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Article

Pragnya Kanade and Bharat H. Patel

The main purpose of taking up this work was to see the influence of metallic nanoparticles on various fabric properties. This paper emphasizes on mechanical, aesthetic and…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of taking up this work was to see the influence of metallic nanoparticles on various fabric properties. This paper emphasizes on mechanical, aesthetic and anti-bacterial properties of the polyester, cotton and polyester cotton-blended fabric samples.

Design/methodology/approach

Three fabrics, 100 per cent polyester, 100 per cent cotton and polyester cotton-blended (50:50), were procured from the market. They were subjected to mild washing treatment so that the fabrics could be impregnated with copper (Cu) nanoparticles following standard procedure. The characterization of Cu nano-loaded textiles has been done using various techniques such as scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology, X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for chemical composition. However in this paper, the focus is on various fabric properties and influence of this treatment on them. Antimicrobial activity was measured as per AATCC 100 quantitative method.

Findings

The structural properties showed changes but not major ones. The impregnation of Cu nanoparticles is nothing but a chemical treatment, and it is not uncommon to find reduction in the mechanical properties of the specimen. Here also, the mechanical properties were studied but did not reveal any significant change. The aesthetic properties for cotton fabrics showed an improvement. Improvement in the anti-bacterial activity was observed for all the fabric samples but the improvement in cotton fabric is worth mentioning. Thus, nano treatment imparts anti-bacterial property without hampering the mechanical properties of the parent textiles.

Research limitations/implications

It is usual to find changes in the various properties of the materials subjected to nano treatment or treatment of any sort. Though the fabric samples were subjected to similar treatment, the quantity of nanoparticles taken up by each of them was different. The reason behind this could be the difference in the crystallinity of the fabric samples. Polyester fabric showed the highest resistance, as it was least affected by the nano treatment given. Cotton fabrics composed of cotton fibers are amorphous in nature, hence showed better take-up and hence were more affected by the said treatment.

Practical implications

Cotton fabrics are the most favored fabric, especially in regions with hot climatic conditions. Even though these fabrics are very sought after, they have a major drawback related to the aesthetic appeal of the fabric. These fabrics have very poor resistance to the crease formation, as well as their ability to recover from the external deformation. But the study conducted on the fabric samples has shown favorable results for the cotton fabric. A significant improvement in their aesthetic and anti-bacterial activity was found. At present, textiles with nano finishing fall in niche market due to its higher cost. But finishing with in-house Cu nanoparticles may open up hygiene textiles for consumers at affordable rates.

Social implications

Cotton is still the most popular natural fiber in most of the tropical and sub-tropical regions. People located in these places have a natural urge to wear fabrics made from cotton fibers. Due to the hot weather, sweating is natural. However, this tends to keep the skin in humid state resulting in various skin problems, as cotton is also prone to bacterial attack. But this work has shown positive results, meaning to say that cotton fabrics show improved resistance to the bacterial activity. Hence, its suitability for hygiene applications may soon become a reality.

Originality/value

It is true that a lot of work is being reported on nano materials and their application to textiles for various reasons. Recently, many reports are available related to finishing of textiles using nanoparticles. However, most of the researchers are using silver nanoparticles for the same. In this work, use of in-house Cu nanoparticles has been done to treat fabric samples, which is more economical than silver nano. Also quantity required to meet desired property with Cu nanoparticles is less than the conventional treatment. This work is a sincere attempt to prepare hygienic common textiles at economical rates using continuous application technique which offers durable efficacy against human pathogenic bacterium.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article

Fawzia Fahim Abdel‐Mohsen and Hassan Salah Aly Emira

This work aimed to prepare black transition metal oxide pigments to be used as solar absorbers in the solar selective and other industrial paints.

Abstract

Purpose

This work aimed to prepare black transition metal oxide pigments to be used as solar absorbers in the solar selective and other industrial paints.

Design/methodology/approach

Mixed metal oxide CoCuMnOx spinel pigments were synthesised via the sol‐gel route. These oxides, namely (I‐Co0.50Cu0.25Mn0.25)Ox, (II‐Co0.25Cu0.50Mn0.25)Ox and (III‐Co0.25Cu0.25Mn0.50)Ox, were prepared with different molar ratios and annealed at 600, 800 and 900°C, respectively. The prepared oxides were characterised by infrared spectrometer (IS), differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM).

