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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2017

Xiaoming Zhang, Kai Li, Chongchong Zhao and Dongyu Pan

With the increasing spread of ontologies in various domains, units have gradually become an essential part of ontologies and units ontologies have been developed to offer…

Abstract

Purpose

With the increasing spread of ontologies in various domains, units have gradually become an essential part of ontologies and units ontologies have been developed to offer a better expression ability for the practical usage. From the perspectives of architecture, comparison and reuse, the purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive survey on four mainstream units ontologies: quantity-unit-dimension-type, quantities, units, dimensions and values, ontology of units of measure and units ontology (UO) of the open biomedical ontologies, in order to address well the state of the art and the reuse strategies of the UO.

Design/methodology/approach

An architecture of units ontologies is presented, in which the relations between key factors (i.e. units of measure, quantity and dimension) are discussed. The criteria for comparing units ontologies are developed from the perspectives of organizational structure, pattern design and application scenario. Then, the authors compare four typical units ontologies based on the proposed comparison criteria. Furthermore, how to reuse these units ontologies is discussed in materials science domain by utilizing two reuse strategies of partial reference and complete reference.

Findings

Units ontologies have attracted high attention in the scientific domain. Based on the comparison of four popular units ontologies, this paper finds that different units ontologies have different design features from the perspectives of basis structure, units conversion and axioms design; a UO is better to be applied to the application areas that satisfy its design features; and many challenges remain to be done in the future research of the UO.

Originality/value

This paper makes an extensive review on units ontologies, by defining the comparison criteria and discussing the reuse strategies in the materials domain. Based on this investigation, guidelines are summarized for the selection and reuse of units ontologies.

Details

Program, vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Philippe Byosiere and Denise J. Luethge

The purpose of this paper is to present evidence of how different domains of knowledge (basic, experiential, emotional and innovative knowledge) relate to knowledge

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present evidence of how different domains of knowledge (basic, experiential, emotional and innovative knowledge) relate to knowledge conversion processes (socialization, externalization, combination and internalization) in the firm.

Design/methodology/approach

Confirmatory principal component analyses were performed on knowledge domain and knowledge conversion variables. Path analyses, based on stepwise multiple regressions, were performed in order to determine the strength and directionality of the relationships between the four processes of knowledge conversion and the four knowledge domains.

Findings

The results indicate that knowledge based on experience impacts the conversion of tacit knowledge within an organization, leading to innovative knowledge and competitive advantage. Emotional knowledge impacts the knowledge conversion process similarly. Only basic knowledge impacts the explicit components of combination.

Research limitations/implications

First, the results of this study are drawn from a fairly large sample in only one firm, and hence, one industry. Not all of the middle managers who participated in this study are equally familiar with knowledge creation and dissemination within their organization.

Practical implications

The results suggest that investing in basic training of employees and managers in order to reach a basal level of knowledge can act as a precursor to fuel other types of knowledge conversion as well as the innovative and experiential knowledge domains.

Originality/value

Past research has not examined how the domains of knowledge (the content) are related to the conversion of knowledge. In addition, little research in the area of knowledge conversion has taken place in a European setting. This paper addresses the deficits.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1967

E.J. Richards

IT does not require a very large crystal ball to envisage the growth of aviation during the next fifteen years. Sea travel has become too slow; air travel has become…

Abstract

IT does not require a very large crystal ball to envisage the growth of aviation during the next fifteen years. Sea travel has become too slow; air travel has become reliable and more independent of weather conditions; world trade has forced travel into the remotest areas; industrial countries have become more affluent, and the urge for private world travel has accompanied affluence. It is not surprising, therefore, to hear the Chairman of the British Airport Authority, Peter Masefield, predict a fifteenfold growth in air traffic in the United Kingdom during the next twenty years and to find the F.A.A. confidently anticipating a doubling of passenger traffic in five years and a nine‐fold increase in small jets in the same period.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Zhen Yang, Kangning Song, Xingsheng Gu, Zhi Wang and Xiaoyi Liang

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been considered as primarily responsible for many serious environmental problems. Removing NO is the key task to remove NOx hazards. To clarify…

Abstract

Purpose

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been considered as primarily responsible for many serious environmental problems. Removing NO is the key task to remove NOx hazards. To clarify, NO removal process for pitch-based spherical-activated carbons (PSACs), an online prediction and optimization technique in real-time based on support vector machine algorithm in regression (support vector regression [SVR]) is discussed. The purpose of this paper is to develop a predictor and optimizer system on selective catalytic reduction of NO (SCRN) using experimental data and data-driven SVR intelligence methods.

Design/methodology/approach

Predictor and optimizer using developed SVR have been proposed. To modify the training efficiency of SVR, the authors especially customize batch normalization and k-fold cross-validation techniques according to the unique characteristics of PSACs model.

Findings

The results present that SVR provides a property regression model since it can linkage linear and non-linear process and property relationships in few experimental data sets. Also, the integrated normalization and k-fold cross-validation show a satisfying improvement and results for SVR optimization. The predicted results of predictor and optimizer in single and double factor systems are in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

Originality/value

SCRN-PO for predicting and optimization SCRN problems is developed by data-driven methods. The outperformed SCRN-PO system is used to predict multiple-factors property parameters and obtain optimum technological parameters in real-time. Also, experiment duration is greatly shortened.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2020

Edda Tandi Lwoga and Wallace Chigona

This study aims to assess the contribution of telecenters in expanding the capabilities of rural women to achieve their development outcomes in three rural districts in Tanzania.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess the contribution of telecenters in expanding the capabilities of rural women to achieve their development outcomes in three rural districts in Tanzania.

