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Book part
Publication date: 1 May 2019

Lynne Bowker and Jairo Buitrago Ciro

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Machine Translation and Global Research: Towards Improved Machine Translation Literacy in the Scholarly Community
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-721-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

SHIRLEY ANNE COUSINS

Experimental evidence suggests that enhancing the subject content of OPAC records can improve retrieval performance. This is based on the use of natural language index…

Abstract

Experimental evidence suggests that enhancing the subject content of OPAC records can improve retrieval performance. This is based on the use of natural language index terms derived from the table of contents and back‐of‐the‐book index of documents. The research reported here investigates the alternative approach of translating these natural language terms into controlled vocabulary. Subject queries were collected by interview at the catalogue, and indexing of the queries demonstrated the impressive ability of PRECIS, and to a lesser extent LCSH, to represent users' information needs. DDC performed poorly in this respect. The assumption was made that an index language adequately specific to represent users' queries should be adequate to represent document contents. Searches were carried out on three test databases, and both natural language and PRECIS enhancement of MARC records increased the number of relevant documents found, with PRECIS showing the better performance. However, with weak stemming the advantage of PRECIS was lost. Consideration must also be given to the potential advantages of controlled vocabulary, over and above basic retrieval performance measures.

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Journal of Documentation, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1994

Arthur Lee

What is Controlled English? Its use and application. The rules of Controlled English and their meaning. Max — a Controlled English tool. The Controlled English…

Abstract

What is Controlled English? Its use and application. The rules of Controlled English and their meaning. Max — a Controlled English tool. The Controlled English dictionaries. Implementation of Controlled English within Bull. Guidelines for implementing a Controlled Language system with or without Machine Translation.

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Aslib Proceedings, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1975

B.J. FIELD

A number of techniques have been studied for the automatic assignment of controlled subject headings and classifications from free indexing. These techniques involve the…

Abstract

A number of techniques have been studied for the automatic assignment of controlled subject headings and classifications from free indexing. These techniques involve the automatic manipulation and truncation of the free‐index phrases assigned to a document and the use of a manually‐constructed thesaurus and automatically‐generated dictionaries together with statistical ranking and weighting methods. These are based on the use of a statistically‐generated ‘adhesion coefficient’ which reflects the degree of association between the free‐indexing terms, the controlled subject headings, and the classifications. By the analysis of a large sample of manually‐indexed documents the system generates dictionaries of free‐language and controlledlanguage terms together with their associated classifications and adhesion coefficients. Having learnt from the manually‐indexed documents the system uses these dictionaries in the subsequent automatic classification procedure. The accuracy and cost‐effectiveness of the automatically‐assigned subject headings and classifications has been compared with that of the manual system. The results were encouraging and the costs comparable to those of a manual system.

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Journal of Documentation, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1973

E. MICHAEL KEEN

Reports a laboratory comparison of the effectiveness and efficiency of five index languages in the subject area of library and information science; three post‐co‐ordinate…

Abstract

Reports a laboratory comparison of the effectiveness and efficiency of five index languages in the subject area of library and information science; three post‐co‐ordinate languages, Compressed Term, Uncontrolled, and Hierarchically Structured, and two pre‐co‐ordinate ones, Hierarchically Structured and Relational Indexing. Eight test comparisons were made, and factors studied were index language specificity and linkage, indexing specificity and exhaustivity, method of co‐ordination, the precision devices of partitioning and relational operators, and the provision of context in the search file. Full details of the test and retrieval results are presented.

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Journal of Documentation, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2004

Terri A Winnick

Language is a fundamental and yet extraordinarily powerful medium. Language is more than the primary feature distinguishing humans from other species. As our principle…

Abstract

Language is a fundamental and yet extraordinarily powerful medium. Language is more than the primary feature distinguishing humans from other species. As our principle means of communication, language links us to culture, and in so doing, shapes our perceptions and determines the way in which we think (Clark, Eschholz & Rosa, 1981; Thorne, Kramarae & Henley, 1983). Language is inseparable from social life. Through language, individuals learn cultural patterns and political and social values (Mueller, 1973). Language also reflects the prejudices of society, with assumptions about relative status, power or appropriate behavior often built into the words we use to talk about different groups of people. As Frank and Anshen (1983) note, ageism, racism, and most importantly for this discussion, sexism, are all perpetuated by our language, even among those who consciously reject those prejudices.

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Gendered Perspectives on Reproduction and Sexuality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-088-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1989

Denis Comber and Joy Stanford

The use of an uncontrolled vocabulary or natural language as it is sometimes called, has long been the traditional method of assigning a title to a file.

Abstract

The use of an uncontrolled vocabulary or natural language as it is sometimes called, has long been the traditional method of assigning a title to a file.

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Records Management Journal, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-5698

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1974

KAREN SPARCK JONES

This article reviews the state of the art in automatic indexing, that is, automatic techniques for analysing and characterising documents, for manipulating their…

Abstract

This article reviews the state of the art in automatic indexing, that is, automatic techniques for analysing and characterising documents, for manipulating their descriptions in searching, and for generating the index language used for these purposes. It concentrates on the literature from 1968 to 1973. Section I defines the topic and its context. Sections II and III consider work in syntax and semantics respectively in detail. Section IV comments on ‘indirect’ indexing. Section V briefly surveys operating mechanized systems. In Section VI major experiments in automatic indexing are reviewed, and Section VII attempts an overall conclusion on the current state of automatic indexing techniques.

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Journal of Documentation, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Jennifer Rowley

Reviews the approaches to the organisation of knowledge in Web‐based environments. The control and structure helps searchers to locate information and services, but only…

Abstract

Reviews the approaches to the organisation of knowledge in Web‐based environments. The control and structure helps searchers to locate information and services, but only provided that searchers understand and relate to the terms and information structure designed into the system. The other alternative is for the searcher to specify the topic of their search through the use of keywords. These keywords are in the natural language of the searcher, which may or not be coincident with the natural language of the Web sites being searched by the search engine. In order to negotiate the variability of natural language the searcher needs to learn to use more advanced search features such as Boolean searching, nesting and truncation. The knowledge organisation issues associated with access to and retrieval from large databases, such as those that are searched across the Web, are significant and need careful and specialist attention.

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Management Decision, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Alan J. Feely and Anne‐Wil Harzing

The importance of language management in multinational companies has never been greater than today. Multinationals are becoming ever more conscious of the importance of…

Abstract

The importance of language management in multinational companies has never been greater than today. Multinationals are becoming ever more conscious of the importance of global coordination as a source of competitive advantage, and language remains the ultimate barrier to aspirations of international harmonisation. The article reviews the solutions open to multinational companies in term of language management. Before that, however, it discusses the aforementioned trend to globalisation outlines the dimensions of the language barrier and illustrates its consequences.

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Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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