Findings

The prepared pigments have a spinel structure with the composition CoCuMnOx. All synthesised pigments consisted of nano particles ranged from 10 to 80 nm. The optical properties showed high absorption and moderately low reflectance in the solar wavelength range.

Research limitations/implications

The prepared samples, used in the present work, were synthesized from cobalt sulphate, copper chloride and manganese chloride. The salts were dispersed in polyacrylamide as a precursor.

Practical implications

The prepared samples were thermally stable and had good optical properties. They could be used as absorber materials in the painting of solar collectors.

Originality/value

These thermally stable mixed metal oxides could be used in the painting of solar collectors. The three mixed metal oxides could be used as absorber materials for heating solar collectors due to their high absorption and moderately low reflectance in the solar wavelength range.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article

Asfandyar Khan, Ahsan Nazir, Abdur Rehman, Maryam Naveed, Munir Ashraf, Kashif Iqbal, Abdul Basit and Hafiz Shahzad Maqsood

This review deals with the pros and cons of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on human beings and the role of textile clothing and the chemicals used for textiles to protect from…

Abstract

Purpose

This review deals with the pros and cons of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on human beings and the role of textile clothing and the chemicals used for textiles to protect from their harmful effects.

Design/methodology/approach

UV radiation (UVR) which has further divided into UVA, UVB, and UVC. Almost 100% of UVC and major portion of UVB are bounced back to stratosphere by ozone layer while UVA enters the earth atmosphere. Excessive exposure of solar or artificial UVR exhibit potential risks to human health. UVR is a major carcinogen and excessive exposure of solar radiation in sunlight can cause cancer in the lip, skin squamous cell, basal cell and cutaneous melanoma, particularly in people with the fair skin.

Findings

This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the harmful effects of UVR on human skin, factors affecting UV irradiance and factors affecting UV protection offered by textile clothing.

Originality/value

Effect of fiber properties, yarn properties, fabric construction, fabric treatments and laundering has been reviewed along with the identification of gaps in the reported research. A comparison of inorganic and organic UV absorbers has also been given along with different testing and evaluation methods for UV protective clothing.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Rabindra N. Das, Frank D. Egitto and Voya R. Markovich

Material formulation, structuring and modification are key to increasing the unit volume complexity and density of next generation electronic packaging products. Laser…

Abstract

Purpose

Material formulation, structuring and modification are key to increasing the unit volume complexity and density of next generation electronic packaging products. Laser processing is finding an increasing number of applications in the fabrication of these advanced microelectronic devices. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of new laser‐processing capabilities involving the synthesis and optimization of materials for tunable device applications.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper focuses on the application of laser processing to two specific material areas, namely thin films and nanocomposite films. The examples include BaTiO3‐based thin films and BaTiO3 polymer‐based nanocomposites.

Findings

A variety of new regular and random 3D surface patterns are highlighted. A frequency‐tripled Nd:YAG laser operating at a wavelength of 355 nm is used for the micromachining study. The micromachining is used to make various patterned surface morphologies. Depending on the laser fluence used, one can form a “wavy,” random 3D structure, or an array of regular 3D patterns. Furthermore, the laser was used to generate free‐standing nano and micro particles from thin film surfaces. In the case of BaTiO3 polymer‐based nanocomposites, micromachining is used to generate arrays of variable‐thickness capacitors. The resultant thickness of the capacitors depends on the number of laser pulses applied. Micromachining is also used to make long, deep, multiple channels in capacitance layers. When these channels are filled with metal, the spacings between two metallized channels acted as individual vertical capacitors, and parallel connection eventually produce vertical multilayer capacitors. For a given volume of capacitor material, theoretical capacitance calculations are made for variable channel widths and spacings. For comparison, calculations are also made for a “normal” capacitor, that is, a horizontal capacitor having a single pair of electrodes.

Research limitations/implications

This technique can be used to prepare capacitors of various thicknesses from the same capacitance layer, and ultimately can produce variable capacitance density, or a library of capacitors. The process is also capable of making vertical 3D multilayer embedded capacitors from a single capacitance layer. The capacitance benefit of the vertical multilayer capacitors is more pronounced for thicker capacitance layers. The application of a laser processing approach can greatly enhance the utility and optimization of new materials and the devices formed from them.

