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Book part
Publication date: 1 November 2007

Irina Farquhar and Alan Sorkin

This study proposes targeted modernization of the Department of Defense (DoD's) Joint Forces Ammunition Logistics information system by implementing the optimized…

Abstract

This study proposes targeted modernization of the Department of Defense (DoD's) Joint Forces Ammunition Logistics information system by implementing the optimized innovative information technology open architecture design and integrating Radio Frequency Identification Device data technologies and real-time optimization and control mechanisms as the critical technology components of the solution. The innovative information technology, which pursues the focused logistics, will be deployed in 36 months at the estimated cost of $568 million in constant dollars. We estimate that the Systems, Applications, Products (SAP)-based enterprise integration solution that the Army currently pursues will cost another $1.5 billion through the year 2014; however, it is unlikely to deliver the intended technical capabilities.

Details

The Value of Innovation: Impact on Health, Life Quality, Safety, and Regulatory Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-551-2

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Matthew Oppenheim

– The purpose of this paper is to present a novel non-contact method of using head movement to control software without the need for wearable devices.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel non-contact method of using head movement to control software without the need for wearable devices.

Design/methodology/approach

A webcam and software are used to track head position. When the head is moved through a virtual target, a keystroke is simulated. The system was assessed by participants with impaired mobility using Sensory Software’s Grid 2 software as a test platform.

Findings

The target user group could effectively use this system to interact with switchable software.

Practical implications

Physical head switches could be replaced with virtual devices, reducing fatigue and dissatisfaction.

Originality/value

Using a webcam to control software using head gestures where the participant does not have to wear any specialised technology or a marker. This system is shown to be of benefit to motor impaired participants for operating switchable software.

Details

Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Malcolm J. Morgan

Identifies the magnitude and importance of the level of softwaredevelopment costs in a modern high‐technology manufacturing environment.Analyses the variety of cost control

Abstract

Identifies the magnitude and importance of the level of software development costs in a modern high‐technology manufacturing environment. Analyses the variety of cost control practices as evidenced in the English‐language journals. Develops a holistic feed‐forward control model using the Japanese management accounting technique of target costing. Examines the relevance of each technique in relation to its most cost‐effective role and predicts that target costing will be widely adopted in the near future.

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Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 94 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Jonathan Willson and Tony Oulton

Policies and practices of UK public libraries in providing access to Internet services are reviewed. Results of a questionnaire survey conducted as part of the Library and…

Abstract

Policies and practices of UK public libraries in providing access to Internet services are reviewed. Results of a questionnaire survey conducted as part of the Library and Information Commission funded PuPPS (public places, private spaces) scoping study of privacy, anonymity and confidentiality in public libraries, are reported. Ninety‐six per cent of respondents indicated that they had Internet facilities for the public. Many respondents indicated that they had policy documents on provision of and access to electronic and print materials. The majority of libraries (71 per cent) imposed some form of control on public access computers and a smaller majority (56 per cent) on staff only computers. The reliability and effectiveness of software currently available for filtering and blocking was a major cause for concern amongst respondents. The major reason for the imposition of control software appeared to be concern about access to sexually explicit material. The use of such software is frequently part of a broad corporate policy, designed to protect the local authority from adverse criticism by public or staff. Issues of privacy, anonymity and confidentiality were of lesser concern to public library respondents than control of public access to inappropriate material on the Internet.

Details

OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-075X

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2012

Takahiro Fujimoto and Young Won Park

The purpose of this exploratory paper is to analyze how complexity of an artifact affects designing processes of its mechanical, electric, and software sub‐systems.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exploratory paper is to analyze how complexity of an artifact affects designing processes of its mechanical, electric, and software sub‐systems.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on existing empirical research and frameworks of axiomatic design, product architecture, and product development process, the paper proposes a simple model of functional and structural design to examine how engineers' ways of thinking differ among mechanical, electric and software engineers.

Findings

This paper argues that products and artifacts tend to become complex (often with integral architecture) when customers' functional requirements become more demanding and societal/technological constraints become stricter, and that complex mechanical products are often accompanied by electronic control units with complex functions. This implies that designing complex mechanical products often requires intensive coordination among mechanical, electric and software engineers. This, however, is not easy, as engineers' way of thinking is often different among the three areas: mechanical engineers want to complete structural design information first to build prototypes; electrical and software engineers (the latter in particular) request complete functional information first.

Research limitations/implications

In order to solve the above‐mentioned mechanical‐electrical‐software coordination problem, engineers need to share basic design concept of the product in question. Heavy‐weight product managers who infuse the product concept to the project members might be the key to this coordination. Companies may need to make sure that their product development processes are friendly to all of the three groups of engineers.

Originality/value

Although designing complex artifacts has been a popular research theme since H. Simon's seminal work, issues of organizational coordination for developing complex products, with increasing managerial importance, need further research. With an empirical case of the automobile and electronic products, the present paper is unique in that it combines frameworks of product development processes, product architectures, and organizational capabilities.

