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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Bernard Piper

The Staff Assistance Visit Program (SAV) is an important tool used by the Department of State’s Procurement Executive since 1995 to support the Department’s overseas…

Abstract

The Staff Assistance Visit Program (SAV) is an important tool used by the Department of State’s Procurement Executive since 1995 to support the Department’s overseas contracting operations. The program is structured much differently from a formal contract compliance review. The SAV’s purpose is to improve relationships between the field and headquarters. Also, the program provides hands-on expertise to improve operations. During the visit, the SAV team works to reinforce existing training, solve real problems, and improve communications with the contracting office and its clients. The program consistently demonstrates its value of assisting geographically dispersed contracting officers overcome the numerous contracting challenges that they encounter around the world.

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Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Richard W. Schwester

The touted benefits of inter-governmental contracting are cost savings and simplicity when compared to shared service agreements. Some managers and public officials resist…

Abstract

The touted benefits of inter-governmental contracting are cost savings and simplicity when compared to shared service agreements. Some managers and public officials resist contracting given the assumption that there may be a drop-off in service quality. However, inter-governmental contracting introduces market forces which theoretically would improve performance while keeping costs per unit of output low (Boyne, 1998). This paperexamines municipal police contracting in the State of New Jersey, the purpose of which is to determine if there are statistically significant differences in non-violent crime rates among municipalities that maintain their own police force versus those that contract with neighboring municipalities for police services. Contracting costs are also explored. While summary statistics indicate lower non-violent crime rates among municipalities that maintain their own police force compared to those that contract for police services, multiple regression results indicate that contracting does not predict higher non-violent crime rates at the .05 level. Therefore, contracting for police services should be explored as an alternative municipal policing model.

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Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

George A. Larbi

This article examines contracting‐out in practice in public health and water services in Ghana. Drawing on in‐depth interviews and discussions with knowledgeable…

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Abstract

This article examines contracting‐out in practice in public health and water services in Ghana. Drawing on in‐depth interviews and discussions with knowledgeable officials, complemented by documentary analysis and secondary sources, the article provides insights into some of the institutional constraints and capacity issues that policy‐makers and implementers need to be aware of in seeking to introduce and implement contracting‐out policies in a developing country context. Though contracting‐out in Ghana’s health and water sectors has so far been used in the provision of support services, attempts to broaden its application to include the direct provision of core services raise a number of capacity questions related to regulatory frameworks, enforcement and monitoring mechanisms, development of management information systems and skills for contract management. The capacity and willingness of the private sector to take on direct provision of public services are also crucial.

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International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 11 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Eldrede T. Kahiya and Petra Butler

This paper aims to dissect cross-border contracting practices among exporting businesses. The under-representation of exporter-importer dynamics and the superficial…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to dissect cross-border contracting practices among exporting businesses. The under-representation of exporter-importer dynamics and the superficial understanding of contracts are the motivation for this exploratory study.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative multiple case study design focuses on 18 small to medium size enterprise (SMEs) exporting from New Zealand. The analysis encompasses coding, pattern matching and explanation building. This paper uses coding to uncover themes and pattern matching/cross-case comparison to facilitate explanation building.

Findings

The paper underlines the scant use of formal international sales/distribution contracts, the lack of knowledge concerning contracting, barriers to contract formation, misgivings about the court system and litigation and the adoption of proxy contracts. This paper depicts varieties of contracting practices, namely, no formal contract, improvisational, normative, and formal contractual arrangements and underlines the context in which each approach applies.

Research limitations/implications

Similar to most studies in this area, the dissection of contracting practices derives from the exporter side of the dyad. This robs the research of a holistic view of the exchange. Nonetheless, this paper contributes to a better understanding of contract formation and formalization and to the role of context in shaping the activities of exporting SMEs.

Practical implications

Although formal contracts are vital, they are not obligatory in all exchanges. Contracts matter more for high intensity exporters with comparatively short relationship histories, selling knowledge-intensive products in predominantly non-relational cultures. Policymakers should highlight the importance of contracts in such contexts and direct SMEs to several freely available resources on cross-border contracting.

