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Peter J. Baldacchino, Elena Marie’ Gatt and Simon Grima

In this chapter the authors identified and discussed the most significant barriers faced by cooperative movements in Malta, providing recommendations for potential…

Abstract

In this chapter the authors identified and discussed the most significant barriers faced by cooperative movements in Malta, providing recommendations for potential solutions. Primary data for this research were collected through the use of semi-structured interviews with a selection of 18 representatives of the small current Maltese cooperative movement, most of whom are active either in individual cooperatives (16) and/or in the cooperative institutions (five).

Findings indicated that the most significant problems are the lack of education and awareness regarding the cooperative movement. These are closely followed by the divide within the movement itself, which is also hindering further development of Maltese cooperatives. Therefore, for the movement to grow and develop, one must first tackle the lack of education and awareness of this business model. Furthermore, in order for the movement to reach its full potential there must be cooperation amongst cooperatives, leading to the appropriate environment for growth.

Through the identification of these significant barriers, targeted action may be recommended and taken so as to reduce, if not eliminate, these barriers and thereby help the Maltese cooperative movement flourish.

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Governance and Regulations’ Contemporary Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-815-6

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Book part

Carla Young

Scholarship on alternative organizations and cooperatives has argued that networks and intermediaries foster organizational form stability and protect…

Abstract

Scholarship on alternative organizations and cooperatives has argued that networks and intermediaries foster organizational form stability and protect collectivist-democratic organizations from rationalization as well as decoupling. This study of field-level organizing among food co-ops in the United States shows that rather than buffering collectivist organizations from conventional market and rationalization pressures, meta-organizations can also serve as a conduit for rationalizing pressures, subjecting vulnerable organizations to what I call quasi-coercive isomorphism. Using interviews of field participants, ethnographic observations of conferences, and content analysis of organizational documents, I examine the formation and impact of National Co+op Grocers, a meta-cooperative created to leverage scale and pool resources among food co-ops. I find that this meta-organization enforced grocery industry-oriented norms of operation, management, and presentation among its member organizations in return for providing mutual liability and economies of scale. This focus on select operationally scalable processes and structures for support generated isomorphic pressures that exposed, rather than sheltered, co-ops, especially smaller, resource-poor ones, from industry standards. The meta-organization thus promoted a sectorized model of more marketized practices for the field’s cooperatives that pushed co-ops to adopt conventional grocery store practices and distanced them from the practices of other cooperative form fields. Moreover, the potential of cooperative form-specific elements for scaling was not realized: collective ownership and democratic governance remained local concerns. These findings suggest that whether meso-level cooperation among cooperatives can support alternative form maintenance is contingent on the structure and scope of the meta-organization and on the perceived scalability of operational and governance elements of the cooperative organizational form.

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Organizational Imaginaries: Tempering Capitalism and Tending to Communities through Cooperatives and Collectivist Democracy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-989-7

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Article

Elin Gardeström

This study aims to analyze the use of two concepts, propaganda and advertisement, in two areas of Swedish society during the 1930s; first, their use by the advertisement…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the use of two concepts, propaganda and advertisement, in two areas of Swedish society during the 1930s; first, their use by the advertisement business, and second, their use by the Swedish Cooperative Union and Wholesale Society.

Design/methodology/approach

By adopting a perspective of conceptual history, inspired by Reinhart Koselleck, the author is trying to pinpoint the meanings that were ascribed to these concepts in a 1930s context, the interdependency between these concepts and other keywords that were used in connection with them.

Findings

The study reveals how the ambiguous and synonymous use of these concepts served different purposes in the two fields of study. In the 1930s, propaganda was a key concept of communication and was used in manifold ways for selling goods and disseminating ideas. Propaganda was used to explain the newly introduced American marketing terminology. During the 1930s, the field of advertisement was trying to change what previously had been labeled as “idea propaganda” into “advertisement.” The ambiguous use of concepts made it possible for the Swedish Cooperative Union and Wholesale Society to combine advertisement for their produced goods with disseminating ideas of the cooperative ideology. The concepts of enlightenment (upplysning) and propaganda were crucial to hold together the ideological and commercial parts of the cooperative movement.

