement of corporate governance mechanisms (Green Paper) have upon European Union banks’ accounting policy decisions regarding the level of loan loss provisions (LLPs). In addition, the authors examine whether banks’ capital structure operates as an effective internal corporate governance practice. The authors investigate the association between certain corporate governance characteristics and the level of LLPs for a sample of 98 banks from 23 European Union countries for the period of 2010-2013, in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. To test the hypotheses, a multivariate regression model is run. Similar to previous research, the authors use ordinary least squares analysis to test the results.

Findings

Empirical findings provide evidence that there is a positive association between LLPs and accounting income, implying the existence of an income-smoothing pattern of provisions. In addition, the results suggest that banks managers’ decision to smooth income may differ with regard to the board structure, the level of leverage and the provision of disclosure for remuneration for chief executive officer.

Originality/value

The findings of this study contribute to the existing literature concerning banks’ income smoothing behavior. These findings can be useful to regulators, as the authors provide some evidence regarding the effectiveness of the European Union corporate governance framework.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2020

Tahira Awan, Syed Zulfiqar Ali Shah, Muhammad Yar Khan and Anam Javeed

The capital markets witness phenomenal shifts of corporate control. With the shift of world economy into a global one, there has been a rapid increase in the volume of…

Abstract

Purpose

The capital markets witness phenomenal shifts of corporate control. With the shift of world economy into a global one, there has been a rapid increase in the volume of acquisitions. The previous studies shed light on the motives behind acquisition and impact of acquisition on both bidding and target firms. The purpose of this study is to bridge a gap in literature by exploring the factors affecting the acquisition ability (AA) of the firms. The study has analyzed the role of financial strength, corporate governance and regulatory influence on AA of acquiring firm.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross-sectional data has been analyzed with respect to Pakistan stock exchange for a period of 2004-2017 by using logit regression.

Findings

Analysis indicates that firm-specific variables are important determinants in firm’s decision to acquire. Chief Executive Officer duality and presence of institutional shareholders on the board contribute to this important phenomenon in the life of the acquiring firms. Bidding firm’s financial strength is also another important consideration while going for corporate control transfer transactions. The empirical results indicate the better AA for firms characterized by minimum capacity usage, lower level of intangible assets, lower debt levels and lower advertising expenses. However, the regulatory factor has no significant role in firms’ AA. The findings of the study are helpful for managers, regulators and policymakers.

Originality/value

Analyzing the role of financial strength, corporate governance and regulatory influence on AA of acquiring firm is a rare study, especially in an emerging country such as Pakistan.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Paul A. Pautler

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the…

Abstract

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the preferences and ideology of the FTC’s leaders, developments in the field of economics, and the tenor of the times. The over-riding current role is to provide well considered, unbiased economic advice regarding antitrust and consumer protection law enforcement cases to the legal staff and the Commission. The second role, which long ago was primary, is to provide reports on investigations of various industries to the public and public officials. This role was more recently called research or “policy R&D”. A third role is to advocate for competition and markets both domestically and internationally. As a practical matter, the provision of economic advice to the FTC and to the legal staff has required that the economists wear “two hats,” helping the legal staff investigate cases and provide evidence to support law enforcement cases while also providing advice to the legal bureaus and to the Commission on which cases to pursue (thus providing “a second set of eyes” to evaluate cases). There is sometimes a tension in those functions because building a case is not the same as evaluating a case. Economists and the Bureau of Economics have provided such services to the FTC for over 100 years proving that a sub-organization can survive while playing roles that sometimes conflict. Such a life is not, however, always easy or fun.

Details

Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

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