Social implications

The research casts fairness/equity and access to justice as pertinent structural disadvantages impacting the contracting practices of exporting SMEs.

Originality/value

According to the authors’ knowledge, this paper is among the first studies to provide an in-depth portrayal of the contracting practices of exporting SMEs, to detail the pervasiveness of non-contractual contracting practices and to depict contracting as nuanced and context-dependent.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2021

Åge Johnsen

This paper analyses the deregulation of the municipal audit market in Norway, in particular how organization of the service affected audit costs.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyses the deregulation of the municipal audit market in Norway, in particular how organization of the service affected audit costs.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses multiple regression analysis of administrative as well as survey data of organizational structure and audit costs from 312 municipalities in Norway in 2012.

Findings

The introduction of contracting out in the municipal audit market in Norway in 2004 contributed to a reduction in audit fees eight years after the deregulation, compared to the situation four years before the deregulation. The type of audit, mixing inter-municipal co-operation and contracting private auditors, was related to lower costs.

Research limitations/implications

The data does not include audit quality and are restricted to one country.

Practical implications

The municipalities that combined inter-municipal co-operation and contracting a private auditor achieved the lowest costs. Hence, neither pure in-house production (“make”) nor outsourcing (“buy”) but mixing several governance forms (hybrid organization) was related to low costs.

Social implications

Contracting out is a core element of new public management (NPM) but has often been a contested tool in public policy. This paper provides empirical evidence on the effects of a reform of a professional service, which is relevant for many services in the public sector.

Originality/value

This paper contributes by filling some of the gaps in the public sector accounting and public management reform literature by studying the organization and costs of the municipal audit, specifically by including transaction costs, addressing plural governance forms in addition to pure in-house production, inter-organizational co-operation and market contracting and by studying long-term effects.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2020

Solomon Olusola Babatunde, Srinath Perera, Damilola Ekundayo and Damilola Sarah Adeleke

Building information modeling (BIM) is vital in the performance improvement of contracting firms. Thus, there is a need to stimulate its implementation in the construction…

Abstract

Purpose

Building information modeling (BIM) is vital in the performance improvement of contracting firms. Thus, there is a need to stimulate its implementation in the construction sector with a view to meeting the competitive demands of the industry. However, there have been very few studies on BIM implementation among contracting firms in Nigeria. Hence, this study aims to examine the current BIM uptake among Nigerian contracting firms, assess the barriers to BIM implementation and examine the ways of improving BIM implementation within these contracting firms.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was conducted on contracting firms (comprising small-, medium- and large-sized firms) in Lagos, Nigeria. The obtained data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. These included percentage, mean score, standard deviation, the Kruskal–Wallis test and factor analysis.

Findings

This study revealed the current state of BIM implementation among contracting firms in Nigeria in terms of their knowledge of BIM, their usage of BIM as well as the BIM software adopted. Furthermore, the study identified 25 barriers to BIM implementation in contracting firms and identified 15 ways to improve BIM implementation in contracting firms. The relative importance of both the identified barriers and the ways for improving BIM implementation was gauged among contracting firms comprising small-, medium- and large-sized firms. The result of the Kruskal–Wallis test revealed that, except for two (out of 25) identified barriers, and one (out of 15) identified ways of improving BIM implementation in contracting firms, there is no significant statistical difference in the perceptions of the three respondents’ groups. The result of the factor analysis categorized the identified 25 barriers into seven main factors.

Practical implications

This study provides empirical evidence on the barriers to BIM implementation and the ways of improving its implementation among contracting firms, thereby providing a better insight of the Nigerian construction industry’s BIM environment.