Originality/value

The interaction of meanings between commercial and political concepts is rarely researched in conceptual history or marketing history, which this article advocates to be an important field of study.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Zurina Shafii, Rose Ruziana Samad and Rochania Ayu Yunanda

Cooperatives are formed with the idea of cooperation. Due to their features, cooperatives have the potential to address the issue of poverty alleviation and improvement in…

Abstract

Cooperatives are formed with the idea of cooperation. Due to their features, cooperatives have the potential to address the issue of poverty alleviation and improvement in income distribution, which currently is the central focus of governments' economic policy making. Currently, Islamic cooperatives or shari'ah-based cooperatives have also been developing well. Shari'ah-based cooperative is essentially the transformation of conventional cooperative through an approach in line with the Shari'ah principles. It could be one of the best solutions in supporting Islamic banking and finance for unbankable customers. This chapter describes the development of cooperatives in Malaysia and Indonesia. The chapter also discusses the need for cooperative governance and highlights the features of cooperatives that results to their governance is more complex that the governance of business organisations. This chapter also highlights laws, regulation and shari'ah governance measures taken by both jurisdictions to promote growth of shari'ah-based cooperatives.

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Research in Corporate and Shari’ah Governance in the Muslim World: Theory and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-007-4

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Article

John Pencavel

The purpose is to evaluate the performance of consumers' cooperatives in the United States over the last 100 years. This evaluation is based on an overlooked series of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose is to evaluate the performance of consumers' cooperatives in the United States over the last 100 years. This evaluation is based on an overlooked series of surveys undertaken by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics between 1920 and 1950. Where possible, the series are brought up to date.

Design/methodology/approach

The surveys did not follow a single consistent organization. Therefore, the observations require rearrangement so that a single meaningful design is achieved.

Findings

In a number of instances, consumers' cooperatives have not merely survived but thrived. Indeed, some of their original and continuing methods of operation have been copied and adopted by firms that are not cooperatives.

Originality/value

The series constructed are original and singular. The author knows of no such comparable data.

Details

Journal of Participation and Employee Ownership, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-7641

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Book part

Ajibola Anthony Akanji

The phenomenon of globalization is a popular and controversial issue that has many facets. According to Lee and Vivarelli 2006), most conversations around globalization…

Abstract

The phenomenon of globalization is a popular and controversial issue that has many facets. According to Lee and Vivarelli 2006), most conversations around globalization tend to describe it in terms of increase in trade and liberalization policies and reduction in transportation costs and technology transfer. Heine and Thakur (2011) opine on globalization as follows:

Many regard globalization as both a desirable and an irreversible engine of commerce that will underpin growing prosperity and a higher standard of living throughout the world. Others recoil from it as the soft underbelly of corporate imperialism that plunders and profiteers on the basis of unrestrained consumerism. (p. 2)

Many regard globalization as both a desirable and an irreversible engine of commerce that will underpin growing prosperity and a higher standard of living throughout the world. Others recoil from it as the soft underbelly of corporate imperialism that plunders and profiteers on the basis of unrestrained consumerism. (p. 2)

The Brundtland Report (1987) was put together in response to agitations over such loses/discontents. This report gave birth to what unarguably is the most popular concept in sustainable development. The Report features the integration of the concerns about strands of development as experienced and as projected across divides, as well as concerns about their interrelationship, and effects on people and the environment. It seeks to reconcile the future with current developments. The recommendations of the report in the end materialized into the millennium development goals (MDGs) in January 2000, which in turn metamorphosed into the sustainable development goals (SDGs) in January 2016. The bulk of the SDGs are to be achieved in the global-south as countries within this categorization including Nigeria have more to do within their territories in order to ensure its actualization. One of the major challenges facing the SDGs in Nigeria is institutionalizing mobilization for the actualization of the goals. Against this backdrop, the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) was launched to bring on board academic institutions, civil societies, non-governmental organizations, and businesses, and mobilize their activities into fewer but more efficient units.

This chapter contextually explores the purpose and roles of the SDSN in Nigeria, and conceptualizes how it will play out for both sustainable development and qualitative participation in globalization. It identified and explored the interface between the three variables of universities: cooperativism, cooperatives, cooperation, and solidarity economics; communities as integral to the actualization of the SDGs; and proportionate participation in globalization. Deficiencies were identified, and remedial actions proffered.

