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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Pragnya Kanade and Bharat H. Patel

The main purpose of taking up this work was to see the influence of metallic nanoparticles on various fabric properties. This paper emphasizes on mechanical, aesthetic and…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of taking up this work was to see the influence of metallic nanoparticles on various fabric properties. This paper emphasizes on mechanical, aesthetic and anti-bacterial properties of the polyester, cotton and polyester cotton-blended fabric samples.

Design/methodology/approach

Three fabrics, 100 per cent polyester, 100 per cent cotton and polyester cotton-blended (50:50), were procured from the market. They were subjected to mild washing treatment so that the fabrics could be impregnated with copper (Cu) nanoparticles following standard procedure. The characterization of Cu nano-loaded textiles has been done using various techniques such as scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology, X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for chemical composition. However in this paper, the focus is on various fabric properties and influence of this treatment on them. Antimicrobial activity was measured as per AATCC 100 quantitative method.

Findings

The structural properties showed changes but not major ones. The impregnation of Cu nanoparticles is nothing but a chemical treatment, and it is not uncommon to find reduction in the mechanical properties of the specimen. Here also, the mechanical properties were studied but did not reveal any significant change. The aesthetic properties for cotton fabrics showed an improvement. Improvement in the anti-bacterial activity was observed for all the fabric samples but the improvement in cotton fabric is worth mentioning. Thus, nano treatment imparts anti-bacterial property without hampering the mechanical properties of the parent textiles.

Research limitations/implications

It is usual to find changes in the various properties of the materials subjected to nano treatment or treatment of any sort. Though the fabric samples were subjected to similar treatment, the quantity of nanoparticles taken up by each of them was different. The reason behind this could be the difference in the crystallinity of the fabric samples. Polyester fabric showed the highest resistance, as it was least affected by the nano treatment given. Cotton fabrics composed of cotton fibers are amorphous in nature, hence showed better take-up and hence were more affected by the said treatment.

Practical implications

Cotton fabrics are the most favored fabric, especially in regions with hot climatic conditions. Even though these fabrics are very sought after, they have a major drawback related to the aesthetic appeal of the fabric. These fabrics have very poor resistance to the crease formation, as well as their ability to recover from the external deformation. But the study conducted on the fabric samples has shown favorable results for the cotton fabric. A significant improvement in their aesthetic and anti-bacterial activity was found. At present, textiles with nano finishing fall in niche market due to its higher cost. But finishing with in-house Cu nanoparticles may open up hygiene textiles for consumers at affordable rates.

Social implications

Cotton is still the most popular natural fiber in most of the tropical and sub-tropical regions. People located in these places have a natural urge to wear fabrics made from cotton fibers. Due to the hot weather, sweating is natural. However, this tends to keep the skin in humid state resulting in various skin problems, as cotton is also prone to bacterial attack. But this work has shown positive results, meaning to say that cotton fabrics show improved resistance to the bacterial activity. Hence, its suitability for hygiene applications may soon become a reality.

Originality/value

It is true that a lot of work is being reported on nano materials and their application to textiles for various reasons. Recently, many reports are available related to finishing of textiles using nanoparticles. However, most of the researchers are using silver nanoparticles for the same. In this work, use of in-house Cu nanoparticles has been done to treat fabric samples, which is more economical than silver nano. Also quantity required to meet desired property with Cu nanoparticles is less than the conventional treatment. This work is a sincere attempt to prepare hygienic common textiles at economical rates using continuous application technique which offers durable efficacy against human pathogenic bacterium.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Fawzia Fahim Abdel‐Mohsen and Hassan Salah Aly Emira

This work aimed to prepare black transition metal oxide pigments to be used as solar absorbers in the solar selective and other industrial paints.

Abstract

Purpose

This work aimed to prepare black transition metal oxide pigments to be used as solar absorbers in the solar selective and other industrial paints.

Design/methodology/approach

Mixed metal oxide CoCuMnOx spinel pigments were synthesised via the sol‐gel route. These oxides, namely (I‐Co0.50Cu0.25Mn0.25)Ox, (II‐Co0.25Cu0.50Mn0.25)Ox and (III‐Co0.25Cu0.25Mn0.50)Ox, were prepared with different molar ratios and annealed at 600, 800 and 900°C, respectively. The prepared oxides were characterised by infrared spectrometer (IS), differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM).

Findings

The prepared pigments have a spinel structure with the composition CoCuMnOx. All synthesised pigments consisted of nano particles ranged from 10 to 80 nm. The optical properties showed high absorption and moderately low reflectance in the solar wavelength range.

