Search results

1 – 10 of over 140000
Book part
Publication date: 21 December 2010

Balázs Kovács and Michael T. Hannan

Recent research finds that producers assigned to multiple categories receive less attention and legitimacy and have lower chances of success and survival. We argue that…

Abstract

Recent research finds that producers assigned to multiple categories receive less attention and legitimacy and have lower chances of success and survival. We argue that the effect of category spanning on the reception from the audience depends on the fuzziness of the categories. When a set of categories lacks contrast (have very fuzzy boundaries), spanning them does not cause much additional confusion for the audience, thus the penalties associated with spanning ought to be slight. But, when the contrasts of the categories spanned are high, audience members will have difficulty interpreting the producer, so spanning categories will be devalued more. We study these processes using data from an online-review web site. Results show that audience members devalue organizations that span high-contrast categories more than those that span low-contrast categories. These effects are weaker for more active reviewers.

Details

Categories in Markets: Origins and Evolution
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-594-6

Book part
Publication date: 1 June 2011

D.W. MacKenzie

In the original history of the socialist calculation debate (e.g., Bergson, 1948), Oscar Lange proved that bureaucrats can find the equivalent of equilibrium prices…

Abstract

In the original history of the socialist calculation debate (e.g., Bergson, 1948), Oscar Lange proved that bureaucrats can find the equivalent of equilibrium prices through trial and error. In the revised history of this debate (e.g., Caldwell, 1997; Lavoie, 1985), Lange proposed an erroneous solution to the calculation problem. Dynamic entrepreneurial rivalry moves prices toward equilibrium. Lange and other “Market Socialists” allies thought only in terms of a static competitive market equilibrium that excludes the role entrepreneurs play in adjusting prices.

Details

Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-006-3

Book part
Publication date: 21 December 2010

Glenn R. Carroll, Mi Feng, Gaël Le Mens and David G. McKendrick

We study how tape drive producers respond to the almost continuous emergence of new drive formats across the technology's history. The analysis characterizes the…

Abstract

We study how tape drive producers respond to the almost continuous emergence of new drive formats across the technology's history. The analysis characterizes the technological formats of tape drives according to their degree of contrast (distinctiveness and visibility) from other formats. We also develop and test arguments about how different types of tape drive manufacturers add and drop the production of formats as a function of the producer density of formats. In the empirical analysis, we find that firms producing formats with high contrast experience a lower rate of mortality. In terms of new format adoption, we find that firms characterized by high levels of contrast are more likely to add formats. Regarding the target of adoption, tape drive producers are more likely to add higher density formats; and these producers are also less likely to drop higher density formats.

Details

Categories in Markets: Origins and Evolution
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-594-6

Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Dan Kirk, Gabriele Oettingen and Peter M. Gollwitzer

The present experiment aimed to test the impact of a self‐regulatory strategy of goal pursuit – called mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) – on an…

2433

Abstract

Purpose

The present experiment aimed to test the impact of a self‐regulatory strategy of goal pursuit – called mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) – on an integrative bargaining task.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were randomly assigned to dyads and negotiated over the sale of a car. Before negotiating, participants were prompted to engage in MCII, or one or the other of its two component strategies: to contrast mentally achieving success in the integrative bargaining task with the reality standing in the way of this success (MC), to form implementation intentions on how to bargain (i.e. if‐then plans) (II), or both to contrast mentally and form implementation intentions (MCII).

Findings

The strategy of mental contrasting with implementation intentions led dyads to reach the largest joint agreements, compared to dyads that only used mental contrasting or if‐then plans. Moreover, participants who mentally contrasted formed more cooperative implementation intentions than participants who did not mentally contrast, mediating the effect of condition on joint gain.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that the self‐regulatory strategy of mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) leads to higher joint gain, and that this effect is mediated by mental contrasting's promotion of cooperative planning. More research should be done to understand the specific negotiation behaviors engendered by MCII, as well as its applicability to other negotiation scenarios.

Originality/value

These findings have implications for both self‐regulation and negotiation research. The result that MCII fosters integrative solutions reflects its potential to help people form cooperative plans and reach high joint‐value agreements in integrative scenarios. For negotiation research, the paper identifies an effective self‐regulatory strategy for producing high‐quality agreements.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

Alena Kostyk and Bruce A. Huhmann

Two studies investigate how different structural properties of images – symmetry (vertical and horizontal) and image contrast – affect social media marketing outcomes of…

2325

Abstract

Purpose

Two studies investigate how different structural properties of images – symmetry (vertical and horizontal) and image contrast – affect social media marketing outcomes of consumer liking and engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

In Study 1’s experiment, 361 participants responded to social media marketing images that varied in vertical or horizontal symmetry and level of image contrast. Study 2 analyzes field data on 610 Instagram posts.

Findings

Study 1 demonstrates that vertical or horizontal symmetry and high image contrast increase consumer liking of social media marketing images, and that processing fluency and aesthetic response mediate these relationships. Study 2 reveals that symmetry and high image contrast improve consumer engagement on social media (number of “likes” and comments).

Research limitations/implications

These studies extend theory regarding processing fluency’s and aesthetic response’s roles in consumer outcomes within social media marketing. Image posts’ structural properties affect processing fluency and aesthetic response without altering brand information or advertising content.

Practical implications

Because consumer liking of marketing communications (e.g. social media posts) predicts persuasion and sales, results should help marketers design more effective posts and achieve brand-building and behavioral objectives. Based on the results, marketers are urged to consider the processing fluency and aesthetic response associated with any image developed for social media marketing.

