Search results

1 – 10 of over 15000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2014

Rebekah D. Moore and Donald Bruce

We examine whether variations in the most fundamental aspects of state corporate income tax regimes affect state economic activity as measured by personal income, gross…

Abstract

We examine whether variations in the most fundamental aspects of state corporate income tax regimes affect state economic activity as measured by personal income, gross state product, and total non-farm employment. We focus on a variety of statutory components of state corporate income taxes that apply broadly in most U.S. states and for most multi-state corporate taxpayers. Our econometric strategy consists of a series of fixed effects panel regressions using state-level data from 1996 through 2010. Our results reveal important interaction effects of tax rates and policies, suggesting that policy makers should avoid making decisions about tax rates in isolation. The results demonstrate a relatively consistent negative economic response to the combination of high tax rates with throwback rules and heavy sales factor weights. Combined reporting has no discernible effect on personal income, GSP, or employment after controlling for tax rates, apportionment, and throwback rules. In an effort to gauge the relative impacts of tax policies on the location of economic activity, we also estimate alternative models in which each state’s economic activity is measured as a share of the national economic activity in each year. Statistically significant effects for tax rates, apportionment formulas, and throwback rules in the shares models suggest that at least some of their impact involves the movement of activity across state lines, thereby leaving open the possibility of a zero-sum game among the states.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 November 2020

Sena Kimm Gnangnon

This paper aims to examine how the volatility of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows affects the volatility of corporate income tax revenue.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how the volatility of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows affects the volatility of corporate income tax revenue.

Design/methodology/approach

The study has used an unbalanced panel data set of 129 countries over the period 1981–2016 and the two-step system generalized methods of moment approach to perform the empirical analysis.

Findings

The main findings are that FDI volatility enhances the volatility of corporate income tax revenue in less advanced economies, but reduces it in relatively advanced countries. The positive corporate income tax revenue volatility effect of FDI inflows is far higher in non-tax haven countries than in tax haven countries. Additionally, FDI volatility exerts a higher positive effect on corporate income tax revenue volatility as countries experience greater dependence on natural resources. Finally, the positive effect of FDI volatility on corporate income tax revenue volatility is further amplified by higher FDI volatility.

Research limitations/implications

One important limitation of the present analysis is the use of aggregate FDI inflows because of the lack of data over a long period on greenfield FDI inflows and cross-border mergers and acquisitions FDI inflows. Therefore, an avenue for future research could be to explore separately the effect of the volatility greenfield FDI inflows and the volatility of cross-border mergers and acquisitions FDI inflows on the volatility of corporate income tax revenue, when long-time series data (covering many countries) would be available.

Practical implications

These outcomes particularly shed light on the role of FDI volatility on the volatility of corporate income tax revenue, particularly in countries that are highly dependent on natural resources. Foreign capital flows, notably FDI flows, play an essential role for countries’ economic development through, inter alia, technology transfer, jobs creation and economic growth. Policymakers should aim to attract FDI, while also reducing their volatility, by designing and implementing policies and measures (such as those in favor of business environment improvement, property rights enforcement and political stability) that would assure foreign investors of the continuous high returns of their investments.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first time this topic is being addressed empirically in the literature.

Details

Applied Economic Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Ioannis Stamatopoulos, Stamatina Hadjidema and Konstantinos Eleftheriou

This paper examines the corporate income tax compliance costs and their determinants by analyzing survey and financial statements data from firms operating in Greece. We…

Abstract

This paper examines the corporate income tax compliance costs and their determinants by analyzing survey and financial statements data from firms operating in Greece. We find that corporate tax compliance costs are of considerable size and vary with several firm-specific characteristics, including the firm’s size, its age, the sector in which it operates, its location, and its legal form. The paper intends to raise awareness regarding the impact of tax compliance costs, especially for countries, such as Greece, that were significantly affected by the economic and financial crisis.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-524-5

