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Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the growing academic literature on “post-racial” African American leadership by exploring the election and…
Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the growing academic literature on “post-racial” African American leadership by exploring the election and reelection of Sacramento Mayor Kevin Johnson. Johnson is emblematic of the current generation of young African American leaders: politically moderate, less likely to employ overt racial appeals, and able to assemble a multiethnic political coalition.Design/methodology/approach – This chapter utilizes a combination of semi-structured interviews and multivariate quantitative analysis of an original dataset to reveal both the diversity of the Johnson coalition and the high support for Johnson’s candidacy in Sacramento’s African American community.Findings – Johnson’s case demonstrates the durability of an explicitly moderate, reform-minded, and technocratic coalition and epitomizes the “universalized interest” approach to governance – simultaneously developing strategies to mobilize African American support and formulating public policies to advance group interests while articulating a universalized policy framework.Social implications – On the night that Barack Obama was elected president, Johnson became the first African American, to be elected Mayor of Sacramento. To do so, Johnson assembled a diverse electoral coalition that resembled the Obama coalition. However, this case study demonstrates the unique challenges facing an African American mayor in a majority white city and reveals the continuing importance of race in “post-Obama” urban politics.Originality/value – This chapter utilizes a unique dataset and rigorous methodology for analyzing voting behavior and multiracial coalition formation in American cities. The voter file data analyzed in this study remains an underutilized resource for urban scholars.
The financial market offers an intricate laboratory for the study of consumer behavior. One area that has received little attention in the finance literature and that…
The financial market offers an intricate laboratory for the study of consumer behavior. One area that has received little attention in the finance literature and that could benefit from insights from consumer behavior research is the relationship between gender and consumer investment preferences and practices. The primary goal of the present study is to explore the influence of consumers' gender on their investment behavior. The study examines the investment strategies of male and female investors using psychometric measures and self‐reporting of investment behavior.
Assesses the effect of an international business person′s accent onGuatemalan subjects′ perception of the business person′s effectiveness,credibility, competence…
Assesses the effect of an international business person′s accent on Guatemalan subjects′ perception of the business person′s effectiveness, credibility, competence, friendliness, as well as the Guatemalan subject′s intentions to buy. Graduate students at a Guatemalan university listened to tape recordings of three presenters speaking Guatemalan Spanish and three presenters speaking Spanish with a foreign accent. The findings suggest that, for the Guatemalan audience, a sales pitch in Guatemalan Spanish evoked more favourable judgements on all measured dimensions than the same sales pitch in foreign accented Spanish. Females, however, evaluated the Guatemalan Spanish presenters more positively and evaluated the foreign accented presenters more negatively than their male counterparts.
Women in many countries are breaking through the gender barrier and are working in positions where they have a major impact on the buying and selling activities in…
Women in many countries are breaking through the gender barrier and are working in positions where they have a major impact on the buying and selling activities in business-to-business relationships. A number of studies have investigated the role gender plays in driving perceptions of sales representatives in the USA, however, little research has been undertaken on this important topic in China, one of the largest and most influential countries. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to examine whether the gender of both the buyer and seller, affects perceptions of expertise, trust and loyalty in business relationships.
A survey instrument was developed, tested and used on individuals with purchasing responsibility in China. Confirmatory factor analysis was used in the pre-test and the final study data to develop and refine measurement instruments, assessing construct validity, identifying method effects and evaluating factor variance across groups. Independent t-tests were used to compare male and female buyers on their evaluation of sales reps.
The results indicate that the gender of the sales person does not seem to be a consideration for male buyers in evaluating reps in any of the variables tested. However, female buyers consistently give less favorable evaluations to female sales people than male sales representatives. The possible implications of these findings are discussed.
First, this research uses a quantitative methodology in both the collection and analysis of the data. Thus, future studies may want to use a qualitative data set to gain a more in-depth understanding of the business-to-business relationships between men and women in the workplace. Also, as the study was concentrated on a relatively small number of business professionals from only one area in China, subsequently researchers should consider increasing the geographic domain where respondents are sampled, to help improve the generalizability of the results.
The gender bias by female buyers found in this study has several important implications for businesses in China. Specifically, the suggests that female buyers may carry with them a “collective negative bias” against other women, in this case, female sales reps. The solution to this problem is not to avoid assigning female sales reps to female buyers, rather, it is to change the negative collective social-esteem identity preconceptions. Organizations can do this through training by making women aware of their own predisposition to unfairly evaluate women that they interact with in the workplace.
It has been argued that gender plays a small role in perceptions of sales representatives in buyer-seller relationships. While this seems to be true in the USA, it has not (until now) been empirically tested in China. Somewhat surprisingly, the gender differences we did uncover are not from male buyers in their assessments, but from female buyers in their evaluation of women sales representatives. This result provides some interesting insight into Chinese business relationships and how some women in positions of power are more critical of other women within their sphere of influence.
States that the involvement of a sales organisation in international business requires sales interactions that transcend national boundaries. Understanding the…
States that the involvement of a sales organisation in international business requires sales interactions that transcend national boundaries. Understanding the complexities of cross‐cultural sales negotiations is most important and is a difficult task for sales managers. States that despite the importance and complex nature of cross‐cultural negotiations, the literature is normative and largely disjointed. By using the negotiation process as an analytical framework, this study examines the relevant literature, offers research propositions and indicates additional areas necessitating further research.
The Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act address factors to consider in educating students with and without…
The Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act address factors to consider in educating students with and without disabilities together to the maximum extent appropriate. This chapter is designed to examine the origins and evolving interpretations of the LRE concept in special education policy and practice. Discussion traces the evolution of the concept as a legal principle, and reviews its application to educational strategies for students with learning and behavioral disabilities in contemporary schools. In conclusion, the future of the LRE concept is addressed in light of competing policies promoting presumptive inclusive education, and publicly funded school choice programs promoting greater involvement of parents in choosing where their children with and without disabilities should be educated.
Challenged by a clear shortfall of available employees to be long-term members of the food service industry, this paper aims to establish reasons for the shortage of…
Challenged by a clear shortfall of available employees to be long-term members of the food service industry, this paper aims to establish reasons for the shortage of available employees and curate a number of strategies to improve the situation.
This paper draws on the perspectives of many industry stakeholders. These professionals collaborated to identify a number of contributing factors to the shortage of employees in the Canadian food and beverage industry. Corresponding solutions were assessed, prioritized and categorized by groups responsible for taking action.
There are many strategies that can be implemented in both the short and long term that can increase the draw for potential employees to join this industry.
Industry members, educators and government policymakers can all play a role in improving the worker shortage in the food service industry. The recommendations range from industry collaboration to redefinition of jobs and to redistribution of wages.
The co-authors of this paper include the President and CEO of Ontario Restaurant, Hotel and Motel Association and educators with strong industry experiences gained in the positions of food and beverage director, restaurant manager and executive chef. Given the diverse experiences of the author team, this paper creates a more holistic view of the recommendations to consider for this industry to see positive change.