Originality/value

Laser micromaching technology is developed to fabricate several new structures. It is possible to synthesize nano and micro particles from thin film surfaces. Laser micromachining can produce a variety of random, as well as regular, 3D patterns. As the demand grows for complex multifunctional embedded components for advanced organic packaging, laser micromachining will continue to provide unique opportunities.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article

Anna Modrzejewska‐Sikorska, Filip Ciesielczyk and Teofil Jesionowski

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new method of synthesis of CuO · SiO2 oxide composite based on the reaction of precipitation from water solutions of sodium…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new method of synthesis of CuO · SiO2 oxide composite based on the reaction of precipitation from water solutions of sodium silicate and copper nitrate.

Design/methodology/approach

Solutions of sodium silicate and copper nitrate were used as substrates. The effects of direction of substrate supply, concentration, excess of reagents and temperature of precipitation on the physicochemical properties of the products were analysed.

Findings

A new method of synthesis of CuO · SiO2 oxide composite based on a precipitation reaction is proposed.

Research limitations/implications

Only sodium silicate and copper nitrate solutions were used.

Practical implications

The CuO · SiO2 oxide composite obtained can be used as blue pigment or polymer filler.

Originality/value

The paper determines optimum conditions of CuO · SiO2 oxide composite precipitation to obtain products with desired physicochemical, dispersive and structural properties.

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Article

A.G. Mohan Das Gandhi, K. Soorya Prakash and V. Kavimani

This paper aims to examine the investigations made on the corrosion behaviour of magnesium (Mg) substrate electrodeposited using different nano-materials.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the investigations made on the corrosion behaviour of magnesium (Mg) substrate electrodeposited using different nano-materials.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses nano-materials such as those of reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), titanium-di-oxide (TiO2) and also r-GO/TiO2 nano-composites (dispersed through ultra-sonication process) at 3-min time interval. Crystalline nature of synthesized TiO2 is studied through X-ray diffraction and its pore volume is measured to be approximately 0.1851ccg-1 by Brunauer Emmett Teller analysis.

Findings

Surface morphology of the developed set of specimens inspected through scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy establishes a clean surface coating and further witnesses for only minimal defects. Electrochemical behaviour of the developed coating is studied exhaustively using Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.1 M Na2SO4 solution.

Originality/value

Incremental corrosion resistance exhibited by developed composite coating owes to the factors viz. chemical stability and hydrophobic tendency of TiO2 and r-GO; these known engineering facts resist the flow of ions into the corrosive media and thereby reduce the rate of corrosion.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 65 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

Abd El-Wahab H., Farouk Abd El-Monem, Naser M.A., Hussain A.I., Elshhat H.A. Nashy and Lin L.

The purpose of this paper is devoted to application of the emulsion polymer of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) prepared with in situ nano-silica as a novel…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is devoted to application of the emulsion polymer of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) prepared with in situ nano-silica as a novel tanning agent of hide to partly or totally replace chrome salt and to improve physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the tanned leather and to reduce the environmental impact of chrome tanning effluent.

Design/methodology/approach

Polymer/nano-silica hybrid emulsions were prepared via in situ seed emulsion polymerisation. The prepared polymers were characterised for solid content, molecular weight, viscosity, drying time, minimum film-forming temperature (MFFT) and microstructures (via transmission electron microscopy). The mechanical, thermal and surface morphological (by scanning electron microscope) properties of the treated samples were also investigated. The influences of the increase in the content of organic nano-silica on the properties of the tanned leather are discussed.

Findings

It was found that the viscosity, the particle size and the solid content of the prepared polymers increased as the content of the nano-silica increased while gloss and drying time of the resulting polymer film decreased. Tanning buffalo hide by Polymer F (containing a high content of nano-silica) gave desirable properties in terms of tensile strength, thermal stability and shrinkage temperature.

Research limitations/implications

This paper discusses the preparation and the characterisation of emulsion polymers with in situ nano-silica and their application in tanning process to enhance and improve the leather quality, as well as reduce the use of chrome tanning materials and consequently chrome tanning waste.

Practical implications

The tanned leather showed an improvement of physico-mechanical properties and enhancement of thermal stability. Furthermore, the tanned leather has uniform colour, softness and firmness of grain. All these promising results provide evidence to support the applicability of the prepared co-polymer/nano-silica emulsions as an efficient tanning agent that also provides lubricating properties for leather.

