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Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2014

Abstract

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Parking Issues and Policies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-919-5

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Corinne Mulley and Geoffrey Clifton

This chapter demonstrates how the ‘golden rule’ can be applied by operators of flexible transport services to improve investment and pricing decisions.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter demonstrates how the ‘golden rule’ can be applied by operators of flexible transport services to improve investment and pricing decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The chapter explains why an appropriate decision making framework is particularly important for operators of flexible transport services and compares the traditional economic framework of fixed versus variable costs to the decision-oriented approach that analyses the activities of a firm in terms of costs that are avoidable (i.e. specific to a particular activity) and costs that are shared amongst a number of activities. The chapter introduces the ‘golden rule’ of decision making and discusses issues in implementing the rule.

Findings

An economic framework for decision making is particularly important for smaller scale transport operations (such as flexible transport services) because ‘lumpy’ investment costs are more significant than for larger operators. The traditional economic approach divides costs into fixed costs and those which vary by patronage. A better framework for decision making divides costs into those which are specific to a particular activity and, therefore, avoidable if that activity ceases, and those costs which are common to more than one activity.

Practical implications

Using this framework allows operators to apply the ‘golden rule’ in pricing their services so that the avoidable costs of each activity are recovered and the enterprise covers its shared costs overall.

Originality/value

This chapter will be useful to operators of flexible transport services who are new to the industry or are reacting to changes in the funding environment.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Abstract

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

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Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2017

Corinne Mulley and Chinh Ho

The chapter was prompted by the trend towards providing public health messaging through social marketing. The purpose is to understand the determinants of walking within a…

Abstract

The chapter was prompted by the trend towards providing public health messaging through social marketing. The purpose is to understand the determinants of walking within a city in terms of framing policy to promote greater physical activity (PA). This is demonstrated through the context of Sydney, New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The chapter provides a literature review and showcases a case-study. Descriptive statistics are presented on how far Sydneysiders walk using Household Travel Survey data and how this might be changed if short motorised trips are converted to walking. Modelling walking time follows to see if there are policy levers that could be used to increase walking time. Over 78% of Sydney’s population do not meet the recommended PA target of 30 minutes per day. Converting short motorised to walking provides marginal improvement. Walking to access activities contributes more to total walking time than walking to/from public transport. Modelling suggests potential policy levers to increase PA. Targeting driving licence holders, households without cars and promoting walkable environments are found most effective. Promoting undertaking more activities on foot is likely to be more successful than promoting walking for short trips. The chapter provides an overview of PA around the world and an empirical case study of walking in Sydney, NSW, Australia. In turn this provides an evidence base for more successful targeting of social marketing messaging for public health.

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Corinne Mulley and John D. Nelson

This chapter provides the context for this book and highlights how the different chapters contribute to a greater understanding of how the flexible transport future may emerge.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter provides the context for this book and highlights how the different chapters contribute to a greater understanding of how the flexible transport future may emerge.

Design/methodology/approach

This chapter reviews the content of the book, drawing together the threads to provide insights into the important issues and policies around the world both in practice and for the future.

Findings

This book benefits from the papers presented at the TRB-sponsored International Paratransit Conference, “Shaping the New Future of Paratransit,” held in Monterey, CA in the United States (US) in October 2014. Over and above this, chapters were commissioned so as to provide a broader understanding of context and operations. The present is affected by the common problem of the silo nature of funding for transport and the need for innovative solutions to develop partnership working and business models which in turn will allow paratransit or flexible transport systems (FTS) to flourish. This chapter also points to the considerable contribution of the chapters which look to the flexible transport future. These detail the way in which our understanding of mobility must change, the role of technology as an enabler, and the way in which automation will change each mobility mode and the connections between them.

Originality/value

This chapter offers a multidimensional perspective of the current status, operational aspects, and a wealth of case study material to underpin policy and practice in paratransit or FTS. Its particular value is centered on providing not only practice-focused policy content but research content which postulates how the flexible future may need to be influenced to emerge in a way to add to sustainability.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2017

Corinne Mulley, Klaus Gebel and Ding Ding

Abstract

Details

Walking
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-628-0

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Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2014

Corinne Mulley and Stephen Ison

The purpose of this chapter is to synthesise the issues and debates raised in the book as a whole.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to synthesise the issues and debates raised in the book as a whole.

Methodology/approach

This chapter reviews the content of the book, drawing together the threads to provide conclusions on parking issues and policies around the world.

Findings

The chapter reveals the way in which parking is fundamentally a land-use issue and the importance of parking to different travel demands. As cars spend most of their time parked at home, the issue of residential parking is important and determines the shape and nature of our cities. Planning for parking has a key role to play in determining the outcome of how walkable the built environment becomes. The synthesis of the chapters of the book reveals how the type of parking is intrinsically linked to the activity undertaken and the type of destination, whether the trip is for commuting or for retail or leisure.