Originality/value

This study’s findings can positively inform the decisions of construction stakeholders to formulate strategies capable of improving BIM implementation in the construction industry at large.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction , vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Timothy G. Hawkins and Jeffrey R. Cuskey

Alpha contracting is a collaborative effort between a buyer and supplier during contract formation to maximize efficiency and effectiveness. Collaborative efforts between…

Abstract

Alpha contracting is a collaborative effort between a buyer and supplier during contract formation to maximize efficiency and effectiveness. Collaborative efforts between the United States Department of Defense and its suppliers have recently been scrutinized. Although several benefits of Alpha contracting are identified within the literature, the phenomenon is not ubiquitous nor is it well understood. Using the case study methodology, this research explores Alpha Contracting to define success and to identify its contributing factors. Additionally, this research identifies antecedents for and consequences of use, variations of the processes employed, and some misuse. The study culminates in the development of a conceptual model of collaborative pricing, and provides five recommendations for enhanced use.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2001

Hilary A. Davies and Eric K.S. Chan

Hong Kong has experienced an average annual growth in final energy consumption of 4.7 per cent over the last ten years. An initiative being undertaken by a small number of…

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Abstract

Hong Kong has experienced an average annual growth in final energy consumption of 4.7 per cent over the last ten years. An initiative being undertaken by a small number of government and commercial organisations is to limit their own consumption of electricity through performance contracting. Performance contracting is essentially a partnering process, where a client organisation partners with an energy management firm to identify and achieve energy savings for the client organisation. The research undertaken for this project has identified a number of factors that are considered to affect the success of performance contracting in Hong Kong. In a survey of practitioners, who have experience of performance contracting, some of the key benefits of this approach identified include the fact that there are substantial energy cost savings to be made. These savings are guaranteed by the partnering energy saving company and there are overall improved operational and plant efficiency gains. Key requirements for the success of such schemes include the setting‐up of an agreed energy baseline against which to measure results and human factors such as commitment to the enterprise at all levels of the organisation and trust between the co‐operating organisations. The paper expands the discussion on the benefits, obstacles and necessary ingredients for performance contracting that are likely to be applicable not just to Hong Kong but to the successful implementation of any such scheme.

Details

Facilities, vol. 19 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2007

Md. Rafiqul Islam

This paper analyzes the perceptions of Bangladeshi civil servants towards public procurement and contracting practices in Bangladesh. The interview method was used in the…

Abstract

This paper analyzes the perceptions of Bangladeshi civil servants towards public procurement and contracting practices in Bangladesh. The interview method was used in the study to analyze the perceptions of the Bangladeshi civil servants towards public procurement and contract-related issues in Bangladesh. The study reveals that civil servants of Bangladesh have diverse and varying perceptions towards public procurement and contracting practices in Bangladesh, even though they share some commonalities. The results of the survey demonstrate that a majority of the civil servants are in general familiar with public purchasing in Bangladesh. While earlier research depicted that almost all the civil servants in the US public agencies were found quite familiar with contracting and outsourcing, this study shows that less than a moderate percentage of the civil servants of Bangladesh is quite or pretty familiar with contracting and/or outsourcing.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

Ardeshir Atai

The purpose of this paper is to examine the remedies available under Iranian investment treaties for settlement of investment disputes. This includes the obligation of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the remedies available under Iranian investment treaties for settlement of investment disputes. This includes the obligation of the Iranian Government to provide foreign investors access to international arbitration. The sensitivity of the controversial Iranian nuclear program and the imposition of economic and financial sanctions on Iran will lead to the termination of many contracts between companies from Europe and the West and Iran, therefore, a viable solution must exist to address the rights and remedies of foreign investors. This article aims to provide an insight into Iranian treaties.

Design/methodology/approach

The main method was a survey of different treaties signed by Iran.

Findings

The discussion revealed that there are currently more than 50 treaties signed and ratified by Iran which provide arbitration as a dispute resolution forum. There are many treaties between the member countries of the European Union which make it important for the research. Iranian treaties guarantee international law remedies to foreign companies with investment in Iran by allowing them to seek redress in an international forum.

Practical implications

Iran has not signed the ICS1D Convention, meaning that the arbitration proceedings will be subject to ad hoc arbitration rules of UNCITRAL. Furthermore, ICSID rules on enforcement of the award do not apply. Therefore, the winning party must go through the Iranian courts to enforce its awards.

Originality/value

The value of the paper is to government organization, international institutions and multinational companies with substantial economic interest in Iranian energy and natural resources. For the first time, the topic has been covered in a research paper. There are no articles in Iranian bilateral investment treaties (BITs) addressing dispute resolution through arbitration. This is the first piece of work that actually conducted a thorough analysis of Iranian BITs.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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