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Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Chetan Kapoor and Delbert Tesar

The objective of this work was to demonstrate a novel approach to human machine interaction that seamlessly uses teleoperation and automation in a complex environment.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this work was to demonstrate a novel approach to human machine interaction that seamlessly uses teleoperation and automation in a complex environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This work leverages developments in the area of operational software Operational Software Components for Advanced Robotics (OSCAR), decision making, human‐machine interface, and motion planning. This demonstration uses a 17 degrees‐of‐freedom (DOF) dual arm robot that is equipped with modern tool changers, crash protectors, force‐torque sensors and electrical and pneumatic power at the tools. Four different end‐effector tools are also provided. These are electric grippers, electric rotary saw, electric drill, and a pneumatic spray gun. The system can be used both in teleoperation and automation mode. In teleoperation mode, the user has a choice of five different input devices. These are computer keyboard, spaceball and spacemouse, RSI manual controller and kraft force feedback controller. Automation is performed using a novel graphical user interface with 3D graphics used for previewing and verifying manipulator motion. Automation tasks that are demonstrated include automatic grasping, sawing, drilling, spray painting, point‐to‐point motion, and teaching. The controller for the dual arm system is developed using OSCAR and supports a variety of decision‐making algorithms and obstacle avoidance. The integration of this controller with the input devices and human machine interface is done using a novel protocol that is based on Extensible Markup Language (XML) for maximum reuse and distributed integration. This protocol is further based on a well‐defined and scalable XML schema that can be easily extended as controller functionality is changed and/or additional input devices are added.

Findings

It is necessary to combine automation with teleoperation to reduce worker fatigue and also provide higher value robotic functions. This is possible as most remote tasks can be broken down into structured and unstructured components. On the integration front, we see XML‐based integration providing a loosely coupled system that can make interoperability between various robot systems possible. For end‐effector tooling, it is better to have special purpose tools that can be switched out versus the use of a general purpose tool such as a robotic hand.

Research limitations/implications

This research was done in a laboratory environment, and as such, its application in the field will require partnering with a commercial entity. Force‐feedback on manual controllers during teleoperation was not very effective. In fact, providing visual queues to the operator about the forces were a better guide to the operator.

Practical implications

The software for this work provides obstacle avoidance capability. The obstacle avoidance is based on a known world model that is derived from a CAD environment. In reality, this model will have to be sensed in real‐time, and decoded into a geometric model. Significant work in this area needs to be done.

Originality/value

The software developed for this work was based on the OSCAR software framework. This is a unique framework that at its core uses performance criteria to control the behavior of the robot during teleoperation and automation. The value of this work is that it shows as completely feasible the control of a 17 DOF dual arm system using the latest integration technologies (such as XML), integrated simulation, multiple tools and multiple input devices. It also shows that all these choices can be provided to an operator through a single user interface.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Mark Satterthwaite and John-Lindell Pfeffer

Describes Nintendo's rise to dominance in the home video game industry in the late 1980s. Then presents the challenges Nintendo faced in 1990 as 16-bit processors entered…

Abstract

Describes Nintendo's rise to dominance in the home video game industry in the late 1980s. Then presents the challenges Nintendo faced in 1990 as 16-bit processors entered the market against the 8-bit Nintendo Entertainment System.

Details

Kellogg School of Management Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-6568
Published by: Kellogg School of Management

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2020

John Borer

The purpose of this study is to provide a method for designing the software for a process control system that avoids difficulties that lead to safety problems.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to provide a method for designing the software for a process control system that avoids difficulties that lead to safety problems.

Design/methodology/approach

Design of real-time software for safety critical programmable equipment systems (PES) such as process control or shutdown systems needs to be approached quite differently compared to any other software. It must be designed by those who understand the equipment system not by software engineers who do not. Following the ‘Piper Alpha’ disaster in the North Sea in the late 1980s, it was realised that the software of safety critical PES, such as the shut-down system on an oil rig, was proving very unreliable. Earlier hardwired relay-based shut-down systems were designed by process control engineers who understood the functions the equipment was required to perform; however, by the 1980s, such systems had been replaced by PES designed by system analysts who did not understand the technologies involved. The safety critical real-time software for a programmable equipment system will only be reliable when it is designed by control engineers who understand the functions it has to perform.

Findings

Bottom-up design of software is necessary to avoid safety issues and this can only be achieved using object-oriented methods.

Originality/value

This paper describes an entirely original idea of the author based on experience of managing the design and construction of the process control, emergency shut-down and fire and gas and communication systems for a major oil and gas platform in the North Sea around the time of the Piper Alpha disaster.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1998

Beilan Gong, David C. Yen and David C. Chou

Applying total quality management (TQM) to the software development process can control software quality and productivity. Selecting suitable tools for the TQM process can…

Abstract

Applying total quality management (TQM) to the software development process can control software quality and productivity. Selecting suitable tools for the TQM process can strengthen the capability of software quality assurance. This article provides a manager’s guide to implementing a total quality process during a systems development life cycle. Also, tools integration can make a complicated TQM‐based software development environment easier.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 98 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

Ray Denenberg, Bob Rader, Thomas P. Brown, Wayne Davison and Fred Lauber

The Linked Systems project (LSP) is directed towards implementing computer‐to‐computer communications among its participants. The original three participants are the…

Abstract

The Linked Systems project (LSP) is directed towards implementing computer‐to‐computer communications among its participants. The original three participants are the Library of Congress (LC), the Research Libraries Group (RLG), and the Western Library Network (WLN, formerly the Washington Library Network). The project now has a fourth participant, the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC). LSP consists of two major components. The first component, Authorities Implementation, is described in Library Hi Tech issue 10 (page 61). The second component, the Standard Network Interconnection (SNI), is the specification of the LSP protocols, and the implementation of these protocols on the participant systems. Protocol specification was a joint effort of the original three participants (LC, RLG, and WLN) and was described in Library Hi Tech issue 10 (page 71). Implementation, however, has consisted of individual efforts of the (now) four participants. This four‐part report focuses on these individual implementation efforts.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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