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2016

Cary Christian and John S. Zdanowicz

This paper examines the state corporate tax implications of abnormal transfer-pricing by U.S. companies involved in international trade. The state corporate tax cost of…

Abstract

This paper examines the state corporate tax implications of abnormal transfer-pricing by U.S. companies involved in international trade. The state corporate tax cost of improperly priced imports and exports is estimated through analysis of every import and export transaction for the years 2005 through 2009 using the interquartile range methodology provided in regulations to Internal Revenue Code Section 482. Calculation of the interquartile range using the entire population of international transactions addresses interpretive issues related to abnormal prices that occur with the smaller samples normally used in such analyses. A policy recommendation is made for improving tax compliance through more rigorous state involvement in transfer pricing enforcement and greater formal collaboration with the Internal Revenue Service with respect to transfer pricing.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

António Martins

The purpose of this paper is, first, to discuss if the Portuguese corporate tax reform, implemented in 2014, moved the system towards international trends. Second is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is, first, to discuss if the Portuguese corporate tax reform, implemented in 2014, moved the system towards international trends. Second is to analyse in what areas the similarities and disparities are more pronounced when assessing the Portuguese reform against the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base, the Mirrlees Review or other relevant international guidelines. Finally, it assesses how a European country under a bailout could significantly reform the corporate tax.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology employed is based on a mix of the legal research method and case study analysis. The legal method will be applied under comparative income taxation, and the case study will draw on the Portuguese reform to broaden the discussion about critical issues like the participation exemption regime and its place in the taxation of international income flows. The paper will analyse core issues in international income taxation, the present state of corporate tax harmonization in the European Union, discuss the main issues that were dealt by the Portuguese tax reform and offer a critical assessment of tax policy choices that underpinned the reform.

Findings

During the past decades, Portugal was increasingly out of line with international trends in corporate taxation. The bailout asked for the Portuguese Government in 2011 placed a heavy burden in public finances, with an apparent lack of room to follow international trends of corporate tax reform. However, it can be concluded that, after convincing the troika that investment and growth were paramount to overcome the severe economic and social crisis that fell upon the country, the corporate tax was seen as an important policy tool to promote these goals. The reform was thus possible even in the context of a restrictive public finance situation, and followed most guidelines put forward in highly regarded international reports.

Practical implications

A broad corporate tax reform, including rate reduction, a participation exemption regime, a more flexible rule on cost acceptance, an extension of loss carry over period, to name a few, was possible in a very constrained public finance situation. By placing the emphasis on moving the system towards international trends and promoting measures to enhance investment and growth, international creditors could accept such a reform. Also, a consensus with the main opposition party was a very important factor in securing much needed political support.

Originality/value

The findings from what can be considered as an experiment in corporate tax reform in tough economic and social times can be useful to policymakers, tax authorities and international bodies dealing with tax reform processes. The impact on managerial decisions such as investment and financing is also relevant.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 57 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 March 2020

Saeed Solaymani

This study is the first attempt to analyze the effectiveness of recent two major tax policies, the reductions in personal and corporate income taxes and a rise in indirect…

Abstract

Purpose

This study is the first attempt to analyze the effectiveness of recent two major tax policies, the reductions in personal and corporate income taxes and a rise in indirect tax and their combine, under both balanced and unbalanced budget conditions, on the economy and social aspects of Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a computable general equilibrium model to investigate the impacts of all simulation scenarios on the key macro and micro indicators. Further, based on the 2012 Malaysia Household Income and Expenditure Survey, it uses a micro-data with a significant number of households (over 56,000 individuals) to analyze the impacts of tax policies on poverty and income inequality of Malaysian.

Findings

Simulation results show that, under the balanced budget condition, personal and corporate income tax reductions increase economic growth, household consumption, and investment, while the rise in indirect tax has adverse impacts on these variables. However, in the unbalanced budget condition, all tax policies, except indirect tax policy, reduce real GDP and investment in the economy and the indirect tax policy has insignificant impacts on all indicators. All policy reforms reallocate resources, especially labor, in the economy. In both budget conditions, the reductions in corporate and personal income taxes, particularly the corporate income tax, decrease poverty level of Malaysian households. Results also indicate that both tax policies are unable to influence income inequality in Malaysia.