Originality/value

Addressing the lack of empirical investigations in the existing literature, the reported studies demonstrate that effects of symmetry and image contrast in generating liking are driven by processing fluency and aesthetic response. Additionally, these studies establish novel effects of images’ structural properties on consumer engagement with brand-based social media marketing communications.

Article
Publication date: 4 October 2011

Dan Kirk, Gabriele Oettingen and Peter M. Gollwitzer

This paper aims to test the impact of several self‐regulatory strategies on an integrative bargaining task.

1178

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to test the impact of several self‐regulatory strategies on an integrative bargaining task.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were randomly assigned to dyads and negotiated over the sale of a car. Before negotiating, participants were prompted to engage in one of three self‐regulation strategies, based upon fantasy realization theory (FRT): to mentally contrast a successful future agreement with the reality of bargaining, to exclusively elaborate on successful future agreement, or to exclusively elaborate on the reality of bargaining. Those in the control condition merely began the negotiation.

Findings

Mentally contrasting a successful future agreement with the reality of bargaining leads dyads to reach the largest and most equitable joint agreements, compared to dyads that elaborate only on successful future agreement, or on the reality of bargaining.

Research limitations/implications

Since it was found that mental contrasting promotes integrative agreement, it is important to learn more about the psychological processes that mediate and moderate this effect. Another related line of research would examine the application of the findings to other bargaining scenarios. One further future line of research should combine mental contrasting with planning strategies.

Originality/value

The findings of the paper have implications for both self‐regulation and negotiation research. The result that mental contrasting fosters integrative solutions reflects its potential to help negotiators effectively discriminate among feasible and unfeasible components of a multi‐faceted goal (integrative agreement). For negotiation research, the paper identifies an effective self‐regulatory strategy for producing high‐quality agreements.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

Book part
Publication date: 15 September 2014

John C. Anderson and Damon M. Fleming

This study investigates whether exposure to a previous client’s earnings management behavior will impact experienced auditors’ judgments of the risk that a current…

Abstract

This study investigates whether exposure to a previous client’s earnings management behavior will impact experienced auditors’ judgments of the risk that a current client’s financial statements are materially misstated. Contrast theory predicts the context of previous information can have a priming effect on a current judgment scenario, where the information for the current judgment is contrasted with the previous information. Guided by contrast theory, we exposed auditors to either positive or negative client ethical earnings management behavior. We found the existence of contrast effects, with the positive (negative) context of the previous client resulting in auditors judging a higher (lower) likelihood of material misstatement in the current client’s financial statements. The results have implications for the effectiveness and efficiency of auditors’ judgments as well as provide insight into auditor training efforts.

Details

Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-163-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Cecilia Wallerstedt

The purpose of this paper is to examine what are necessary conditions for learning the concept ABA form, a concept for analysing and composing music, and to discuss how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine what are necessary conditions for learning the concept ABA form, a concept for analysing and composing music, and to discuss how the use of variation theory can contribute to the field of music education research.

Design/methodology/approach

The method used is a form of lesson study, but with only one participating teacher. Three cycles are conducted with three small groups of children, aged eight to nine years old.

Findings

The main findings are that the learning of ABA form requires first, awareness of the sequential form of the music, second, that the attitude to differences that appear between sequential parts of the music is consciously being re-direct from seen as “failures” to being interesting musical contrasts and third, that attention is being paid to different features within one musical aspect, that sounds (not only looks) different. It is found that a main contribution of applying variation theory to studies in the domain of music is the consideration of a part-whole relationship. When the teacher helps the children to create contrast and at the same time keeps focus on how it sounds, the children succeed in coming up with a composition in ABA form. To address the simultaneous relationship between acting and seeing, that is musical impressions and expressions, is crucial for learning.

Originality/value

This study is pioneering since music teaching is studied with the point of departure in an intended object of learning.

Details

International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-8253

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2011

M.A. Latif, J.C. Chedjou and K. Kyamakya

An image contrast enhancement is one of the most important low‐level image pre‐processing tasks required by the vision‐based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS)…

Abstract

Purpose

An image contrast enhancement is one of the most important low‐level image pre‐processing tasks required by the vision‐based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). This paper seeks to address this important issue keeping the real time constraints in focus, which is especially vital for the ADAS.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is based on a paradigm of nonlinear‐coupled oscillators in image processing. Each layer of the colored images is treated as an independent grayscale image and is processed separately by the paradigm. The pixels with the lowest and the highest gray levels are chosen and their difference is enhanced to span all the gray levels in an image over the entire gray level range, i.e. [0 1]. This operation enhances the contrast in each layer and the enhanced layers are finally combined to produce a color image of a much improved quality.

Findings

The approach performs robust contrast enhancement as compared to other approaches available in the relevant literature. Generally, other approaches do need a new setting of parameters for every new image to perform its task, i.e. contrast enhancement. These approaches are not useful for real‐time applications such as ADAS. Whereas, the proposed approach presented in this paper performs contrast enhancement for different images under the same setting of parameters, hence giving rise to the robustness in the system. The unique setting of parameters is derived through a bifurcation analysis explained in the paper.

Originality/value

The proposed approach is novel in different aspects. First, the proposed paradigm comprises of coupled differential equations, and therefore, offers a continuous model as opposed to other approaches in the relevant literature. This continuity in the model is an inherent feature of the proposed approach, which could be useful in realizing real‐time image processing with an analog implemented circuit of the approach. Furthermore, a novel framework combining coupled oscillatory paradigm and cellular neural network is also possible to achieve ultra‐fast solution in image contrast enhancement.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 140000