Design/methodology/approach

The study conducted 12 focus group discussions with 37 rural women users and 36 rural women non-users of telecenters and semi-structured interviews with telecenter managers in the selected districts. The framework for the study is based on Sen’s capability approach.

Findings

The study noted that telecenters may enable rural women to build some capabilities (social, financial, human and political capabilities), and inhibit others, resulting in diverse development outcomes, based on the choices made and conversion factors. These conversion factors included institutional factors (inadequate computers, space and personnel, unreliable electrical power and slow internet connectivity) and individual factors (multiple responsibilities, status, low-level of education, language barrier, lack of information and communication technology (ICT) skills and technology efficacy and inability to afford ICT short courses). Other conversion factors (e.g. availability of affordable ICTs) enabled rural women to build their capabilities.

Originality/value

This is a comprehensive study that provides findings for rural telecenters to plan and allow rural women to expand their capabilities and achieve their development goals in Tanzania or other settings with similar conditions.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. 69 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 24 September 2010

Alla Golub, Thomas W. Hertel, Farzad Taheripour and Wallace E. Tyner

Over the past decade, biofuels production in the European Union and the United States has boomed – much of this due to government mandates and subsidies. The United States…

Abstract

Over the past decade, biofuels production in the European Union and the United States has boomed – much of this due to government mandates and subsidies. The United States has now surpassed Brazil as the world's leading producer of ethanol. The economic and environmental impact of these biofuel programs has become an important question of public policy. Due to the complex intersectoral linkages between biofuels and crops, livestock as well as energy activities, CGE modeling has become an important tool for their analysis. This chapter reviews recent developments in this area of economic analysis and suggests directions for future research.

Details

New Developments in Computable General Equilibrium Analysis for Trade Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-142-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1971

Philip Schary

The log‐normal distribution provides a powerful decision tool for assessing the impact of marketing policies upon inventory allocations.

Abstract

The log‐normal distribution provides a powerful decision tool for assessing the impact of marketing policies upon inventory allocations.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0020-7527

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1932

From what has been said in this journal regarding standards and associated regulations for jams and allied products, it appears that this is the only English‐speaking…

Abstract

From what has been said in this journal regarding standards and associated regulations for jams and allied products, it appears that this is the only English‐speaking country where no standards and no regulations exist for this very important item of the food supply. We manufacture more jam than any other of these countries. We are the greatest consumers, per head of population, of jam. It is therefore a very serious disadvantage to the consumer that it should be left entirely to financially interested persons to formulate their own standards for their own advantage. It would be inexpedient in any case to allow this, but when such “standards” as those we have referred to have been adopted by a great combine, and the products made in conformity with those standards forced on the consumer, a case bad to begin with is made worse. The greater proportion of the jam and marmalade put on the market is either of poor quality or of very poor quality. The poor quality stuff may be labelled “Full Fruit Standard,” and the meaning that is to be attributed to these words is left to the purchaser to find out. We say that this legend is no recommendation, and in saying this we find our opinion to be supported by at least one important member of the combine. One of their labels is before us as we write. The words “This marmalade is guaranteed to conform to the agreed standard of the Food Manufacturers' Federation” is printed in such small type that it is by no means easy to read; it is printed at the very bottom of the label and in such a way that at first glance it appears to be merely an ornamental border. Now the object of making the marmalade is to sell it, and if in the opinion of the makers the words which we have quoted above would aid that sale they would have been conspicuously displayed and printed in large letters on the label. The label also says that the marmalade is made “from … oranges and sugar”; it does not say that it is made from oranges and sugar only. Now this label may be taken as a fair specimen of all the rest. It gives the purchaser no information about that which he is buying, and it is safe to say that not one person in ten thousand knows anything about the “standards” referred to. If the interests of the consumer were fairly balanced against the profits of the manufacturer, a label would read more or less as follows:—“This product conforms to the standard of the Food Manufacturers’ Federation.” “It consists of fresh (name) fruit or fruits and sugar only in the proportions — per cent. fruit and — per cent. sugar.” If there is nothing to fear there is nothing to conceal. Why then is such a label not used?

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Omobowale Ayoola Oni and Temitayo Adenike Adepoju

The purpose of this paper is to use the capability approach to analyse the wellbeing of rural households in Nigeria and determine the factors that influence the wellbeing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use the capability approach to analyse the wellbeing of rural households in Nigeria and determine the factors that influence the wellbeing status reported.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses multidimensional wellbeing of the households in the capability space using data in seven dimensions obtained from the Nigeria Core Welfare Indices Survey of 2006. The wellbeing status of households was derived using the fuzzy set approach, while a logistic regression was used to isolate the factors that determine wellbeing.

Findings

The results of the fuzzy set analysis showed that overall rural households in Nigeria have a low mean wellbeing status at 0.27. Capability to attain a desired state of wellbeing is highest with respect to asset ownership and lowest with respect to security. The logistic analysis shows that the predicted probability of attaining the mean capability wellbeing increases for male headed households, increasing educational level and age of the head, household size, and public service occupation.

Social implications

The paper showed that the capability to attain desired levels of wellbeing increases for dimensions which are key variables in making policies for human capital development, with direct implications for improving wellbeing.

Originality/value

This paper attempts to bridge the knowledge gap in the empirical literature of wellbeing studies and specifically in the use of the capability approach and its application in the Nigerian wellbeing context.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 41 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1932

The Advisory Committee on Nutrition appointed to advise the Minister of Health “on the practical application of modern advances in the knowledge of nutrition,” have drawn…

Abstract

The Advisory Committee on Nutrition appointed to advise the Minister of Health “on the practical application of modern advances in the knowledge of nutrition,” have drawn up and addressed to the Minister of Health a Memorandum on “The Criticism and Improvement of Diets” and a Report on “Diets in Poor Law Children's Homes” as a result of enquiry.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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