Research limitations/implications

The prepared samples, used in the present work, were synthesized from cobalt sulphate, copper chloride and manganese chloride. The salts were dispersed in polyacrylamide as a precursor.

Practical implications

The prepared samples were thermally stable and had good optical properties. They could be used as absorber materials in the painting of solar collectors.

Originality/value

These thermally stable mixed metal oxides could be used in the painting of solar collectors. The three mixed metal oxides could be used as absorber materials for heating solar collectors due to their high absorption and moderately low reflectance in the solar wavelength range.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2022

Suparna Banerjee and Prosenjit Mukherjee

Nanotechnology is nowadays very much successful in producing specifically functionalized nano-sized particles. In this work, copper nanoparticles were prepared by…

Abstract

Nanotechnology is nowadays very much successful in producing specifically functionalized nano-sized particles. In this work, copper nanoparticles were prepared by reduction method which is greener and environmentally suitable, cheap and best as compared to other conventional methods, particularly in the context of COVID in globalized world. The formation and size of copper nanoparticles was evidenced by the X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The very high surface area of 35–50 m2/gm and very small crystallite sizes of 5–15 nm of these metal nanoparticles is mainly responsible for their effective involvement in removal of carbon dioxide gas as one of major hazardous pollutants from the environment. This chapter, as its main objective, mainly focuses on utility of nano technology and its beneficiary in creating a sustainable environment in economic world. Apart from laboratory experimental procedure and characterizations for preparation of copper nanoparticles, appropriate research methods such as simple statistical, econometric tools and mathematical tools have been used for economic analysis. However, as major findings of the results, developed countries have been successful in maintaining a sustainable human development, in spite of having higher per capita income (PCI) growth as compared to the role of developing countries with lower PCI in this global world.

Details

Globalization, Income Distribution and Sustainable Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-870-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2020

Asfandyar Khan, Ahsan Nazir, Abdur Rehman, Maryam Naveed, Munir Ashraf, Kashif Iqbal, Abdul Basit and Hafiz Shahzad Maqsood

This review deals with the pros and cons of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on human beings and the role of textile clothing and the chemicals used for textiles to protect from…

Abstract

Purpose

This review deals with the pros and cons of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on human beings and the role of textile clothing and the chemicals used for textiles to protect from their harmful effects.

Design/methodology/approach

UV radiation (UVR) which has further divided into UVA, UVB, and UVC. Almost 100% of UVC and major portion of UVB are bounced back to stratosphere by ozone layer while UVA enters the earth atmosphere. Excessive exposure of solar or artificial UVR exhibit potential risks to human health. UVR is a major carcinogen and excessive exposure of solar radiation in sunlight can cause cancer in the lip, skin squamous cell, basal cell and cutaneous melanoma, particularly in people with the fair skin.

Findings

This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the harmful effects of UVR on human skin, factors affecting UV irradiance and factors affecting UV protection offered by textile clothing.

Originality/value

Effect of fiber properties, yarn properties, fabric construction, fabric treatments and laundering has been reviewed along with the identification of gaps in the reported research. A comparison of inorganic and organic UV absorbers has also been given along with different testing and evaluation methods for UV protective clothing.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2010

Rabindra N. Das, Frank D. Egitto and Voya R. Markovich

Material formulation, structuring and modification are key to increasing the unit volume complexity and density of next generation electronic packaging products. Laser…

Abstract

Purpose

Material formulation, structuring and modification are key to increasing the unit volume complexity and density of next generation electronic packaging products. Laser processing is finding an increasing number of applications in the fabrication of these advanced microelectronic devices. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of new laser‐processing capabilities involving the synthesis and optimization of materials for tunable device applications.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper focuses on the application of laser processing to two specific material areas, namely thin films and nanocomposite films. The examples include BaTiO3‐based thin films and BaTiO3 polymer‐based nanocomposites.

Findings

A variety of new regular and random 3D surface patterns are highlighted. A frequency‐tripled Nd:YAG laser operating at a wavelength of 355 nm is used for the micromachining study. The micromachining is used to make various patterned surface morphologies. Depending on the laser fluence used, one can form a “wavy,” random 3D structure, or an array of regular 3D patterns. Furthermore, the laser was used to generate free‐standing nano and micro particles from thin film surfaces. In the case of BaTiO3 polymer‐based nanocomposites, micromachining is used to generate arrays of variable‐thickness capacitors. The resultant thickness of the capacitors depends on the number of laser pulses applied. Micromachining is also used to make long, deep, multiple channels in capacitance layers. When these channels are filled with metal, the spacings between two metallized channels acted as individual vertical capacitors, and parallel connection eventually produce vertical multilayer capacitors. For a given volume of capacitor material, theoretical capacitance calculations are made for variable channel widths and spacings. For comparison, calculations are also made for a “normal” capacitor, that is, a horizontal capacitor having a single pair of electrodes.