Social implications

This study recommends that the government can increase its revenue by increasing indirect taxes as it does not have any impact on household welfare. In order to increase government revenues, initial increases in personal and corporate income taxes are suggested as they may have small negative impacts on the economy and welfare of households.

Originality/value

One of the significant features of this paper is that it examines both expansionary and contractionary fiscal policies in a country that government budget depends on oil exports. Since the literature on this subject is limited, particularly in the Malaysian context, the authors used Malaysia as a case to show how tax reform policies affect the economy and poverty level of such countries. Distinguishing the Malaysian households into 10 deciles and analyzing the distributional impacts of tax policies on these categories are the most significant contributions of this study.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Syed Munawar Shah and Mariani Abdul-Majid

This study analyses the threshold for debt of corporations under the debt-bias corporate tax system. We adopt a contingent claim model of the corporation to reflect the…

Abstract

This study analyses the threshold for debt of corporations under the debt-bias corporate tax system. We adopt a contingent claim model of the corporation to reflect the incentive effect of the debt-bias corporate tax system. This framework is based on aspiration level theory and the required probability for the successful completion of a project that is identical to decision weight probability in prospect theory. The proposed framework incorporates the debt-bias tax regulations prevailing in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. When the OECD countries’ financial and non-financial corporation data were applied into framework, we observe that the government achieve equilibrium by employing contradictory corporate tax regulations. Moreover, we observe that corporations are intrinsically equity-loving, although the debt-bias corporate tax system stimulates corporations toward debt. This situation makes the government corporate revenue sensitive by placing it at the disposal of corporations’ financing choice instead of corporate profitability. The corporations’ threshold for debt assists in distinguishing between debt and equity-loving corporations. Moreover, corporations’ threshold for debt assists policy makers in deciding the appropriate combination of such reform policies as the Allowance on Corporate Equity and Comprehensive Business Income Tax. A transition from debt-oriented capital structure to equity-oriented capital structure may play an important role in promoting Islamic finance.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Ana Dinis, António Martins and Cidália Maria Lopes

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the following research questions: Is the Portuguese corporate income tax (CIT) losing its internal consistency by extending the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the following research questions: Is the Portuguese corporate income tax (CIT) losing its internal consistency by extending the autonomous taxation of expenses (ATE)? Are receipts derived from autonomous taxes so relevant that what began as an exception is gradually becoming a permanent feature of the income tax? Given the constitutional principle that corporate taxation should be fundamentally based on income, is the taxation of expenses unconstitutional? Is Portugal an international outlier, in applying this type of taxation to corporate expenses?

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used in the paper is a blend of legal research method and case study analysis. The interpretation of legal texts and the ratio legis discussion (hermeneutical side), the evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of autonomous taxes (argumentative approach) and the use of aggregate data to gauge an impression of autonomous taxes’ impact on global tax receipts (empirical side) will, jointly, be used to analyse the topic. Autonomous taxation is a case study on how a (albeit distortive) solution is being applied in an European Union (EU) country to significantly enhance corporate-related tax revenue.

Findings

The authors conclude that autonomous taxation is a relevant source of revenue and its elimination is not foreseeable, at least in the medium term. Moreover, the extension of the tax base is gradually transforming CIT in a kind of dual tax, by charging profits and some expenses. The Constitutional Court, stressing the equity principle, has not ruled autonomous taxation unconstitutional, invoking usefulness against tax evasion. Finally, with the exception of some Portuguese-speaking countries, no other comparable international experience is observed.

