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Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2006

Ayse K. Uskul and Daphna Oyserman

We integrate cross-cultural literature with broader literature in survey methodology, human cognition, and communication. First, we briefly review recent work in cognitive…

Abstract

We integrate cross-cultural literature with broader literature in survey methodology, human cognition, and communication. First, we briefly review recent work in cognitive survey methodology that advances our understanding of the processes underlying question comprehension and response. Then, using a process model of cultural influence, we provide a framework for hypothesizing how cross-cultural differences may systematically influence the meaning respondents make of the questions that researchers ask, how memory is organized, and subjective theories about what constitutes an appropriate answer and therefore the answers participants are likely to give.

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National Culture and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-362-4

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Book part
Publication date: 7 July 2015

Markus Plate

Shame is a common, yet seldom acknowledged emotion. Shame signals a threatened social bond in which the claim of as what one wants to be seen (i.e., the claim for a…

Abstract

Shame is a common, yet seldom acknowledged emotion. Shame signals a threatened social bond in which the claim of as what one wants to be seen (i.e., the claim for a certain relational identity and relative status positioning) is neglected by the other party. Using a case study approach, this chapter provides insights into how shame shapes the relationship and leadership structure in organizations. The case used is based on a documentary TV show; hence this chapter also provides insight in the use of visual/TV material to gain insight in relational leadership dynamics.

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New Ways of Studying Emotions in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-220-7

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Miloš Fidler and Dejan Lavbič

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of cooperative principle on the information quality (IQ) by making objects more relevant for consumer needs, in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of cooperative principle on the information quality (IQ) by making objects more relevant for consumer needs, in particular case Wikipedia articles for students.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors performed a quantitative study with participants being invited to complete an online survey. Each rater evaluated three selected and re-written articles from Wikipedia by four IQ dimensions (accuracy, completeness, objectivity, and representation). Grice’s maxims and submaxims were used to re-write articles and make them more relevant for student cognitive needs. The results were analyzed with statistical methods of mean, standard deviation, Cronbach’s α, and ICC (two-way random model of single measure).

Findings

The study demonstrates that Wikipedia articles can be made more relevant for student needs by using cooperative principle with increase in IQ and also achieving higher consistency of students’ scores as recent research. In particular, students in the research perceived the abstract, constructed with cooperative principle, more objective and complete as reported in recent research.

Practical implications

The work can benefit encyclopedia editors to improve IQ of existing articles as well as consumers that would obtain more relevant information in less reading time.

Originality/value

This is one of the first attempts to empirically investigate the application of cooperate principle to make objects more relevant for consumer needs and impact of this on IQ. IQ improvement evidence is provided and impacts on IQ dimensions such as objectivity, completeness, accuracy, and representation for research community to validate and compare results.

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2017

Sille Obelitz Søe

With the outset of automatic detection of information, misinformation, and disinformation, the purpose of this paper is to examine and discuss various conceptions of…

Abstract

Purpose

With the outset of automatic detection of information, misinformation, and disinformation, the purpose of this paper is to examine and discuss various conceptions of information, misinformation, and disinformation within philosophy of information.

Design/methodology/approach

The examinations are conducted within a Gricean framework in order to account for the communicative aspects of information, misinformation, and disinformation as well as the detection enterprise.

Findings

While there often is an exclusive focus on truth and falsity as that which distinguish information from misinformation and disinformation, this paper finds that the distinguishing features are actually intention/intentionality and non-misleadingness/misleadingness – with non-misleadingness/misleadingness as the primary feature. Further, the paper rehearses the argument in favor of a true variety of disinformation and extends this argument to include true misinformation.

Originality/value

The findings are novel and pose a challenge to the possibility of automatic detection of misinformation and disinformation. Especially the notions of true disinformation and true misinformation, as varieties of disinformation and misinformation, which force the true/false dichotomy for information vs mis-/disinformation to collapse.

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Journal of Documentation, vol. 74 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 25 April 2008

Holly J. Payne

The purpose of this paper is to identify the targets, strategies, and topics of deception employed in the workplace among part‐time service workers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the targets, strategies, and topics of deception employed in the workplace among part‐time service workers.

Design/methodology/approach

A taxonomy of deception strategies is used to content analyze 259 narrative accounts of part‐time student employees over two work shifts using Cohen's kappa to measure interrater reliability. Chi‐square analysis is used to determine significant differences between deception strategies and deception targets.

Findings

Employees overwhelmingly concealed information and lied primarily to supervisors and customers. Employees deceived in order to cover or protect emotions, evade work, cover mistakes or policy violations, and mislead customers in order to increase sales, commission, or gratuities.

Research limitations/implications

Determining the most salient strategies employed becomes clearer if the deception account describes or reveals the employee's motivation to deceive. Future research should consider motivation of the deceiver and might compare the deception strategies of part‐time and full‐time employees of varying levels of skill, organizational commitment, and role conflict.

Practical implications

This study provides rich examples of the ethically compromising situations in which young workers find themselves, discusses the impact of workplace structures on deception and the importance of socializing young workers on honest organizational practices.

Originality/value

As young workers enter the workforce they are confronted with opportunities to deceive and they do so for a wide variety of reasons. Little work has been done within the organizational context investigating the most common deception strategies employed or the contextual factors influencing the use of deception among full‐time employees much less young, part‐time employees.