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University Partnerships for Sustainable Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-643-4

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Article

Janusz Grygieńć

The purpose of this paper is to study the main determinants of the development of social economy in Poland; introduction to Polish socio-economic system, and identifying…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the main determinants of the development of social economy in Poland; introduction to Polish socio-economic system, and identifying the institutional and cultural barriers to its development.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the paper presents the historical and institutional determinants of Polish social economy; second, it sets out the problems faced by post-transitional social economy. The approach to this issue takes a diversified form: it includes a political science approach (in describing the institutional determinants of social economy), a sociological approach (when it refers to sociological surveys and studies of Polish society), and a philosophical analysis (in considering the normative implications of introducing socio-economic institutions, describing their advantages and disadvantages).

Findings

The theses of the paper state that: first, in the case of social economy, the Polish legal system anticipates social consciousness; in consequence, it does not contribute significantly to an increase in the number of socio-economic enterprises; second, institutional barriers to socio-economic development are derivative of cultural barriers.

Research limitations/implications

The subject of the paper helps to explain and analyze Poland’s transformation.

Practical implications

Recommendations for further development of social economy in Poland given as a conclusion to the paper.

Originality/value

The paper combines descriptive and normative accounts of Polish social economy, summarizing its character and limitations as those have been identified by major Polish scholars, adding two theses not previously found in the scholarly literature, and presenting practical recommendations for development of social economy in Poland.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Ana Colovic and Sonia Mehrotra

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how a local trade union improves living conditions for women entrepreneurs in India and how its activities have evolved over time.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how a local trade union improves living conditions for women entrepreneurs in India and how its activities have evolved over time.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a longitudinal case study of the self-employed women’s association (SEWA) in India. Founded in 1972, this organization fosters and supports women’s entrepreneurship. The approach of this study combines qualitative face-to-face interviews and secondary data analysis.

Findings

The findings highlight the fact that SEWA, which combines the features of a trade union and a social movement, improves women’s conditions in several different ways. The study shows that the organization’s main role has evolved from creating a community to expanding it and finally to becoming an agent of societal change.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature by analyzing how locally grown organizations fight social exclusion and improve the conditions of deprived groups in emerging economies.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Book part

Michel Roux

Purpose – This chapter aims to show the similarities and differences that can be found in the destiny of cooperative banks and mutual insurance companies; these two…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter aims to show the similarities and differences that can be found in the destiny of cooperative banks and mutual insurance companies; these two industries, for reasons both similar and specific, are now “at a crossroads.” To reinforce this, we begin by tracing the history of cooperative banks and mutual insurance companies to better inform the future. Cooperative banks and mutual insurance gradually secularized and out of corporatism have patiently built-in different ways depending on the network as opposed to companies.

Results – This chapter will pursue these observations by identifying the impacts of recent crises in shaping business models by questioning a central issue which is that the trap values meet performance requirements in a fierce competition. Then, this chapter will end with the discussion on the main challenges faced by the mutual sphere; «She» should be replaced by «it». Could it exert a role in the crisis?

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Recent Developments in Alternative Finance: Empirical Assessments and Economic Implications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-399-5

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Article

Eugene Remy Rwamigabo

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the context, the concept and the main types of social enterprises in Rwanda, and to present its main institutional and contextual…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the context, the concept and the main types of social enterprises in Rwanda, and to present its main institutional and contextual trajectories.

Design/methodology/approach

The author carried out a literature review and interviews. Six categories were identified; each one is illustrated by one emblematic case.

Findings

The paper presents the evolution of economically oriented social organizations in Rwanda, mostly under the form of cooperatives and NGOs and with inspiration from traditional forms of mutual help. The context of emergence of social enterprise in Rwanda was shaped, among other factors, by Anglo-Saxon influence. Other factors include notably the aftermath of the 1994 genocide against Tutsi, the current governance prevailing in the country and the current entrepreneurships trends. The paper also underlines the absence of research on the subject in Rwanda. Six categories of social enterprises in Rwanda and their main features have been identified and analyzed, namely, NGOs, cooperatives, informal organizations, social entrepreneurs, public/private partnerships and companies carrying out social activities. Finally, the paper analyzes the institutional and contextual trajectories of social enterprise in Rwanda.

Originality/value

The paper explores and provides insights into the specificities and the current trends of social enterprise in Rwanda with a view to fostering further analysis for several research avenues.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

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