Practical implications

The autonomous taxes (ATE) and its progressive enlargement imply, on the one hand, that the CIT has been slowly, but inexorably, losing its sole purpose of taxing profits, and imposing a tax penalty on an increasing set of accounting expenses. On the other hand, the growing number of expenses subjected to taxation leads some authors to ponder if the Portuguese tax regime is losing attractiveness. By increasing ATE’s scope, the effective rate tends to move upwards, countering reductions in the statutory rate. Finally, tax law will increasingly influence managers’ daily decisions, given the set of expenses targeted by autonomous taxes.

Originality/value

Taking into account the aim of this study, the discussion of a Portuguese particular feature of corporate taxation can highlight useful policy points to a broader audience. Many Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries face a dire situation in public finances. Therefore, given the pressure to increase tax receipts, the ATE can be a case study on how a (albeit distortive) solution is being applied in an EU country to significantly enhance corporate-related tax revenue.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 59 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Nor Azrina Mohd Yusof, Lai Ming Ling and Yap Bee Wah

The pervasiveness of tax non-compliance remains a serious concern to most tax authorities around the world. The negative impact of tax non-compliance on the economy and…

Abstract

Purpose

The pervasiveness of tax non-compliance remains a serious concern to most tax authorities around the world. The negative impact of tax non-compliance on the economy and the evolving nature of the Malaysian corporate tax system have motivated this study. The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of corporate tax non-compliance among small-and-medium-sized corporations (SMCs) in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used economic deterrence theory to analyze and test 375 tax-audited cases finalized by the Inland Revenue Board of Malaysia in 2011.

Findings

Multiple regression results revealed that marginal tax rate, company size and types of industry exerted significant effects on corporate tax non-compliance. The services and construction industries were noted to be the predominant industries engaged in tax non-compliance. The amount of concealed income unearthed during tax audit indicates clearly that there is widespread tax non-compliance in Malaysia and the quantum of tax lost through tax non-compliance is quite high.

Research limitations/implications

This study only sampled SMCs audited in 2011, hence, care has been exercised in generalizing the findings.

Practical implications

This study affirms that marginal tax rate, company size and types of industry are the main factors influencing compliance behavior of SMCs. The findings provide important insights not only to the Malaysian tax authority, but also to tax authorities and tax researchers in other parts of the world given that tax non-compliance of SMCs is a prevalent and universal problem. For example, with regard to the finding that marginal tax rate and company size are linked to non-compliance, it can be surmised that tax authorities ought to divert resources to firms with such characteristics when conducting audits.

Originality/value

Most tax research tax examining corporate tax non-compliance used financial data from annual reports to predict tax non-compliance, which are not very accurate. This study used actual tax audit cases obtained from the tax authority which are reflective of the actual situation. This study complements the scant existing literature by empirically evaluating the factors that influenced corporate tax non-compliance in a developing country like Malaysia.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2019

M. Catherine Cleaveland, Lynn Comer Jones and Kathryn K. Epps

The Compliance Assurance Process (CAP) is a federally funded IRS corporate audit program. The program’s goal is to determine the best tax treatment for complex…

Abstract

The Compliance Assurance Process (CAP) is a federally funded IRS corporate audit program. The program’s goal is to determine the best tax treatment for complex transactions before a corporation files its tax return. The US Department of the Treasury has voiced concerns regarding resource constraints and whether the program enhances public (nonprofessional investor) and investor confidence. We conduct a behavioral experiment using 176 Master of Business Administration and Master of Accounting students as proxies for nonprofessional investors. In the experiment, we examine the effects of CAP participation and corporate tax risk profile on judgments about financial statement credibility. We use a 2 × 2 experimental design with corporate tax risk profile manipulated as high risk or low risk and participation in CAP manipulated as participatory or non-participatory. This research investigates whether CAP program participation and/or tax risk level influence nonprofessional investors’ perceptions of the certainty and accuracy of the provision for income taxes. The results suggest both CAP program participation and tax risk influence nonprofessional investors’ perceptions of the certainty of the income tax provision; and tax risk also influences nonprofessional investors’ perception of the accuracy of the income tax provision.

1 – 10 of over 15000