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Employee Relations, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Roger Tourangeau

This paper aims to examine the cognitive processes involved in answering survey questions. It also briefly discusses how the cognitive viewpoint has been challenged by…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the cognitive processes involved in answering survey questions. It also briefly discusses how the cognitive viewpoint has been challenged by other approaches (such as conversational analysis).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews the major components of the response process and summarizes work examining how each of these components can contribute to measurement errors in surveys.

Findings

The Cognitive Aspects of Survey Methodology (CASM) model of the survey response process is still generating useful research, but both the satisficing model and the conversational approach provide useful supplements, emphasizing motivational and social sources of error neglected in the CASM approach.

Originality/value

The paper provides an introduction to the cognitive processes underlying survey responses and how these processes can explain why survey responses may be inaccurate.

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Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Luchien Karsten

The purpose of this paper is to claim that Habermas's pragmatic speech act theory helps us to extend our understanding of how management concepts are actually applied…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to claim that Habermas's pragmatic speech act theory helps us to extend our understanding of how management concepts are actually applied. First, the relevant features of management concepts are examined, to indicate how the diffusion of knowledge about management practices and organizational structuring takes place. Subsequently, the paper focuses on the adoption of management concepts in companies, looking at the different ways management concepts are implemented. Some implementation is based on strategic actions, others on communicative action. This issue is further explored in the final section.

Design/methodology/approach

Compares Lervik and Lunnar's categorization of management concept implementation to Habermas's epistemology.

Findings

Identifies aspects of language as conversation as determinant of new management concept implementation.

Practical implications

Shows how role discourse analysis coupled with Habermas can give an understanding of implementation of new management concepts.

Originality/value

Practical application of Habermasian analysis of communication.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Book part
Publication date: 6 February 2013

Binod Sundararajan, Lorn Sheehan and Sarah Gilbert

Mediated communication can be thought of as a mediated discourse, involving the knowledge of language, symbols, metaphors, and shared meaning. We describe here a funded…

Abstract

Mediated communication can be thought of as a mediated discourse, involving the knowledge of language, symbols, metaphors, and shared meaning. We describe here a funded study where we investigate the effectiveness of text messaging as a learning tool for higher level courses and provide insight into the use of texting as a supplemental, yet critical learning tool in the teaching and learning process. The design, based on the Vygotskian constructivist paradigm, where learning can happen in social and collaborative interactions, assesses three types of communication within student groups, (1) face-to-face (FTF), (2) using only Instant Messenger (IM), and (3) using only cell phone texting. For analyzing the IM and text exchanges we follow the recommendations of Thurlow (2003) using thematic referential coding schemes. Using the concept of Grice (1975), we detect the presence of conversational maxims and implicature and also the presence of adjacency pairs (Sacks, Schegloff, Jefferson, 1974), indicating turn-taking in IM and texting conversations. Results from content and conversational analyses indicate that while there is an innate preference for FTF discussions among participants, participants felt that IM and texting would be useful if used intermittently and as a supplementary learning tool in classrooms to mediate discussions. Participants also felt that IM and texting focused them on tasks and despite any frustrations with the technology they did gain a shared understanding of the subject matter and gained new and conceptual knowledge. The findings from this research can be used to explore the use of an additional dimension of learning in school and university classrooms.

Details

Increasing Student Engagement and Retention Using Classroom Technologies: Classroom Response Systems and Mediated Discourse Technologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-512-8

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Johannes Slacik and Dorothea Greiling

Materiality as an emerging trend aims to make sustainability reports (SR) more relevant for stakeholders. This paper aims to investigate whether the reporting practice of…

Abstract

Purpose

Materiality as an emerging trend aims to make sustainability reports (SR) more relevant for stakeholders. This paper aims to investigate whether the reporting practice of electric utility companies (EUC) is in compliance with the materiality principle of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) when disclosing SR.

Design/methodology/approach

A twofold content analysis focusing on material aspects (MAs) is conducted, followed by correlation analysis. Logic and conversation theory (LCT) serves to evaluate the communication quality of documented materiality in SR by EUC.

Findings

The coverage and quality of documented MAs in SR by EUC do not meet the requirements for relevant and transparent communication. Materiality does not guide the reporting practice and is not taken seriously.

Research limitations/implications

Mediocre quality of coverage and communication in SR shows that stakeholders’ information needs are not considered adequately. The content analysis is limited in focusing on merely documented aspects rather than on actual performance.

Originality/value

This study considers the quality of communication of documented materiality through the lens of LCT. It contributes to the academic debate by introducing LCT as a viable theoretical perspective for analyzing SR. The paper evaluates GRI-G4 reporting practices in the electricity sector, which, while under-researched is crucial for sustainability. It also contributes to the emerging body of empirical research on the relevance of materiality as a guiding principle for sustainability reporting.

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International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

Eleanor Wynn and David G. Novick

Presents findings from a study undertaken to identify some of the conversational issues in the production of knowledge in cross‐functional work redesign groups…

Abstract

Presents findings from a study undertaken to identify some of the conversational issues in the production of knowledge in cross‐functional work redesign groups. Illustrates what may be key sources of miscommunication based in differing conversational relevance. Postulates that the recognition of relevance and, by extension, the recognition of a valid contribution, is influenced by the manner of discourse or speech style. Feels that the language behaviours as disclosed in the analysis can be inhibiting to the work of cross‐functional teams responsible for a variety of organizational change processes, including IS development and workflow redesign.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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