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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2015

Heung-Jun Jung, Yoon-Ho Kim and Heesang Yoon

Using two nationally representative data sets, we examine the wages, benefits, and social insurance of contingent workers compared with standard employees in South Korea…

Abstract

Using two nationally representative data sets, we examine the wages, benefits, and social insurance of contingent workers compared with standard employees in South Korea. In addition, we measure employers’ investments in their contingent workforce. Our results indicate that contingent workers have become the dominant form of labor in South Korea after the 1998 Asian financial crisis and are faced with working conditions that are discriminative compared with those of standard employees. We also find that employers’ investments in contingent workers as human resources, as well as the upward mobility of contingent workers, are limited in the Korean labor market. Overall, our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the working poor, including the social exclusion of contingent workers in an advanced developing economy.

Details

Advances in the Economic Analysis of Participatory & Labor-Managed Firms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-379-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Daniel C. Feldman

The main goal of this article is to present a new taxonomy of contingent employment that better represents the wide variety of part‐time, temporary, and contract…

2570

Abstract

Purpose

The main goal of this article is to present a new taxonomy of contingent employment that better represents the wide variety of part‐time, temporary, and contract employment arrangements that have emerged since Feldman's review.

Design/methodology/approach

Reviews the literature over the past 15 years.

Findings

The paper suggests that contingent work arrangements can be arrayed along three dimensions: time, space, and the number/kind of employers. In addition, analysis of the recent research on contingent employment should be expanded to include worker timeliness, responsiveness, job embeddedness, citizenship behaviours, quality of work, and social integration costs.

Originality/value

The article suggests that a wider range of individual differences (including education, race, citizenship, career stage, and rational demography) all serve to moderate the relationships between different kinds of contingent work arrangements and outcome variables.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2019

Daniel Johnson and Christopher J. Lake

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between pay satisfaction, global job satisfaction, loyalty and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) – as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between pay satisfaction, global job satisfaction, loyalty and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) – as they all pertain to contingent workers. The proposed model suggests, due to the nature of contingent work, pay satisfaction will influence the above variables. Additionally, this study aims to explore the relationship between pay satisfaction and OCB directed toward an individual employee.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a cross-sectional research design, administering a web-based survey to the participants (n=117) for data collection. Hierarchical regression, correlation and relative importance analyses were used for hypothesis testing.

Findings

The results suggest pay satisfaction of contingent workers is positively related to global job satisfaction, loyalty to a hiring agency, loyalty to a client company and OCB directed toward a client organization.

Originality/value

The primary contribution of the current study was the assessment of extrinsic rewards and their relationship to job satisfaction, loyalty and OCBs among contingent workers. This appears to be the first study to assess the relationship between pay satisfaction and loyalty, along with OCBs of contingent workers. The findings establish the importance of pay when loyalty to both staffing agency and client company is considered.

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2002

Dan Moshavi and James R. Terborg

Although research on customer service representatives (CSRs) in call centers has increased in recent years, little attention has been paid to the growing use of contingent

5076

Abstract

Although research on customer service representatives (CSRs) in call centers has increased in recent years, little attention has been paid to the growing use of contingent (temporary) CSRs in this setting. This study investigated the role that human capital plays in explaining the job satisfaction and performance of contingent and regular CSRs. Consistent with our expectations, contingent CSRs had less human capital but higher job satisfaction than regular workers. In addition, we found that human capital mediated the relationship between work status and job satisfaction. Contrary to expectations, no performance differences were found between contingent and regular CSRs. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Dick de Gilder

In this study differences in trust, commitment and justice perceptions were investigated between contingent and core employees in two hotels, as well as their effects on…

8806

Abstract

In this study differences in trust, commitment and justice perceptions were investigated between contingent and core employees in two hotels, as well as their effects on work behaviour. Contingent workers showed lower commitment to the team and to the organisation, and displayed less favourable work‐related behaviours than core employees. Commitment to the team mediated between job status (contingent vs. core employees) and five work‐related behaviours. Furthermore, depending on job status, trust and commitment were differentially related to work‐related behaviours. The implications of these results are discussed.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Vlad Vaiman, Jeanette Lemmergaard and Ana Azevedo

This paper seeks to challenge the claim that traditional and non‐traditional employees differ significantly in terms of their needs, personality characteristics, and work…

6395

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to challenge the claim that traditional and non‐traditional employees differ significantly in terms of their needs, personality characteristics, and work motivation patterns, by surveying management consultants in Canada.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a quantitative online survey undertaken among 204 Canadian management consultants in 2008, representing both traditional employed consultants, contingent consultants, and company representatives.

Findings

The study demonstrated no significant differences with regard to needs, motivation, and personality characteristics between traditional and non‐traditional employed management consultants, which means that no significant changes to existing human resource management policies seem to be needed.