Originality/value

Since May 2015, REACH Annex XVII restricts Cr(VI) in leather articles or leather parts of articles that come into contact with skin to a concentration of less than 3 mg/kg. Cases of discovery of Cr(VI) in leather papers have been reported by the European rapid alert system on dangerous consumer products (RAPEX). The emulsion poly (methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) with in situ nano-silica that has been developed via the study reported in this paper is one of the better technologies for the reduction of chromium ratio used in tanning industry.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Content available
Article

Wei Zhang, Jiming Yao and Shuo Wang

The purpose of this paper is to invent a new functional coated fabric based on nanomaterials to shield UV and IR. Multifunctional surface coatings with ultraviolet…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to invent a new functional coated fabric based on nanomaterials to shield UV and IR. Multifunctional surface coatings with ultraviolet (UV)/near infrared radiations protection and waterproof were widely applied in outdoor fabrics. Herein, ultrafine TiO2 and nano-antimony doped tin dioxide (ATO) were prepared and embedded into water-based polyurethane (PU) coatings and then coated on the nylon fabric.

Design/methodology/approach

ATO was prepared using the sol–gel method and the two powders were dispersed by ball milling. The results of zeta potential and particle size distribution showed that the ultrafine TiO2 and nano-ATO could be stably dispersed in water at pH 8 with the presence of sodium polycarboxylate. The optimal process was screened out by orthogonal design and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV protection, thermal insulation and water-pressure resistance were tested. SEM images indicated the nanoparticles could be uniformly dispersed in the coatings.

Findings

The effect of UV prevention can get to UPF > 50, UVA < 5 per cent, which meet up with the AATCC 183-2014. Coatings can effectively lower the temperature of fabric surface by 8∼9ºC through the self-made closed test system and by 3ºC through the open test system.

Originality/value

These PU coatings are environment-friendly and adhesive to impart waterproof, UV-proof and thermal insulation properties to nylon fabrics by coating finishing.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article

Mangesh Teli and Bhagyashri N. Annaldewar

The purpose of this paper is to prepare coloured superhydrophobic and ultraviolet (UV) protective nylon fabrics using nanosilica copper oxide coating.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare coloured superhydrophobic and ultraviolet (UV) protective nylon fabrics using nanosilica copper oxide coating.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, brown coloured superhydrophobic nylon fabric exhibiting UV protective properties was prepared by step-wise deposition of silica nanoparticles, copper oxide and sodium stearate. The hydrophobicity of treated fabrics was characterised by water contact angle measurement and UV protection properties of fabric were assessed by Australian/New Zealand Standard. Also, a colouring effect of treatment on nylon fabric was measured using spectrophotometer.

Findings

The modified fabric not only exhibited superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 150.6°, but also rendered excellent protection against UV radiation. The fabric showed retention of hydrophobic and UV protection properties up to 20 washing cycles.

Originality/value

A novel method for imparting superhydrophobicity and UV protective properties along with colouration effect on nylon fabrics has been reported. This type of fabric has potential application in the field of protective clothing.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Z.Y. Sun, G. Xie, X.D. Bai and Y.J. Chen

The purpose of this paper is to study the preparation and characterisation of poly(p‐phenylene vinylene), PPV/TiO2 photoluminescent (PL) nanofibres, and the causes of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the preparation and characterisation of poly(p‐phenylene vinylene), PPV/TiO2 photoluminescent (PL) nanofibres, and the causes of the blue‐shift in PL spectrum of the as‐prepared composite nanofibres.

Design/methodology/approach

A simple method coupling sol‐gel method and electrospinning technology was used to prepare PPV/TiO2 nanofibres from precursory PPV solution.

Findings

Small‐angle X‐ray diffractometer showed that the nano‐TiO2 was mainly amorphous in composite nanofibres. The PL spectrum of the composite nanofibres confirmed the conclusion that there was a slight blue‐shift in the PL spectrum owing to the existence of TiO2 nanoparticles.

Research limitations/implications

The nanofibres collected aligned in random orientation, if parallel nanofibres were obtained. Practical applications will be effected.

Practical implications

The electrospinning method provides an effective strategy for preparing polymer composite nanomaterials.

Originality/value

Composite nanofibres will have potential applications for green optical/electric devices such as LEDs, sensors, transducers and flat panel displays.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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