Research limitations/implications

This technique can be used to prepare capacitors of various thicknesses from the same capacitance layer, and ultimately can produce variable capacitance density, or a library of capacitors. The process is also capable of making vertical 3D multilayer embedded capacitors from a single capacitance layer. The capacitance benefit of the vertical multilayer capacitors is more pronounced for thicker capacitance layers. The application of a laser processing approach can greatly enhance the utility and optimization of new materials and the devices formed from them.

Originality/value

Laser micromaching technology is developed to fabricate several new structures. It is possible to synthesize nano and micro particles from thin film surfaces. Laser micromachining can produce a variety of random, as well as regular, 3D patterns. As the demand grows for complex multifunctional embedded components for advanced organic packaging, laser micromachining will continue to provide unique opportunities.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Anna Modrzejewska‐Sikorska, Filip Ciesielczyk and Teofil Jesionowski

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new method of synthesis of CuO · SiO2 oxide composite based on the reaction of precipitation from water solutions of sodium…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new method of synthesis of CuO · SiO2 oxide composite based on the reaction of precipitation from water solutions of sodium silicate and copper nitrate.

Design/methodology/approach

Solutions of sodium silicate and copper nitrate were used as substrates. The effects of direction of substrate supply, concentration, excess of reagents and temperature of precipitation on the physicochemical properties of the products were analysed.

Findings

A new method of synthesis of CuO · SiO2 oxide composite based on a precipitation reaction is proposed.

Research limitations/implications

Only sodium silicate and copper nitrate solutions were used.

Practical implications

The CuO · SiO2 oxide composite obtained can be used as blue pigment or polymer filler.

Originality/value

The paper determines optimum conditions of CuO · SiO2 oxide composite precipitation to obtain products with desired physicochemical, dispersive and structural properties.

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2018

A.G. Mohan Das Gandhi, K. Soorya Prakash and V. Kavimani

This paper aims to examine the investigations made on the corrosion behaviour of magnesium (Mg) substrate electrodeposited using different nano-materials.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the investigations made on the corrosion behaviour of magnesium (Mg) substrate electrodeposited using different nano-materials.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses nano-materials such as those of reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), titanium-di-oxide (TiO2) and also r-GO/TiO2 nano-composites (dispersed through ultra-sonication process) at 3-min time interval. Crystalline nature of synthesized TiO2 is studied through X-ray diffraction and its pore volume is measured to be approximately 0.1851ccg-1 by Brunauer Emmett Teller analysis.

Findings

Surface morphology of the developed set of specimens inspected through scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy establishes a clean surface coating and further witnesses for only minimal defects. Electrochemical behaviour of the developed coating is studied exhaustively using Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.1 M Na2SO4 solution.

Originality/value

Incremental corrosion resistance exhibited by developed composite coating owes to the factors viz. chemical stability and hydrophobic tendency of TiO2 and r-GO; these known engineering facts resist the flow of ions into the corrosive media and thereby reduce the rate of corrosion.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 65 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Hussein Marey Mahmoud

This contribution aims to introduce an effective low cost polymer-nanocomposite for possible application to achieve a super protection for highly damaged ancient Egyptian…

Abstract

Purpose

This contribution aims to introduce an effective low cost polymer-nanocomposite for possible application to achieve a super protection for highly damaged ancient Egyptian wall paintings.

Design/methodology/approach

SiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Then, the polymer-nanocomposite was prepared by simple mixing and dispersing the nanoparticles into the tetraethoxysilane polymer solution, with the aid of an ultrasonic dismembrator. The application of the polymer-nanocomposite and other polymeric nanodispersions, on laboratory models, was performed by the brushing technique. Next, the materials stability was evaluated by means of digital optical microscope, colorimetry, FE-scanning electron microscope, measuring the static contact angle and water absorption rates.

Findings

The results were promising in creating a superhydrophobicity and the static contact angle (?S) measured for the polymer-nanocomposite reached 135o. An average of three measurements of the water absorption rate after polymer-nanocomposite treatment was 0.66 g/m2 s, compared to 2.60 g/m2 s for the control model (untreated). Further, an average of color difference (?E*) for the treated surface was 2.78, and after the accelerated thermal aging was 3.6. Observing the surface morphology, the polymer-nanocomposite enhanced the roughness of the treated surface and showed a high resistance to laboratory salt weathering.