Originality/value

The existing literature on contingent employees' needs, personality characteristics and work motivation has mainly been devoted to the study of differences between traditional and non‐traditional work arrangements seen as single groups. This study extends and complements the understanding of the underlying dimensions of both the explicit and the implicit contract within the contingent management consultant‐organization relationship in order to explain the influence of these dimensions on the human resource management strategies. The underlying assumption is that non‐traditional work arrangements vary according to the type of job and the context in which the job is performed.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2003

Kathleen L Pereles

Although the organizational practice of using “contingent or non-traditional workers” has been escalating since the mid-1980s, only recently has research begun to focus on…

Abstract

Although the organizational practice of using “contingent or non-traditional workers” has been escalating since the mid-1980s, only recently has research begun to focus on the consequences of this practice. In unionized workplaces, labor leaders have begun to organize these workers. Although it is believed that contingent workers are responding positively to union organizing drives, little is known about the attitudes and behaviors of contingent workers as union members. Using the Union Commitment scale developed by Gordon, Philpot, Burt, Thompson and Spiller (1980), the research project reported here compares the Union Commitment of traditional faculty and three categories of adjunct faculty. The results reveal that there are no significant differences across these employee groups for the factors of Union Loyalty, Responsibility to the Union, Willingness to Work for the Union and Alienation from the Union. The implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.

Details

Advances in Industrial & Labor Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-028-9

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Shelley L. MacDougall and Deborah Hurst

The use of contingent knowledge workers may be an efficient means of investing in an organization's intellectual capital. However, exposing contingent workers to private…

3885

Abstract

Purpose

The use of contingent knowledge workers may be an efficient means of investing in an organization's intellectual capital. However, exposing contingent workers to private, key competitive knowledge is considered risky. A study was undertaken to collect the costs, benefits and losses experienced by organizations that had contracted contingent knowledge workers to develop intellectual capital.

Design/methodology/approach

A purposive cross‐section of senior managers of knowledge‐intensive organizations were interviewed regarding the tangible benefits, costs, perceived risks, and experienced losses from contingent knowledge worker arrangements. The constant comparison method of analysis was used.

Findings

The data revealed perceived increases in flexibility, expertise, creative stimuli, and knowledge bank development. These benefits were believed to have bottom‐line impact through product and process improvements and innovations, and operational efficiencies. The managers did not perceive much risk or experience material losses as a result of the contingent knowledge worker arrangements.

Research limitations/implications

These findings are based on interviews with a small group of organizations. Although not generalizable, they present an interesting contrast to previous researchers’ conclusions regarding the use of contingent knowledge workers. Further empirical work is needed to test the degree to which this study's findings can be generalized.

Practical implications

Contrary to recent literature, this study suggests that contracting contingent knowledge workers to develop in‐house intellectual capital is worth the risk.

Originality/value

The study presents a divergent viewpoint on the contracting of contingent knowledge workers. It also initiates research on rational evaluation of investments in intellectual capital, which constitutes an important contribution to the area of knowledge management. It also contributes to the ongoing research on intellectual capital valuation.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Ozgur Ekmekci and Andrea Casey

Very little is known about how contingent workers' identification with an organization evolves over time. This study seeks to contribute to the literature by investigating…

Abstract

Purpose

Very little is known about how contingent workers' identification with an organization evolves over time. This study seeks to contribute to the literature by investigating how the emergence and strength of organizational identification is affected by four variables: duration of primacy; duration of recency; frequency of interaction with other members of the organization; and frequency of information received about the organization.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a cognitive model of organizational identification grounded in memory, agent‐based modeling and NetLogo language were employed to form a model in which two groups of 567 contingent workers joined 1,134 different organizations and worked for 365 days. Correlation and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the data.

Findings

Evolution of organizational identification for a contingent worker depends on how much the individual interacts with other members of the organization and how much information about the organization that particular individual receives over time.

Research limitations/implications

The generalizability of the simulation study's findings may be expanded if similar studies are carried out incorporating factors that mark differences in individuals, groups, organizations, sectors, industries, cultures, and geographies.

Originality/value

The existing literature on how contingent employees identify with an organization does not adequately provide a process‐based view of the phenomenon. This study extends and complements literature on contingent workers by emphasizing the social construction of time in and from memory throughout the process of organizational identification.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2009

Lindsay Redpath, Deborah Hurst and Kay Devine

The purpose of this paper is to compare knowledge employees' perceptions of contingent work with their managers' perceptions, highlighting potential differences in their…

4499

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare knowledge employees' perceptions of contingent work with their managers' perceptions, highlighting potential differences in their respective psychological contracts which might produce dissonance in the employment relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Original research using interviews and scalar data of both contingent knowledge workers and their managers are reported. The study sample consists of 32 contingent knowledge workers and 33 managers in five industries in Canada: two public sector and three private sector.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that differences exist between contingent knowledge workers and their managers with how contingent work affects career goals, promotion opportunities, and training and development opportunities. Additionally, differences occur in the constructs that mirror the traditional empirical measurements of the psychological contract. Two major themes are revealed: coping with uncertainty and integration with the organization on the part of contingent workers and managers.

Originality/value

This study contributes to research on contingent employment as it compares manager and contingent knowledge worker responses in terms of the psychological contracts formed by each.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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