The chapter identifies strategies such as car-free developments, park and ride and workplace parking levies used to provide solutions and the way in which the number of stakeholders involved influences the ease with which the complex interplay of issues in parking can be resolved.

Practical implications

Understanding that parking is primarily a land-use policy, dependent on the home location and destination of the trip, has implications for the development of parking policy within the package of measures making up travel demand management strategies. The chapter shows how parking for a stationary vehicle can influence the flow of moving vehicles and the built environment.

Originality/value of chapter

This chapter draws on the chapters of this book which offer a multidimensional investigation into parking issues and parking policy, providing a wealth of case study material providing evidence to underpin the design of effective parking management approaches.

Details

Parking Issues and Policies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-919-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2014

Stephen Ison and Corinne Mulley

This chapter provides an introduction to parking issues and policies. It seeks to place parking in the context of transport demand management (TDM) and takes as its tenet…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter provides an introduction to parking issues and policies. It seeks to place parking in the context of transport demand management (TDM) and takes as its tenet that parking is primarily a land-use issue. It outlines the types of parking which exist and why the management of parking is all important when addressing the policy goals of impacting on traffic congestion, tackling the issue of air pollution, stimulating economic activity or aiming to improve road safety.

Methodology/approach

This chapter discusses the role played by parking as a TDM measure and its various facets most notably pricing and regulation, the prioritisation of land for particular uses, such as Park and Ride, or indeed car free developments.

Findings

The chapter reveals the complex nature of parking from both the supply and demand side. The demand is driven by the kind of activity involved be it for commuter, retail or other reasons. Clearly, the type of housing stock and residential density impact on parking demand at the start point of the journey, whereas at the destination, the type of employment and the duration of parking are significant factors. Car parking is not homogeneous, since it can be found in various locations and provided by different bodies, be that the public or private sector. The cost of parking is an issue not simply in terms of the land take, cost of construction and maintenance but also searching for parking and the time involved.

Practical implications

The management of parking is important as part of a package of measures commonly implemented by authorities and one which needs to be understood alongside land-use planning. It is an area involving conflict between parking supply, demand, revenue raising and economic development.

Originality

The book offers a clear understanding and insight into the area of parking and its issues and policies. The book uses case studies where appropriate providing originality in the area of parking and effective management approaches.

Details

Parking Issues and Policies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-919-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2014

Stephen Ison, Corinne Mulley, Anthony Mifsud and Chinh Ho

This chapter provides a case study of the implementation of the Parking Space Levy (PSL) in Sydney, Australia. Introduced by the Parking Space Levy Act 1992, the scheme…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter provides a case study of the implementation of the Parking Space Levy (PSL) in Sydney, Australia. Introduced by the Parking Space Levy Act 1992, the scheme places a levy on business use of off-street car parking spaces with the revenues from the levy being hypothecated to public transport improvements. The chapter outlines the implementation of what is now a relatively mature scheme and examines how the revenues raised by the scheme have been spent.

Methodology/approach

This chapter offers a review of the introduction of the levy in Sydney and explores its impact in implementation with respect to changes to the number of parking spaces and an analysis of the way in which the hypothecated revenue has been spent. The implementation of the PSL is evaluated against the literature on hypothecation of funds and includes a discussion of policy issues for Sydney in the light of the evidence presented.

Findings

Whilst off-street parking availability is a major contributor to peak period traffic, the implementation of the PSL as a single rate of application has not led to a decrease in total number of available parking places in the City of Sydney. The number of concessions for unused spaces, whereby the levy was not imposed, increased when the levy rate was doubled in 2009 although this was accompanied by a fall in the number of exemptions from the levy. The revenue from the PSL has been dedicated to improvements in public transport infrastructure, primarily interchanges and commuter car parks although the more recent provisions to spend on ‘soft’ measures to improve sustainable travel have not been taken up.

Practical implications

Whilst a stated objective of the PSL was to reduce congestion, the chapter concludes that the PSL had more than this single objective which makes it more difficult to assess whether its implementation has been a success.

Originality/value of chapter

This chapter provides an overview of the introduction, implementation and outcomes of the PSL in Sydney, relating it to the PSL in Melbourne (Chapter 13) and the WPL in Nottingham (Chapter 15). No other study to date evaluated the PSL in Sydney against the literature relating to hypothecation nor tracked the impacts of implementation of the PSL to evaluate its success.

Details

Parking Issues and Policies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-919-5

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2017

Abstract

Details

Walking
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-628-0

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