Practical implications

Preparation of a polymer-nanocomposite by adding SiO2 and Al2O3 NPs to tetraethoxysilane polymer has been proposed. As a promising conservation material, the produced polymer-nanocomposite helped to form an efficient protective film.

Originality/value

This paper attains to develop an economic polymer-nanocomposite to maintain a high protection to damaged ancient Egyptian wall paintings and similar objects.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 51 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 June 2021

Saira Faisal, Shenela Naqvi, Muhammad Ali and Long Lin

Among various metal oxide nano particles, MgO NPs and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in particular are gaining increasing attention due to their multifunctional characteristics…

Abstract

Purpose

Among various metal oxide nano particles, MgO NPs and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in particular are gaining increasing attention due to their multifunctional characteristics, low cost and compatibility with textile materials. Each type of nanoparticle excels over others in certain properties. As such, it is often crucial to carry out comparative studies of NPs to identify the one showing higher efficiency/output for particular applications of textile products.

Design/methodology/approach

In the investigation reported in this paper, ZnO NPs and MgO NPs were synthesised via sol-gel technique and characterised. For comparative analysis, the synthesised NPs were evaluated for multiple properties using standard procedures before and after being applied on cotton fabrics by a dip-pad-dry-cure method.

Findings

XRD and FTIR analyses confirmed the successful synthesis of ZnO and MgO NPs. Homogeneous formation of desired NPs and their dense and uniform deposition on the cotton fibre surface were observed using SEM. ZnO NPs and MgO NPs coatings on cotton were observed to significantly enhance self-cleaning/stain removal properties achieving Grade 5 and Grade 4 categories, respectively. In terms of ultraviolet (UV) protection, ZnO or MgO NP coated fabrics showed UPF values of greater than 50, i.e. excellent in blocking UV rays. MgO NPs exhibited 20% cleaning efficiency in treating reactive dye wastewater against ZnO NPs which were 4% efficient in the same treatment, so MgO was more suitable for such type of treatments at low cost. Both NPs were able to impart multifunctionality to cotton fabrics as per requirement of the end products. However, ZnO NPs were better for stain removal from the fabrics while MgO NPs were appropriate for UV blocking.

Originality/value

It was therefore clear that multifunctional textile products could be developed by employing a single type of cost effective and efficient nano particles.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 51 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 April 2020

Abd El-Wahab H., Farouk Abd El-Monem, Naser M.A., Hussain A.I., Elshhat H.A. Nashy and Lin L.

The purpose of this paper is devoted to application of the emulsion polymer of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) prepared with in situ nano-silica as a novel…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is devoted to application of the emulsion polymer of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) prepared with in situ nano-silica as a novel tanning agent of hide to partly or totally replace chrome salt and to improve physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the tanned leather and to reduce the environmental impact of chrome tanning effluent.

Design/methodology/approach

Polymer/nano-silica hybrid emulsions were prepared via in situ seed emulsion polymerisation. The prepared polymers were characterised for solid content, molecular weight, viscosity, drying time, minimum film-forming temperature (MFFT) and microstructures (via transmission electron microscopy). The mechanical, thermal and surface morphological (by scanning electron microscope) properties of the treated samples were also investigated. The influences of the increase in the content of organic nano-silica on the properties of the tanned leather are discussed.

Findings

It was found that the viscosity, the particle size and the solid content of the prepared polymers increased as the content of the nano-silica increased while gloss and drying time of the resulting polymer film decreased. Tanning buffalo hide by Polymer F (containing a high content of nano-silica) gave desirable properties in terms of tensile strength, thermal stability and shrinkage temperature.

Research limitations/implications

This paper discusses the preparation and the characterisation of emulsion polymers with in situ nano-silica and their application in tanning process to enhance and improve the leather quality, as well as reduce the use of chrome tanning materials and consequently chrome tanning waste.

Practical implications

The tanned leather showed an improvement of physico-mechanical properties and enhancement of thermal stability. Furthermore, the tanned leather has uniform colour, softness and firmness of grain. All these promising results provide evidence to support the applicability of the prepared co-polymer/nano-silica emulsions as an efficient tanning agent that also provides lubricating properties for leather.

Originality/value

Since May 2015, REACH Annex XVII restricts Cr(VI) in leather articles or leather parts of articles that come into contact with skin to a concentration of less than 3 mg/kg. Cases of discovery of Cr(VI) in leather papers have been reported by the European rapid alert system on dangerous consumer products (RAPEX). The emulsion poly (methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) with in situ nano-silica that has been developed via the study reported in this paper is one of the better technologies for the reduction of chromium ratio used in tanning industry.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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